Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
<!--}}}-->
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
<<importTiddlers>>
<!--{{{-->
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
<!--}}}-->
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<!--{{{-->
<div class='header' role='banner' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
</div>
</div>
<div id='mainMenu' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' role='complementary' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
</div>
<div id='displayArea' role='main'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
</div>
<!--}}}-->
/*{{{*/
body {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]]; background:transparent;}
h1 {border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
h2,h3 {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}

.header {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.headerShadow {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerShadow a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.headerForeground {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.headerForeground a {font-weight:normal; color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}

.tabSelected {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];
	background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];
	border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
	border-right:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
}
.tabUnselected {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tabContents {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.tabContents .button {border:0;}

#sidebar {}
#sidebarOptions input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {border:none;color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a:active {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}

.wizard {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizard h1 {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border:none;}
.wizard h2 {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:none;}
.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
	border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.wizardStep.wizardStepDone {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
.wizardFooter .status {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.wizard .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.wizard .button:active {color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: 1px solid;
	border-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

.wizard .notChanged {background:transparent;}
.wizard .changedLocally {background:#80ff80;}
.wizard .changedServer {background:#8080ff;}
.wizard .changedBoth {background:#ff8080;}
.wizard .notFound {background:#ffff80;}
.wizard .putToServer {background:#ff80ff;}
.wizard .gotFromServer {background:#80ffff;}

#messageArea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#messageArea .button {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; border:none;}

.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
.popup li.disabled {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popup li a:active {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
.popupHighlight {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
.listBreak div {border-bottom:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.tiddler .defaultCommand {font-weight:bold;}

.shadow .title {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.subtitle {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.toolbar {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .toolbar a {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.selected .toolbar a:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}

.tagging, .tagged {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}
.selected .tagging, .selected .tagged {background-color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.tagging .listTitle, .tagged .listTitle {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}
.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.error, .errorButton {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::Error]];}
.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.imageLink, #displayArea .imageLink {background:transparent;}

.annotation {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}

.viewer .listTitle {list-style-type:none; margin-left:-2em;}
.viewer .button {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];}
.viewer blockquote {border-left:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.viewer th, .viewer thead td, .twtable th, .twtable thead td {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.readOnly {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}

#backstageArea {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:alpha(opacity=60);}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:0; top:0;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
#sidebarOptions {padding-top:0.3em;}
#sidebarOptions a {margin:0 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
#sidebarOptions input {margin:0.4em 0.5em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {margin-left:1em; padding:0.5em; font-size:.85em;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel input {margin:0 0 0.3em 0;}
#sidebarTabs .tabContents {width:15em; overflow:hidden;}

.wizard {padding:0.1em 1em 0 2em;}
.wizard h1 {font-size:2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizard h2 {font-size:1.2em; font-weight:bold; background:none; padding:0; margin:0.4em 0 0.2em;}
.wizardStep {padding:1em 1em 1em 1em;}
.wizard .button {margin:0.5em 0 0; font-size:1.2em;}
.wizardFooter {padding:0.8em 0.4em 0.8em 0;}
.wizardFooter .status {padding:0 0.4em; margin-left:1em;}
.wizard .button {padding:0.1em 0.2em;}

#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0 0 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0 0 0 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
.tabContents ul, .tabContents ol {margin:0; padding:0;}
.txtMainTab .tabContents li {list-style:none;}
.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

#contentWrapper {display:block;}
#splashScreen {display:none;}

#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

.tiddler {padding:1em 1em 0;}

.missing .viewer,.missing .title {font-style:italic;}

.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

.missing .subtitle {display:none;}
.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

.tagging {margin:0.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0; float:left; display:none;}
.isTag .tagging {display:block;}
.tagged {margin:0.5em; float:right;}
.tagging, .tagged {font-size:0.9em; padding:0.25em;}
.tagging ul, .tagged ul {list-style:none; margin:0.25em; padding:0;}
.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
.viewer th, .viewer td, .viewer tr,.viewer caption,.twtable th, .twtable td, .twtable tr,.twtable caption {padding:3px;}
table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0 3px 0 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0; padding-bottom:0;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
/*}}}*/
/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
***/
/*{{{*/
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
/*}}}*/
/*{{{*/
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox 1.5.0.2 where print preview displays the noscript content */
}
/*}}}*/
<!--{{{-->
<div class='toolbar' role='navigation' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<!--}}}-->
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:34em;<html><p align="justify"><strong><u>Opening an Account</u></strong> By opening an account or subscribing you are not necessarily committed to spending money, although you may be asked to agree to terms and conditions. When subscribing you are merely identifying yourself to an organisation to receive a service or information. For this you are given or choose a USERNAME, an ID.<br><br>The record of Account Name, ID and Password, may be in a securely kept note book with pages of columns headed as below, or in a Password Manager Utility such as LastPass.<br><br><strong><u>Terms and Conditions</u></strong> We often don't read them before ticking the box, but remember when you leave your email contacts on a Webmail page they are subject to the laws of the country storing them and the agreed rules of the ISP. If the account closes, the valuables are deleted.</html>||<br>__''Keep a Record''__ For every account you open you will have a unique ID and password. Good organisational practice and time saved in retrospect demands these three items be recorded AT THE TIME THE ACCOUNT IS OPENED.<br><br>[[LastPass|https://lastpass.com/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Passwords]]<br><br><br>The only risk you have with a Manager is that all your passwords are stored encrypted under ONE master password that you might lose and in a database that may be lost in a hard drive failure unless carefully backed up.|
}}}

|centered|k
| &nbsp; &nbsp; ''ACCOUNT'' &nbsp; &nbsp;  | &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''ID'' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; | &nbsp; &nbsp; ''PASSWORD'' &nbsp; &nbsp; |
 
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;<html><p align="justify"><strong><u>Identification - ID</u></strong> - For any given account your ID identifies you uniquely. <br>An ID can, for example, be a USERNAME such as johnsmith, john.smith, johnny, johnsmith456, john.smith@btinternet.com, or an account number such as X123456 or your phone number.<br><br><strong><u>Passwords</u></strong><br><br>1.Make them strong, unique, never dictionary words or phrases.<br>2. Saving in computer is secure as passwords are encrypted.<br>3. Use good Antivirus Software to protect against key logging.<br>4. You can only access an account if the password you enter agrees with the one held by the Account.<br>5. Use the Account's "Forgot Your Password?" proceedure if your password doesn't give access. Then update your record.<br><br><strong><u>For an Email Account,</u></strong> the Account is your ISP, Internet Service Provider, your ID is your email address and your password associaled with that email address. <strong>BT internet users</strong> watch for the catch that you may not yet have had your account "migrated" from the Yahoo server to the BT server and that some have an account on each server with different passwords but ALMOST similar IDs.</html>|<br>''__Types of Account__'' -  Accounts fall into two types. Those involving payment and the use of a credit card and those opened to give secure access to a device or to receive personalised information.<<tiddler ShowPopup with: AccountExamples [[Here are some examples]]>><br><br><br>''__Security Questions__''<br><br>When agreeing a password with an account, extra security is achieved by saving answers to some security questions. Record these carefully. Remember that being born in "St Ives Cornwall" is different to being born in "St. Ives, Cornwall".<br><br>Never use your Mother's maiden name or data which is in the public domain.<br><br>''Different Accounts provided by the same ISP'' may invite you to use the same password for each account. Examples are Microsoft Account for ~OneDrive, Skype, Windows Store, etc and Amazon for Audibles and Amazon Music, etc and Google for its many services. Although making ease of use, it does reduce your security and requires care in recording when accepting the invitation.|
}}}
__''Server <-----> Client''__ <br> When you open an account, the service provider is giving your PC, as a client, access to their server using agreed protocols. That is why they set Terms and Conditions and need to identify you with an ID and password. __''[[Understanding the Server Client concept|Topic Slides/serverclient.jpg]]''__ makes this process run smoothly.
<br>
__''Unused Accounts''__<br> We all have accounts which become unused over the years. The danger is that our data is still held by these companies and our password has been unchanged, thus subject to hack. Try to recall the name of these accounts and close them with the help of this site, [[justdelete.me|http://backgroundchecks.org/justdeleteme/]].<br>If it is not listed, find the site by Google search, attempt to login, submit a "Forgotten Password" request, create a new password, record it and, in the Account Settings, terminate the account.
------
!!''Accounts fall into two types''
<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;''THOSE INVOLVING PAYMENTS''<br><br>Your BT Phone Account<br>Broadband Account<br>Banking<br>Shopping<br>Antivirus Internet Security<br>Skype<br>Paid Organisation Membership<br>|width:40em;''THOSE FREE OF PAYMENT''<br><br>A Computer User Account<br>Router Access<br>Email Account<br>~WiFi<br>Free Cloud Storage<br>Free Newsletter<br>Facebook<br>Free Organisation Membership|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;See paras. 8 and 10 on the [[Email|Email]] page of the Worksheet.|[[Email Page|Email]]|
}}}
-----

<br><br><br><br><br><br>
|centered|k
|1. Which browser are you using?|''1. Go to [[Browsers]]''|
|2. What version is it?|''2. Go to [[Browsers]]''|
|3. How do you read your emails?|''3. Go to [[Email]] para 2''|
|4. If you use an email client, which one is it?|''4.  Go to the client TOOLS - HELP - ABOUT''|
|5. Which is larger, the WWW or the Internet?|''5.  Read  [[About Internet|Topic Slides/Web1 on Internet.jpg]]''|
|6. How do you prevent virus infection of your computer?|''6. See [[PC Security|Topic Slides/PC Security.jpg]]'' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[AntiVirusSoftware]]|
|7. When was your PC last scanned for malware?|''7.  See information on the Dashboard or Log of your Virus utility.''|
|8. What is the difference between malware and viruses?|''8.  Go to [[Security]] para 5 - "What is Malware"''|
|9. How can a phishing email be recognised?|''9.  Go to [[Security]] para 4 - "Phish Recognition"''|
|10. What is a domain?|''10. Go to [[Basics|The Basics of Files, Email, Internet]] - Internet - Nominet Knowledge - Internet nuts & bolts''|
|11. How do you view the URL in a hyperlink?|''11.  See [[Email]] -paras 5 & 11 "Features" and [[Browsers]] - para 13 "Security"''|
|12. What is the domain used by British Telecom for ''[[Personal Customers?|Topic Slides/Email002.JPG]]''|''12.   See [[Pop&IMAP]] &nbsp; Have you ever had a [[phishing email from @bt.com|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/9191]] ?''|
|13. Where will you see the URL of a web page?|''13.  Go to [[Browsers]] para 2 - Address Bar''|
|14. Would you expect to see [[ https://|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]] or [[http://|http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/h/f/what-is-http-and-https.htm]] when making a card payment?|''14. Read web site  [[ https://|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]]''|
|15. What four types of character should you use in a strong password?|''15. The answer is in [[Test2|http://www.passwordmeter.com/]] on the Security page.''|
|16. When did you last change your password on a secure site you use?|''16.   Read [[Change Password Frequency|http://lifehacker.com/5966214/how-often-should-i-change-my-passwords]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Heartbleed|http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/how-to-protect-yourself-from-the-heartbleed-bug/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Security]]''|
|17. What precautions should you take when downloading software?|''17.   See [[FreeDownloads]]''|
|18. Which uses more hard drive space, streaming or saving an mp3 file?|''18.   See [[Streaming|Topic Slides/Files7 Streaming.jpg]]''|
|19. Where do you find the option to view/hide a file extension?|''19. Go to [[Getting Organised]] - Basic Skills - and to  [[Folder Options|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/win7/file_extensions.html]]''|
|20. What are the three factors to check when saving a file?|''20. View [[Saving a File]]''|

----






 
<br><br><br><br><br><br>

|centered|k
|1. Where can you find the Snipping Tool?|''1. Easiest way is to search in the START menu. See __[[Snipping|PrintScreen##Snipping]]__''|
|2. In addition to spreading viruses, what other danger does a memory stick have?|''2. Embedded trojan malware in the firmware. See __[[Memory Stick|USBMemorySticks]]__''|
|3. What __[[three actions can improve|HouseKeeping##Running]]__ your computer running and bootup speed?|''3. Upgrade RAM, Reduce startup programs and increase virtual memory ''|
|4. Which way of receiving email provides most spam filtering?|''4. Using an email client. See __[[Pros and Cons Webmail]]__ and __[[Email|Email##Clients]]__''|
|5. What word describes "not physically existing but made to appear so by software."?|''5. __[[Virtual]]__''|
|6. What word describes a graphical representation of a user's alter ego?|''6. ""Avatar"" See __[[Virtual|Virtual##Reality]]__''|
|7. What is sometimes referred to as a "sandbox"?|''7. A virtual machine. See __[[Virtual|Virtual##Machine]]__''|
|8. How would you print "é" ( e accute) in MS Word?|''8. By using the key shortcut "ALT GR+e" See __[[Windows Keyboard Shortcuts]]__''|
|9. What facility is used in Windows 7, and later, for easy file sharing?|''9. __[[HomeGroup]]__''|
|10.What three factors uniquely identify a file?|''10. It's name, extension and size. See __[[Downloading|Downloading##Process]]__''|
|11. How can you ensure that you don't download copyrighted files?|''11. Use the __[["Advanced Search"|Search##Maps]]__ option in Google Images TOOL menu''|
|12. How do you avoid installing unsolicited utilities in bundled software?|''12. Use custom install and untick any unwanted offers. See __[[Downloading|Downloading##wrong]]__''|
|13. How many possible combinations of "0" and "1" are there in a byte?|''13.There are 256 combinations. See __[[Bits&Bytes]]__''|
|14. Other than by downloading it, in what other way could you listen to an audio file?|''14. By __[[streaming|Streaming]]__''|
|15. What facility does the key combination Win+P give?|''15. It opens the screen "Project Menu". See "__[[Screen Mirroring|Streaming]]__''|
|16. What information does the website "Haveibeenpwned?", provide??|''16. Tells if your password has been stolen or compromised. See __[[Browsers|Browsers##Privacy]]__''|
|17. What is the name of the simple Microsoft utility used for "data only" backup?|''17. ~SyncToy. See __[[BackUpRestore]]__''|
|18. What is the Excel formula to sum the rows 2 to 5 in the G column of a spreadsheet?|''18. "=SUM(G2:G5)". See __[[Basic MS Office Tutorials (Formulae)|BasicMSOffice##TUTORIALS]]__''|
|19. Which of Arial and Times New Roman is a sans serif font?|''19. "Arial."  See __[[EssentialStudy]]__ and [[Beginners MS Word Tutorial|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s2p6.html]]''|
|20. Why might you not be able to open an email attachment?|''20. No suitable utility installed in your PC.  See __[[FAQ11|Reading Attachments]]__''|

----
<br><br><br><br><br>
|centered|k
|1. What action would you take if your Internet speed seems slow?|''1. There are three solutions. See [[Networks]], para. 2''|
|2. What is the difference between the Web and the Internet?|''2. The WWW is a part of the [[Internet|http://www.knowthenet.org.uk/jargon-buster/internet]]''|
|3. What does "https://" tell you?|''3. That the site you are viewing is secured by the [[SSL encryption system.|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]]''|
|4. What browser do you use to read web pages and what version is it?|''4. See [[Browsers]] and [[Finding Version|https://www.rapidreview.com/support/techdocs/html/browser_version.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Displaying the Menu Bar|Files/menu Bar.jpg]]''|
|5. How do you set a browser to open a new page in a new tab?|''5.  Go to the browser settings - TABS''|
|6. Where does one look for files downloaded through a browser?|''6. Ensure browser setting for DOWNLOADS is to the "Downloads" Folder''|
|7. What is "active content"?|''7.  See [[BrowserSetup|BrowserSetup##Advanced]] para. 9.''|
|8. What are "Add-ons" and where can they be found?|''8. Add-ons are incorporated in [[Browsers]] to provide additional facilities''|
|9. What is a default browser?|''9. See para. 1 of [[BrowserSetup]]''|
|10.How would you search for a particular word in a long web page?|''10. CTRL + F opens a search box at the foot of your screen''|
|11. In addition to the web, what other services does the Internet provide?|''11. [[Here is a list.|http://www.informatics.buzdo.com/p914-internet-services.htm]]''|
|12. What do the terms FTP, ~VoIP and SMTP mean?|''12. See [[FTP|http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/ftp.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  [[VoIP|http://www.voipfone.co.uk/What_Is_Voip.php]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[SMTP|http://whatismyipaddress.com/smtp]]''|
|13. What is the difference between POP and IMAP?|''13. To distinguish between the two email receipt protocols see [[IMAP|https://ttb.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/661/~/what-is-the-difference-between-pop3-and-imap%3F]]''|
|14. What are the different ways you can view and action emails?|''14. See [[Email]] para 2.''|
|15. List three examples of good email ettiquete.|''15. Twelve tips on email [[etiquette|http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/12-tips-for-better-e-mail-etiquette-HA001205410.aspx]] .''|
|16. How do you change your email password?|''16. Go to SETTINGS of your web mail account on  your providers web site.''|
|17. What is the difference between "streaming" and "saving" a video?|''17. See [[Streaming|Topic Slides/Files7 Streaming.jpg]] and [[Networks]] para. 3.''|
|18. Name two utilities with which you can listen to Internet Radio?|''18. iTunes, Audials, Tunein Radio and [[many others|http://features.en.softonic.com/our-top-5-desktop-radio-apps]]''|
|19. What is the difference between Microsoft WMP and WMC?|''19. See this [[article|http://www.mswinupdate.com/windows-media-center-vs-windows-media-player/]] and more about [[Windows Media Centre|http://www.techradar.com/news/computing/pc/take-windows-media-center-to-the-next-level-1038748]]''|
|20. Where can you subscribe to a ~YouTube channel?|''20. How to subscribe is explained on the YouTube page of the Worksheet. ''|

----
<br><br><br><br><br>
!~AntiVirus Software
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;What is malware?<br>Practical advice about malware<br>The 10 best ''free antivirus'' (AV) programs<br>Microsoft Security Essentials<br>Malwarebytes Review<br>''Malwarebytes'' is an excellent malware removal tool. The free version has no real-time protection but should be installed in your PC ready for use in emergency and is compatible with Microsoft Security Essentials (W7), Windows Defender (W8) and many ~Anti-Virus utilities. When installing, uncheck "Trial Version" to obtain FREE version. Also, learn about ''[[Microsoft Security Scanner|http://www.microsoft.com/security/scanner/en-gb/default.aspx]].''<br><br>''Warning.'' Other than from a manufacturer's site, never download "free" software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8 and W10) alone. Always use a strong virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware. ''[[Best AV for Windows 10|http://www.howtogeek.com/225385/what%E2%80%99s-the-best-antivirus-for-windows-10-is-windows-defender-good-enough/]]''<br>''Paid-for versions of antivirus'' often contain many additional security features - such as password managers and ad-blockers needed to protect your PC against a growing variety of threats. A good anti-virus utility gives protection agains five threats: viruses, other malware, identity theft, adware and [[keyloggers|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/4-ways-protect-keyloggers/]]. It should also report on any utilities requiring ''update'' without which they are vulnerabilities.<br>''Firewall.'' Your Windows Firewall should be OFF if a firewall is provided by your AV software, and not automatically turned off by it, to avoid conflicts.<br>To check ''Firewall Status'', go to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM & SECURITY - WINDOWS FIREWALL.|[[Types of Malware|http://ist.mit.edu/security/malware]]<br>[[Viruses|http://www.ucs.cam.ac.uk/security/malware]]<br>[[Free Antivirus Programs|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/ten-best-antivirus-programs/]]<br>[[MSE Website|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/software/utilities/anti-malware-software/microsoft-security-essentials-640587/review]]<br><br>[[Malwarebytes|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/windows-and-office/review-cover-all-the-bases-with-malwarebytes/]]<br><br>[[Download Malwarebytes|https://www.malwarebytes.org/mwb-download/]]<br><br>[[BullGuard Review|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/reviews/software/3481172/bullguard-internet-security-2014-review/]]<br><br>[[BullGuard Download|http://www.bullguard.com/downloads.aspx]]<br><br>[[Best Paid-For AV|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/best-antivirus-10-programs-on-test-924608]]<br><br>[[Antivirus software Review|http://anti-virus-software-review.toptenreviews.com/]]<br><br>[[Virus Encyclopedia|http://www.pandasecurity.com/homeusers/security-info/61252/Mediaplex]]<br><br>[[Two Firewalls|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001273.htm]]|
}}}   
----
<br>
!To read the Worksheet online on the iPad
''The Worksheet is available from a link on the Computer Group page of the Southwell ~U3A website or by placing this address in your iPad browser'' [[http://tinyurl.com/km3qj2u|http://tinyurl.com/km3qj2u]]
To view in Dropbox, which is more difficult, please read below.
!The Apple File System
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;The iPad doesn't have a typical file and folder system for storing data. The iOS uses two backup systems, one remote and one local, [[iCloud and iTunes|http://www.pcworld.com/article/235894/apple_ipad_day_15_working_with_files_on_the_ipad.html]].<br><br>The iPad treats files more like a necessary evil because it is designed for simple Apps display and as part of a closed family of synchronised devices. The iPad has mechanisms in place to enable apps to work with files, but most feel like workarounds that were added as an afterthought.|<br><br><br>[[Apple file system basics|https://developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/FileManagement/Conceptual/FileSystemProgrammingGuide/FileSystemOverview/FileSystemOverview.html]]|
}}}
!To read the Worksheet in Dropbox on the iPad 
The iPad can read the Worksheet itself easily, but the Worksheet uses two associated folders to which it has some "internal" links. It is the iPad's inability to address these folders when an internal link is called, that is the problem. These two folders contain images and PDF files used by the Worksheet and will not be displayed by the iPad.
An app designed to achieve a workaround is ''[[GoodReader|http://www.walkingoffice.com/file-management/quick-tip-how-to-setup-goodreader-sync-with-dropbox/]]'', excellent for reading a wide variety of documents.<br><br>For example, to read this Worksheet in Apple iPad, follow these steps:<br><br>1. Setup Dropbox as a 'server' in ~GoodReader using: Connect to Servers -> Add - Dropbox will then appear as a 'Known Server'.<br>2. Click on the Dropbox known server icon and wait for it to display the contents of your Dropbox.<br>3. Navigate to the location of your Worksheet Folder (using the right hand edge 'disclosure icons' - just clicking a folder will select it rather than navigating into it).<br>4. Once there, select the Worksheet Folder by clicking on it so that it is highlighted and click on 'Download' (at the bottom of the screen).<br>5. ~GoodReader will display a browser for its files system, so navigate to where you want the folder to be downloaded to and click 'Download folder here'.<br>6. Depending upon the speed of your Internet connection (you will see progress bars on the right hand side of the ~GoodReader screen) it may take a few seconds or minutes to download the content.<br>7. Close the download 'popup' and navigate within ~GoodReader to the 'Worksheet Folder'. Click it - to open the folder - and then click on Worksheet.html.<br>8 The document then displays correctly within ~GoodReader and the links work.
<br>To allow amendments to the Worksheet to be seen, Step 4 will need to be repeated occasionally.
Check with file date in ~DropBox. To update occasionally to see amendments:
1. In ~GoodReader delete the file worksheet.html
2. In ~GoodReader navigate to ~DropBox and download worksheet.html again.
. 
----
<br><br><br>
<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tip </u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; Distinguish between FILE DATA backup and COMPUTER SYSTEM backup.</html>
!Backup and Restore
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Distinguish between ''file backup and "system image backup"''. The latter takes a snapshot of your entire system which is useful if Windows has to be reinstalled. An alternative to a ''full file backup'' using the Windows system, is to use a simpler Microsoft utility such as ~SyncToy. This way you have more control over what is backed up and you can easily access individual backed up files; your documents, pictures, downloads,etc.<br>The difference is that ~SyncToy (and its close relative ~SyncBack) stores the selected folders and files in exactly the way you wish. You can easily understand the process and copy selected backed up files from an external USB backup drive back to your computer. &nbsp;   &nbsp; See Solid State Drive (SSD) and Hard Disk Drive (HDD).<br><br>[[Making a ''System Restore Point''|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-create-a-system-restore-point-in-windows-7.html]] is another useful action. This is done automatically when Windows installs an update but it is often wise to make one manually when installing a possibly disruptive utility. This point in time when all was working successfully is now available to be used in emergrncy. Returning your system to this earlier date point, rids the computer of inadvertant changes which are difficult to trace.<br><br>''Definition of Terms used''<br><br>''1. "Windows Backup"'' This tool allows you to backup your operating system, its settings and your data. You can let Windows 7 choose what to back up or you can select the individual folders, libraries, and the hard disk drives you want backed up. By default, your backups are created on an automatic schedule, but you can manually create a backup at any time. Once you set up Windows Backup, it keeps track of the files and folders that are new or modified and adds them to your backup.<br><br>  ''2. "Windows System Restore"'' System Restore is a recovery tool in Windows that allows you to reverse certain kinds of changes made to the operating system. <br><br>''3. "System Restore Point"'' A restore point is a saved "snapshot" of a computer's system at a specific time. Restore points are a component of the Windows System Restore utility, so that if future changes have caused a problem, it is restored to the way it was before the changes were made, without losing personal data files. To find go to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM - ADVANCED SYSTEM SETTINGS - SYSTEM PROTECTION - __CREATE__.<br>Alternatively, START - SEARCH - <Restore>.<br><br>''4. "System Image"'' A system image is an exact copy of a drive in an "ISO image" file. It includes Windows and your system settings, programs, and files. When you restore your computer from a system image, all of your current programs, system settings, and files are replaced.<br>See'' [[Create a System Image|http://www.cnet.com/uk/how-to/how-to-create-a-system-image-in-windows-10/]] in Windows 10.''<br><br>''5. "Data only Backup"'' If you intend to backup only your files, using  less storage space than Windows 7 Backup/ Restore demands, then Microsoft offers the free ''~SyncToy'' or  ~SyncBack utility. You decide which files and folders to backup and when. Alternatively consider using free Cloud Storage such as ''~OneDrive''<br>A third option is to use the W8.1/W10 much improved ''File History'' facility with an external  SSD. If left on permanently this uses excessive space with a new record each day. However by switching on only for one day then off again, occasionally, retains a file history backup for those days.<br>''Windows 10.'' A quick and easy data backup is simple in Windows 10. In SETTINGS - UPDATE & SECURITY turn HISTORY "ON" for one day only. If left permanently on much external disk space will be occupied. The folders to be backed up can be selected and accessed easily when backed up.<br><br>''6. "System Recovery Disk"'' The manufacturer often provides an option to create these discs the first time you turn on your computer. When you click the ”Create System Recovery Discs” option, you end up with a set of discs that can restore your PC to its original purchased condition. However, you lose everything you’ve stored on that PC since you bought it. Distinguish between a System Recovery Disk and a ''System Repair Disk''. The latter has tools which repair Windows without losing all your data files. Windows 8.1 no longer offers a Repair Disk. This is replaced by a [[USB Recovery Drive|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-8/create-usb-recovery-drive]] occupying some 18GB.<br><br>''7. Backup in Windows 10.'' Windows 10′s Backup feature is known as File History. It functions just like Apple’s Time Machine. Not many people used Windows 7′s backup features, so Microsoft designed an easier-to-use backup and restore system. Unlike Windows 7′s backup system, Windows 10′s File History can only back up files in user data locations like your libraries and desktop folder. If you want to back up an arbitrary folder elsewhere, you can add it to your libraries.<br><br>''8. To sumarise then.''<br>1. Use ~SyncToy to backup your ''data'' regularly, ''or use W8.1/W10 "File History" facility.'' to an external SSD<br>2. Make a ''System Image'' by going to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM & SECURITY - FILE HISTORY and selecting SYSTEM IMAGE BACKUP. You need an external SSD drive which is formatted NTFS and capacity about 150GB.<br>3. Make a ''System Repair disk'' on an empty 32GB memory stick (not on the same external SSD).|<br>[[SSD and HDD|http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2404258,00.asp]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Backup Tutorial|http://www.aclasspc.com.au/tutorials/59-pc-tutorials/132-how-to-backup-to-external-hard-drive-in-windows-7]]<br><br>[[Data Restore|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/1838/using-backup-and-restore-in-windows-7/]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Create Restore Point|http://www.7tutorials.com/what-system-restore-and-how-create-restore-point]]<br><br>[[Restore Points|http://www.informationweek.com/how-to-use-windows-7-restore-points/d/d-id/1098556]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Make System Image|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/4241/how-to-create-a-system-image-in-windows-7/]]<br><br>[[ISO Files|http://pcsupport.about.com/od/termsi/g/isofile.htm]]<br><br>[[Backup Advice|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/30173/what-files-should-you-backup-on-your-windows-pc/]]<br><br>[[File History|http://www.lifehacker.co.uk/2014/12/28/back-windows-8-8-1-pc-file-history]]<br><br>[[SyncToy|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/download/details.aspx?id=15155]]<br><br>[[SyncBack|http://www.2brightsparks.com/freeware/freeware-hub.html]]<br><br>[[SyncToy Tutorial|http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/278866-synctoy-backup-user-data.html]]<br><br>[[Automate SyncToy|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/25046/schedule-synctoy-to-run-automatically-with-task-scheduler-in-windows-7/]]<br><br>[[Recovery or Repair|http://www.andyrathbone.com/2009/12/21/the-difference-betweensystem-recovery-discs-and-windows-7s-system-repair-disc/]]<br><br>[[System Repair Disk|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/create-a-system-repair-disc]]<br><br>[[Refresh, Reset or Restore|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-8/restore-refresh-reset-pc]]<br><br>[[Windows 8 Backup|http://www.howtogeek.com/123713/how-windows-8s-backup-system-differs-from-windows-7s/]]<br><br>[[Windows 10 Backup|http://www.howtogeek.com/220986/how-to-use-all-of-windows-10%E2%80%99s-backup-and-recovery-tools/]]|
}}}
-----
<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong>Tip</strong></span></html>&nbsp; &nbsp; See __[[Tips]]__
 
!!How to Learn
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">Attempt to practise a skill by trial and error. We learn through failure, not success. Be  adventurous; you will never harm the computer when you make a mistake. Make one change at a time, note the effect and, if wrong, undo it before doing another.  If you have difficulty, have a look at the <strong>Tutorials</strong> page and choose one that is appropriate, particularly one which demonstrates a skill visually in <strong>YouTube</strong>. With the more advanced tutorials, make sure you pick a demonstration that uses the same version of utility as you have in your computer.<br><br>Use Google Search for help on concepts not explained in a tutorial. Use the <strong>Jargon page</strong> and <strong>INDEX</strong> to learn the meaning of KEYWORDS to use in <strong>search</strong>. I'm afraid you MUST learn the jargon, the keywords. Using the correct <strong>KEYWORDS</strong> listed below will help you to ask Google the right question to pinpoint the answer.<br><br>The links on the right of each section will take you to some relevant on-line tutorials.</html>Here are some on [[The Basics of Files, Email, Internet]] to start with.<br><br>Those Apple Mac OSX users reading this Worksheet may find [[PCMacDifferences]] helpful to adapt PC guidance to the Mac.|width:10em;  |width:15em;[[Advice for Beginners|Files/Advice for the Beginner.jpg]]<br><br>[[Tutorials]]<br><br>[[YouTube]]<br><br>[[Telestrator]]<br><br>[[Jargon]]<br><br>[[INDEX]]<br><br>[[YouTube Video List]]<br><br>[[Basic YouTube Tutorials|https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLB5CF6A5912DDD736]]<br><br>[[Tutorials All Topics|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/topics]]<br><br>[[A Beginner's Guide|https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&ved=0ahUKEwjCsd_j-sXOAhVMJcAKHU1CBREQFgg6MAU&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdownloads.bbc.co.uk%2Fconnect%2FBBC_First_Click_Beginners_Guide.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHsg76MsF1DiaXaQSf9c1A12aF0QQ&cad=rja]]<br><br>[[Test Your Knowledge|http://www4.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/course/school-certificate/cst/]]|
}}}
__[[Understanding|MathsEasierThanYouThink##Understanding]]__ &nbsp; &nbsp; ''[[Trial & Error Learning|http://teachertraineeaide.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/behaviourist-thoery-thorndikes-theory.html]]''
<br>
!!!Desktop
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">Your virtual <strong>Desktop</strong> is your visual computer work place. It is also a <strong>FOLDER</strong> in your computer containing Files which are represented by <strong>ICONS</strong>, on the screen, made visible and moveable. These are <strong>SHORTCUTS</strong>.<br>The blue Desktop backbround can be replaced with either:<br>(1) a selected <strong>BACKGROUND</strong> PICTURE, or<br>(2) a <strong>THEME</strong> which is a slideshow sequence of pictures.<br>Additional Background pictures and Themes can be found by searching.<br><br>The <strong>TASKBAR</strong>, which acts as a repository for frequently used Icons, called the <strong>QUICK START</strong>, has at one end the <strong>START</strong> and at the other, the <strong>SYSTEM TRAY</strong> which can be customised and contains, as well as the TIME and DATE, small Icons representing some of the programs runing in the background. If you RIGHT CLICK on an empty part of the Desktop, you will find a menu opens which provides facilities peculiar to the Desktop. It is called an<strong> IN CONTEXT MENU</strong> because wherever you RIGHT CLICK in the computer you will get a menu with contents peculiar to that location.<br><br> LEARN how to use the various parts of the Desktop, Right Click on different parts of it, customise it.</html>|width:8em;<br>''KEYWORDS''<br><br>Icons<br>Folder<br>Shortcut<br>Taskbar<br>Start<br>Quick start<br>System Tray<br>Context menu<br>Themes|width:15em;<br>[[Desktop|Topic Slides/Desktop.JPG]]<br><br>[[Using the DeskTop|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aK8RPsFtNAU]]<br><br>[[Using the TaskBar|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omark0J5T_k]]<br><br>[[Using the Start Menu|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7FhutIIvGQ]]<br><br>[[Personalization - Themes|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vaPzCtgPYAM]]<br><br>[[RightClick]]|
}}}
!!!Windows 
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">As the name of the Operating System implies, the <strong>WINDOW</strong> is at the heart of your computer use. A window can occupy the whole screen or it can float in the <strong>DESKTOP</strong>. A window appears on the DESKTOP to display a FILE or a PROGRAM when you <strong>OPEN</strong> it. There are THREE controls in the top right hand corner which control the Window: the [  x ] to <strong>CLOSE</strong> the window, the rectangle to make it float and the [ -- ] to <strong>MINIMIZE</strong> it. Minimise means hide it on the TASKBAR ready for easy reuse. Clicking on its quick start ICON in the TASKBAR reOPENs, i.e. <strong>RESTORES</strong> the Window. If you have more than one window open, when you click it you bring it into <strong>FOCUS</strong> and the <strong>CURSOR</strong> appears in that window ready for use. You can place two windows side by side on the screen by using <strong>Aero Snap.</strong><br><br>At the bottom and on the right hand side of the widow will appear <strong>SCROLL BARS</strong>, if the file displayed is too large for the window. These can be operated with the <strong>MOUSE</strong>.<br><br>There are also Windows which are called <strong>DIALOGUE BOXES</strong> which open to show Help, Errors and Settings.<br><br>There is a fundamental rule of computing, <u>"If you have opened something, close it when you have finished"</u>, be it a file, folder, program or computer. Applied to WINDOWS this is good discipline because it avoids clutter and so helps you find your way around on the DESKTOP more easily.<br><br>LEARN how to manipulate a Window.<br><br>In Windows 8.1 an APP occupies full screen. In Windows 10 an APP can float in a window.</html>|width:8em;<br>''KEYWORDS''<br><br>Window<br>Desktop<br>Icon<br>Open<br>Close<br>Minimize<br>Restore<br>Scroll Bar<br>Focus<br>Cursor<br>Dialog Box<br>APP|width:15em;<br>[[Open and Close Windows|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rybf84Mr2uw]]<br><br>[[Manipulating Windows|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0i5fXSlNoQ]]<br><br>[[Minimize Window|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/m/minimize.htm]]<br><br>[[Window Tutorials|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/windowsbasics]]<br><br><br>[[Aero Snap|http://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/how-to-use-task-view-and-aero-snap-in-windows-10/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[APPS & Programs|http://blog.tahoepartners.com/index.php/gartner-summit-the-difference-between-apps-and-applications/]]|
}}}
!!!Files
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;"0 and 1" [[bits & bytes|Bits&Bytes]] of code make a ''FILE''.<html><p align="justify">There are many different types of file: documents, images, executive files that run programs, etc. We usually divide them into DATA files and PROGRAM files. When viewed in Windows (File) Explorer, a file looks like "myfilename.ext". Every file is unique.<br>It has these <strong>COMPONENTS</strong>:<br>1. A <strong>NAME</strong><br>2. A <strong>TYPE</strong> indicated by its File<strong> EXTENSION</strong><br>3. A <strong>SIZE</strong> in bytes, Kilobytes, Megabytes, etc.<br>These three make it unique but it will also have a DATE when it was created, a LOCATION in you computer, a PATH from the root of the DRIVE to the folder where it is stored and other features and attributes. You cannot have two files with the same name and extension in the same <strong>FOLDER</strong>. These features are found by inspecting its <b>PROPERTIES.</b><br><br> Your FILES are stored on your <strong>HARD DRIVE</strong> and can be viewed in <strong>WINDOWS EXPLORER</strong>, a file manager program. A file needs a PROGRAM to be ASSOCIATED with it so that it can easily be READ by DEFAULT.<br><br>LEARN about Files using the TUTORIALS and get used to opening and closing files and programs. It is important that you make your Windows Explorer "UN-HIDE" FILE EXTENSIONS so that you start to recognise different types of file from their extension.<br><br>FILE SIZE (order of magnitude) To give an understanding of the magnitude of a billion bytes (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabyte" target="_blank"><strong>1 Gigabyte</strong></a>), think in seconds of time. Approximately, <br>''A million seconds is 11 days and a billion seconds, 31 years.''</html>|width:8em;<br>''KEYWORDS''<br><br>File<br>File Type<br>File Extension<br>File Size<br>Folder<br>Properties<br>Windows Explorer<br>Path<br>Drive<br>Read<br>Association<br>Default<br>Format|width:15em;<br>[[Basic Skills|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XC3huREHZOA&amp;feature=autoplay&amp;list=PL6E305390D0AB216C&amp;lf=plpp&amp;playnext=2]]<br><br>[[File Name|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/file-names-extensions-faq#1TC=windows-7]]<br><br>[[Common File Types|http://winbeginners.com/articles/extensions2.htm]]<br><br>[[Extensions|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/win7/file_extensions.html]]<br><br>[[Unhide|Topic Slides/ShowFileExtensions.jpg]]<br><br>[[Using Windows Explorer|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hdfv7SvQeXs]]<br><br>[[Drive|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/d/drive.htm]]<br><br>[[File Names|Topic Slides/Files2 Names.jpg]]<br><br>[[File Types|Topic Slides/Files1 Types.jpg]]<br><br>[[Folders Drives|Topic Slides/Files3 Folders Drives.jpg]]<br><br>[[Zamzar File Converter|http://www.zamzar.com/#]]|
}}}
!!!Copy Cut & Paste
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">The skill of <strong>COPY, CUT and  PASTE</strong> is probably the most important skill to master in everday computing. It saves time when a file or text is to be copied or moved. Without it one would have to rewrite every word of text in its new location and manipulating files would be almost impossible. See the <strong>Cut & Paste page</strong><br><br><strong><u>Definitions</u></strong>:-<br><strong>CUT</strong> means to remove the HIGHLIGHTed item and place a copy in the CLIPBOARD.<br><strong>COPY</strong> means to put a copy of the item in the clipboard without removing it.<br><strong>PASTE</strong> means to place a copy of the item from the Clipboard into the new location.<br><strong>Highlight</strong> means to drag the cursor, with a shift key + mouse left key held down, accross the item from left to right.<br><br>The CUT, COPY and PASTE commands are available in the right click CONTEXT menu of the highlighted file or text. &nbsp; <br><br>LEARN how to HIGHLIGHT text with your mouse and how to make a NEW FOLDER and watch YouTube videos to master Cut & Paste skills.</html>|width:8em;<br>''KEYWORDS''<br><br>Copy<br>Cut<br>Paste<br>Clipboard<br>Highlight<br>New Folder|width:12em;<br>[[Cut & Paste]]<br><br>[[Copy and Paste Tutorial|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIQYCugfUWI&amp;list=SP6E305390D0AB216C]]<br><br>[[Clipboard|Topic Slides/Clipboard.JPG]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[SeeMac|ForMacUsers]]|
}}}
!!!Browsers and Email
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify"><strong><u>Browsers.</u></strong> A <strong>BROWSER</strong> is the utility used to view (surf) Web pages. You can enjoy the benefits of any browser installed in your computer, one of which you make your <strong>DEFAULT</strong> browser.<br><br>See <strong>Browsers</strong> and <strong>Search</strong> pages<br><br><strong><u>Emailing.</u></strong> To send and receive emails you can either use WEBMAIL, view on line, or use an email CLIENT in your PC, or both.<br><br>See <strong>BasicEmail</strong> page.<br><br>To add an attachment to an Email watch this <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3HGZamjX9U" target="_blank"><strong><u>demo video.</u></strong></a><br><br>To save an attachment on an Email to a folder watch this <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yXzgP3PSSh4" target="_blank"><strong><u>demo video.</u></strong></a><br><br>How to spot a Phishing Email watch this <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XTAaD2ie-HE" target="_blank"><strong><u>demo video.</u></strong></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; How to report  <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iftt8S54Qr4" target="_blank"><strong><u>Email Fraud</u></strong></a></html>|width:8em;<br>''KEYWORDS''<br><br>Browser<br>Default<br><br><br>Webmail<br>Client|width:12em;<br>[[Browsers]]<br><br>[[Search]]<br><br>[[Email Tutorial|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/email101]]<br><br>[[BasicEmail]]<br><br>[[Email]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Action Fraud UK|http://www.actionfraud.police.uk/fraud-az-online-fraud]]|
}}}
!!!Account Management
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify"><strong><u>Opening an Account</u></strong> By opening an account or subscribing you are not necessarily committed to spending money, although you may be asked to agree to terms and conditions. When subscribing you are merely identifying yourself to an organisation to receive a service or information.</html>|width:8em;<br>''KEYWORDS''<br><br>Subscribe|width:12em;<br>[[Account Management]]|
}}}
----
 
<br><br><br>
!This is a collection of Basic Email Tutorials for Beginners
See the [[Email]] page for general guidance concerning Emailing.

!TUTORIALS

Most tutorials use a particular client to demonstrate the proceedure but the principles apply to most email clients.

{{invisibletable{
|width:20em;''Setting up an email client''<br><br>[[eM Client|http://www.emclient.com/webdocumentation/en/5.0/eMClient/Default.htm]]  <br>[[Outlook Express|http://www.tomax7.com/office/Outlook%20Express%20Tutorial.htm]]<br>[[Thunderbird|http://mozilla.gunnars.net/thunderbird_mail_setup.html#sect-setup]]<br>[[Windows Live Mail|http://www.uk-cheapest.co.uk/help-windows-mail-pop.php]]<br><br><br>''Resizing images''<br><br>[[How to Resize|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000998.htm]]|width:25em;''Composing and Sending''<br><br>[[Webwise Tutorial|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/accredited-courses/level-one/using-email/lessons/about-email/sending-and-receiving-email]]<br>[[Organising your Emails|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/organising-emails]]<br>[[Thunderbird Tutorials|http://en.flossmanuals.net/thunderbird/interface/#]]<br><br><br>''Other Features''<br>[[Rule Filters|http://help.yahoo.com/sbc/tutorials/mmail/mm_filter1.html]]<br>[[Making a New Rule|http://www.verizon.com/residentialhelp/templates/flash.aspx?Movie=/ResidentialHelp/images/Flash/VOLHelp_Player.swf&title=Message%20Rules%20in%20Outlook&width=550&height=380&flashvars=SubMovieURL%3Dhttp%3A//www.verizon.com/cs/groups/public/documents/onecmsresource/oe_message_rules_8ff7.swf%26SubMovieName%3DMessage%20Rules%20in%20Outlook]]<br>[[Exporting Contacts|http://help.yahoo.com/uk/bt/tutorials/cont/con_workcon5.html]]<br>[[Importing Contacts|http://help.yahoo.com/uk/bt/tutorials/cont/con_addcon3.html]]|''Attachments''<br><br>[[Adding an Attachment|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3HGZamjX9U]]<br>[[Adding an Attachment|http://lifehacker.com/5803366/how-to-send-an-email-with-an-attachment-for-beginners]]<br>[[Opening an Attachment|http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/attachments.htm#opening]]<br><br><br><br>''Security''<br><br>[[Email Security|EmailSecurity]]|
}}}

<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
!This is a collection of Basic MS Office Tutorials for Beginners
Those using [[OneDrive|Cloud]] have access to the ''Database and Spreadsheet Worksheets''.
 
!TUTORIALS

The ''menus'' in MS Office differ between versions. This is the greatest hurdle to leap when learning Word. However, the features are common between versions. [[Learning where to find these features|https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Use-the-Ribbon-instead-of-toolbars-and-menus-d946b26e-0c8c-402d-a0f7-c6efa296b527]] for MS Word, MS Powerpoint and MS Excel, is the secret. ''Identify your version'' of Word and then use a tutorial designed for a similar version. In any one version of MS Office the menus of Word, Excel and ~PowerPoint are similar. [[This site summarises|http://www.investintech.com/articles/mscustomization/]] some frequently used frstures in MS Office utiities. Open source clones of MS Word, such as [[Apache, LibraOffice and Abiword|Useful Utilities]] are very similar to the 2007 version of MS. When using them, make sure you save files in MS format ''by [[default|Default]]''. <br><br>For the average domestic user or voluntary worker there is little to be gained from an investment in the features provided later than MS Office 2007. Most upgrades include the relocation of features and the addition of sophistication as we progress towards the cloud. However if you take the conservative  strategy, ''resist marketing pressure'' and delay upgrading you will eventually face the hurdles of withdrawal of security support and the shock of retraining required to jump suddenly a number of versions. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Version comparison|http://www.jlellis.net/blog/should-you-upgrade-microsoft-office-to-2013/]]
{{invisibletable{
|width:25em;''Beginners Tutorials for v2003-v2013''<br><br>[[Basic Features (v2003)|http://www.baycongroup.com/word.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp;[[(v2007)|http://www.baycongroup.com/word2007/01_word2007.html]]<br>[[Word 2003|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/MW/MicrosoftWord.html]]<br>[[Word 2007 to Word 2013|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/Word-2007-2010.html]]<br>[[Word 2007|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/word2007]]<br>[[Word 2010 Parts 1 to 5|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeI-mFTH37w]]<br>[[Word 2013 Parts 1 to 14|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b7YOR0dmSlc]]<br><br>''Open Source Office''<br><br>[[Apache Writer Tutorials|http://www.tutorialsforopenoffice.org/category_index/wordprocessing.html]]<br>[[Abiword|http://www.abisource.com/support/manual/]]<br>[[Abiword Letter Tutorial|http://www.ice.udl.cat/aside/manuals/abiword/basic.htm]]<br>[[LibreOffice Tutorials|https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Documentation/Publications]] |width:25em;''Mail Merge''<br><br>[[Word 2010 - Part1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cx6Ve-kwLxU]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Part 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N8mO5ZU2zL4]]<br>[[Labels Word 2007|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIg70utT72Q]]<br><br>''MS Access Database''<html><a name="Access" /></html><br><br>[[Access 2007 Tutorials|http://www.baycongroup.com/access2007/index.html]]<br>[[Access 2013 Tutorials|https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzj7TwUeMQ3hFA4R_5Z1Fc2HZX8C2O1YV]]<br><br>''MS Excel''<br><br>[[Introduction|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-SnBlC_1tSk]]<br>[[Excel 2007 Tutorials|http://www.youtube.com/user/10minutetrain/search?query=excel+2007]]<br>[[Excel 2010 Basic|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JfJpplCNe8w&list=PLA315AFCD23B50347]]<br>[[Excel 2010 Advanced|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hYgt-NDzNQI&list=PLzj7TwUeMQ3h3CdrlW1HftLfBLXNhn8sa]]<br>|''Attachments''<br><br>[[Adding an Attachment|file:///C:/Users/Clive/Documents/TiddlyWiki/Publication%20Folder/Files/Email%20Attachmentsand%20Resizing.pdf]]<br>[[Opening an Attachment|http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/attachments.htm#opening]]<br><br>[[YouTube Video List]]<br><br><br>''MS ~PowerPoint''<br><br>[[PowerPoint 2007|http://www.youtube.com/user/10minutetrain/search?query=PowerPoint+2007]]<br>[[PowerPoint 2010|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ocApQp9Yhko]]<br>[[PowerPoint 2013|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTWf8Ck8Dk8]]<br>[[Sound in PowerPoint|http://www.ellenfinkelstein.com/pptblog/my-sound-wont-play-embed-narration-or-music-so-you-can-send-the-powerpoint-presentation-to-others/]]<br>[[Videos in PowerPoint|http://www.ellenfinkelstein.com/pptblog/insert-video-in-powerpoint/]]|
}}}
''More Excel'' &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Alternative 2007 Tutorials|http://www.baycongroup.com/el0.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; [[Excel Functions|http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/excel-help/excel-functions-by-category-HP010079186.aspx#BMstatistical_functions]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Formulae|../General Interest/Help Sheets\Spreadsheets/Excel Formulae Overview.pdf]]  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Operators|..\General Interest\Help Sheets\Spreadsheets\Excel Operators Overview.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Beginner Help|Topic Slides/Excel01 Formulae.jpg]]
<br>Some ~YouTube Tutorial Channels to search:-  [[Simon Sez IT|https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC-3e3hAUhDV2lwcoQGD2grg]] &nbsp; &nbsp;[[robertbobm|https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCgjm97upuM301C4wQkBL3Mg]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[10minutetrain|https://www.youtube.com/user/10minutetrain/videos]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[PCLearningZone|https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCl7-jJie4ifOVK87FINIuDg]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[drlindadavis|https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCtnSH74yxBtZ3Jig3dfE2yQ/videos]]
<br>''Subscribing'' - By the way, "Subscribing" doesn't necessarily mean paying a subscription. The term includes the situation where you are merely asked to identify yourself as a user. Subscribing to a provider's ~YouTube "Channel" makes a convenient way of bookmarking a collection of similar videos, perhaps tutorials that you use regularly. ''To subscribe'', choose a YouTube video in the collection or channel to which you wish to subscribe. The "subscribe button" is just below the video. Subscription requires an email address and a password.
<br>Those using [[OneDrive|Cloud]] have access to the ''[[Database and Spreadsheet]] Worksheets''.
-----
<br><br><br>
!The Digital Language
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Bits.'' The Language that the computer understands consists of just TWO digits - 0 and 1 - ''the binary system of numbers''. You can read this as OFF and ON.<br>On a piece of old fashioned magnetic casset tape there are bits of iron embedded and each of these can be aligned in one direction (ON) or at right anges (OFF). The tape remembers the ON/OFF information recorded on it. So a BIT in a memory had TWO conditions. There are many other ways of storing the information held in a BIT, such as the medium on your hard drive and the laser sensitive media on a DVD. <br>A ''Byte'' is a string of bits, which in it's simplest is 8 bits. So the letter "A" or "a" could be represented by a byte "00001010"<br><html><img alt="" height="196" src="Files/Bits&Bytes02.jpg" style="height:300px; width: 400px" /></html><br>The O's and 1's in an 8 bit byte can be combined in "2 to the power 8" or 256 ways. The Character Map above contains 256 squares. You can find the Character Map in your computer by going to START - SEARCH - <Character Map>.<br><br>''Files.'' Characters build words. Text is a collection of words, sentences and paragraphs, Bytes can be used to represent colours and build images. This text or image data is an entity called a file, the size of which is measured as the number of bytes it contains. A file with 1024 bytes has a size [[1 kilobyte|https://web.stanford.edu/class/cs101/bits-gigabytes.html]] (1 kB) &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The Kilobyte|http://www.teach-ict.com/gcse_new/computer%20systems/storage_units/miniweb/pg3.htm]]<br><br><html><img alt="" src="Topic Slides/Files4 Office Draws.jpg" style="height:300px; width: 400px" /></html><br>To learn the skills to manage Files , Folders and Drives see [[Basics|The Basics of Files, Email, Internet]], [[Tutorials]] and use [[FindSubPages]]|<html><img alt="" height="196" src="Files/Bits&Bytes01.jpg" style="height:300px; width: 400px" /></html>.....and each character we type is translated into BINARY digits for the computer to use.<br><br>[[More on How Bytes Work|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bytes1.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Permutations & Combinations|http://easycalculation.com/statistics/learn-permutation-combination.php]]<br><br>[[Bytes in a Bit|http://www.taomc.com/bits2bots/bitbyte1.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp;[[The Character map|http://vlaurie.com/computers2/Articles/charset.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Number Systems|http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/number_systems/number_systems.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Colour|http://www.thewonderoflight.com/articles/bits-bytes/]]<br><html><img alt="" src="Files/Bits&Bytes03.jpg" style="height:300px; width: 400px" /></html><br>''Magnitude.'' To give an understanding of the magnitude of a billion bytes ([[1 Gigabyte|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigabyte]]), think in seconds of time. Approximately, <br>''A million seconds is 11 days and a billion seconds, 31 years.''<br><br>''Folders.'' Files are collected together in Folders, named appropriately to describe the topic, eg "My Pictures". Each file has a unique FILE NAME and a FILE EXTENTION which indicates the FILE TYPE; thus myimage.jpg, atextfile.txt or thedocument.doc. A document may contain a mixture of text, images, etc. in one file.<br> In WINDOWS (FILE) EXPLORER, files, folders and different file types are also represented by ''ICONS'' to make them easily identifiable. &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[Topic Slides]]<br>''Hard Drive.'' The Folders and Files are stored on your HARD DRIVE, usually the C:/ drive, in a sub-folder called the User Folder which is ususally named with your name. Your USER FOLDER contains all the files and data that you create as you use the computer. It is essential that this is well organised to facilitate easy search.  &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[Getting Organised]] |
}}}
-----




 
!10. Blocking Junk Downloads
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;On sites such as Filehippo, Softpedia, and Download.com, although they are carefully scanned for malware,  there is usually one safe link for download without junk and a number of doggy links. The safest way to identify the safe link is to install the add-on [[Adblock Plus|https://adblockplus.org/en/tutorials]]. This will remove the doggy links and it is then easier to see the safe link. This saves uninstalling the unsolicited downloads used to pay for the free software. Use Filehippo to download the free version of AVG antivirus safely rather than ~AVGs official site, but install Adblock Plus first.<br><br>Watch both the size and type of the download file and be vigilant during the installation stage for opportunity to ''untick'' [[default|Default]] additions. It is best to install by choosing "custom install" if offered. Compare the size of the download files on different download sites. For example, the size of the genuine ''Irfanview file'', v.4.38, is 1.81MB. A 1.85MB file could contain malware. A file in ''compressed zip format'' could contain additional files. The recommended site from which to download Irfanview is www.filehorse.com, although all those listed on the author's site are safe with caution.|<br><br>[[Unwanted Programs|http://blog.emsisoft.com/2015/01/17/has-the-antivirus-industry-gone-mad/?ref=ticker150119&utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=newsletter&utm_content=blog&utm_campaign=ticker150119]]|
}}}
Read the advice about "Free Downloads" and the often associated unsolicited downloads in [[Downloads]]

----
<br><br>
<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tip </u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; Use HYBERNATE at end of day instead of "Shut down". You need to Restart only for recovery housekeeping.</html>
<br>
!!!Booting Up
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>During the process of starting up,</strong> Windows carrys out many housekeeping jobs, repairing broken files, completing the installation of "Windows Updates" as well as loading system processes and startup programs. All this takes time, can be speeded up with careful user' husbandry and watched in Task Manager. In addition to <strong>Normal</strong> start up, there are <a href="https://neosmart.net/wiki/advanced-boot-options-menu/" target="_blank"><u>Advanced Start up Options</u></a> which include the familiar <strong>Safe Mode </strong>These need to be considered only if there was a problem before the previous shut down.<br><br>Here are <a href="http://journalofaccountancy.com/issues/2014/apr/kick-start-your-computer.html" target="_blank"><u>some tips to speed up your boot up.</u></a> and <a href="http://lifehacker.com/5821865/top-10-ways-to-speed-up-windows-boot-time" target="_blank"><u>some more</u></a></html>Use HYBERNATE instead of Shut Down at the end of day. Your PC is then available immediately.|<br>[[Safe Mode|http://www.howtogeek.com/164876/how-to-use-safe-mode-to-fix-your-windows-pc-and-when-you-should/]]<br><br>[[Start Up Options|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/advanced-startup-options-including-safe-mode#1TC=windows-7]]<br><br> [[Task Manager]] |
}}}
!!!Closing Down
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The Shut Down State.</strong> - This is the power-off state with which most of us are familiar. There is a fundamental rule of computing, <u>"If you have opened something, close it when you have finished"</u>, be it a file, folder, program or computer.<br><br>To get here there are a number of options to consider:<br><br><strong>1. Sleep.</strong> - In sleep mode, the computer enters a low-power state and is available for use again almost instantly.<br><strong>2. Hybernate.</strong> - Your computer saves an image file of the RAM content to hard disk and uses as little power as it does when shut down but takes longer to resume than from sleep.<br><strong>3. Restart.</strong> - Saves doing the two processes of shut down and reboot separately. It is a quick way to force the PC to do its recovery housekeeping.<br><strong>4. Shut Down.</strong> - This saves most power and enables recovery from system deterioration or failure. Shut down can occur in two ways:<br><div class="indent" align="justify"><strong>a. Normal</strong> manual soft shut down, using the menu in the START!<br><strong>b. Forced Shut down.</strong> An operating system crash commonly occurs when a hardware exception occurs that cannot be handled. The term is sometimes used to describe a forced Shut Down. A crash  is then said to have occurred if:<br><div class="indent" align="justify">i. The power plug was pulled to shut down the PC<br>ii. The PC frooze such that there was no alternative but to turn off power without carrying out a normal soft shut down..<br>iii. The PC shut itself down because of a system failure.</div></div><br><strong>Power Options.</strong> The various closing down options can be schduled to occur automatically after a chosen period of time to save power and, for a laptop, closing the lid can be set to initiate each of these.</html>|<br><br><br><br><br>[[Closing Down Options|http://www.howtogeek.com/128507/htg-explains-should-you-shut-down-sleep-or-hibernate-your-laptop/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Crash]]<br><br>[[Forced Shutdown|http://science.opposingviews.com/can-forced-shutdown-ruin-computer-21951.html]]<br><br>[[PC vs The Car|http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/susan/joke/crash.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Power Options|http://www.howtogeek.com/102897/whats-the-difference-between-sleep-and-hibernate-in-windows/]]|
}}}
----

<br><br><br><br><br>
Your ''BROWSER'' is the utility that gives you access to the ''World Wide Web''. As the WWW grows, more and more of the sevices we use are accessed through this browser so quick, easy and safe access makes our computing experience more enjoyable. These sevices will include, web pages for news, email and entertainment, banking and shopping facilities, productive utilities such as photo enhancement, and of course file storage in The Cloud.<br><br>''Quick, easy and safe access'' to any of these services is achieved with bookmarks, i.e. shortcuts to frequently used web pages, and with add-ons.<br><br>
!!Setting up Favorites

''Note'' in Edge, bookmarks are called ''Favorites'' and can be stored on the Favorites Bar (for quick access) and in the Favorites Menu
To make the "Favorites Bar" show, go to MENU - SETTINGS - FAVORITES SETTINGS and switch ON the Favorites Bar.
To make a bookmark or Favotite FROM THE CURRENT PAGE showing in Edge, click ONCE on the STAR symbol. To store this Favorite, click the STAR a second time and from the dropdown menu select FAVORITES BAR or a folder in the FAVORITES MENU. Here you can also rename or shorten the bookmark name.<br>In settings, there is a facility to import your old favorites from Internet Explorer.<br>
<html> &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/Edge Toolbars.jpg" style="height:340px; width:850px" /></html>
!!Setting the Main Page

Without setting a main page, Edge displays a Bing picture and search page. Instead you can choose ~DuckDuckGo or Google UK search if you prefer. These load quickly and are to be preferred to the heavy front pages from BT, Yahoo, ~TalkTalk, some of which contain annoying adware and adverts.
To set the front page, go to MAIN MENU - SETTINGS - OPEN WITH and select "A specific page or pages" and select CUSTOM from the dropdown menu. Enter the web address of your preferred page such as "https://www.google.co.uk" or "https://duckduckgo.com/" AND CLICK THE SAVE SYMBOL. On restartig the browser, your preferred page will appear as your MAIN PAGE. In ~FireFox you can make this page appear when you open a NEW TAB with an Add-on, but not in Edge. In Edge, a history of previous pages visited will appear.
<br>
!!Advanced Settings

In SETTINGS - ADVANCED SETTINGS, there are some privacy and security options worth reviewing. Here also you can control COOKIES but unlike ~FireFox you cannot view or delete INDIVIDUAL cookies. To delete history go to the "three bar symbol" next to the STAR symbol in the menu bar, click the "clock" History symbol and click "Clear all History". Here you can select batch items to delete.
!!Other Features

This browser has [[other features to investigate|http://www.howtogeek.com/222214/11-tips-and-tricks-for-microsoft-edge-on-windows-10/]].
# Reading View - works with suitable sites
# Reading List - to save an article to read later.
# Cast to media device - sends an image or video to a smart TV or other device on the same LAN.
# Make a Web Note - annotate, cut, save Quick Note and share parts of an article.
# Print to PDF using installed printers such as CutePDF
# Manage saved passwords.
# Cortana assist.
# Zoom, Find and Private Browsing.
<br><br>
----



<br><br><br><br><br><br>
There is a page on [[Browsers]], but the page you are now reading covers the essential minimum you need to understand to use your browser effectively. Sometimes we assume everyone knows these details but without them using a browser is a pain in itself and limits the pleasure of surfing the World Wide Wait. Remember the WWW is only a part of the Internet.
''Don't be afraid '' to experiment with the settings of your browser. Remember - change one item at a time, see what happens and undo the change if necessary.<br>
''A browser is the tool used to read web pages on the World Wide Web.''<br>
''A Web Page is a file which your browser downloads from the Internet and displays for viewing''
!1. Types of browser
##Internet Explorer (IE) - Surpplied with a Microsoft PC. Latest version 11 much improved.
##Firefox -Made by Mozilla and can be download for use as an alternative, if you prefer. It is a versatile, full-featured browser.
##Chrome - Made by Google and can be downloaded for use as an alternative.
##Safari - Surpplied with an Apple Mac computer and can be downloaded for use in a PC as an alternative. It is a simple and fast browser.
##There are many less popular or specialist browsers, as ''[[this list|http://web.appstorm.net/roundups/browsers/the-ultimate-list-of-browsers/]]'' will show.<br>
The choice of browser is a matter of personal preference. Some surfers use more than one browser for different purposes and for their different features.
A browser will always ask you if it should be your [[DEFAULT|Default]] browser, that is, if it should be the one that is always used to open your web pages. Web pages are written in a language called HTML and the file extension of a web page is usually .html - but not always.Some are .asp, .php, .xml, etc. When you click on a link containing this type of file, the file will OPEN in your DEFAULT BROWSER.
!2. Internet Options, settings
Become familiar with the setting preferences of your browser. These are variously called "Internet Options" or "Settings", and usually found in the TOOLS menu, often identified by a cog wheel or three horizontal lines symbol in the menu bar. This varies with browser type and version.<br>
Setting preferences allows you to choose main page, text font size, how pages open, privacy and security levels, which folder downloads go to, and much more. All that follows is to be found in your browsers OPTIONS menu.
!3. Main page
The main page is the page which appears when you first open your browser or open a new TAB when it is running. This can be a blank page or a page of your choice set in OPTIONS. It is often convenient to have the browser open with a SEARCH ENGINE as the main page.
!4. Setting Download folder.
Because a browser is used to download software from a safe site on the Web, make sure it is set to download files to the DOWNLOADS folder. This way you will know where to find downloaded files after downloading.
!5. Setting up Tabs
There are three ways to find a web page:
##Double click on a link containing a web address. The address (a URL) will apear in the address bar at the top of the browser.
##Use a search engine with suitable KEYWORDS to identify the required web site and click on one of the list search results.
##Place a known web address (a URL) in the address bar of the browser. This requires absolute accuracy in copying the address.
To avoid each of the actions ''opening a new window'', it is convenient to have just ''one window'' and to OPEN A NEW TAB in which to view the web page.
This is often not the default behaviour of a browser and needs setting up in options. This is possible in Explorer and Firefox, but not Chrome. With Safari, use ~CTRL-ALT-CLICK.
Firefox is very versatile and there are many ~ADD-ONs available to control the convenient use of Tabs, including tabs in a sidebar and saving tabs between sessions, See [[Browsers]] paragraph 8 for more detail on Add-ons.
!6. Pinned Tabs
Pinned tabs save space on the toolbar. The steps are the same for Chrome and for Firefox. First, open a tab in your browser and go to whatever website you want to keep open. Once you’ve got your tab open to the website you need, right-click on the tab and select "Pin Tab". Your tab will shrink in size and move to the left side of your browser window. This facility is not available in Internet Explorer or Safari.
!7. Favorites or Bookmarks - Favourites Bar (right click)
If you RIGHT click an empty space just under the address bar of IE or Firefox, a ''drop-down menu'' will offer you the option to select a Favourites or Bookmarks TOOLBAR. Here you can pin shortcuts to favoutite websites for quick and easy access, for example a quick link to a search engine. 
The phrase "Favourite" is used in IE and Safari and "Bookmark" in Firefox and Chrome, to describe a SHORTCUT or stored LINK to a web site.
The place to save and access bookmarks and favourites is identified by a star symbol in IE, Chrome and Firefox, by a "Book" in Safari. Learn by trial and error in your particular browser, because each has a slightly different method of saving. With Firefox you can set it to synchronise your bookmarks with other browsers.
!8. Privacy and Security
Set the DEFAULT (medium level in IE) security options in your browser for safe browsing. Read the sections on [[Privacy]] and secure browsing in the [[Browsers]] page of this Worksheet. See also para 11 of the [[Browsers]] page.
!9. Advanced settings - Allow Blocked Content - [[Active Content|http://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST04-012]]
Sometimes you may need to delve deeper into the settings and find ADVANCED settings. For exmple when you open the Worksheet:
##Google Chrome will ask you to give permission to run ''Java (TM)'' - just agree on the yellow bar at the top of the browser, although Java is NOT needed to read the Worksheet..
##Safari always asks you to install ''Java'' even if it is already installed. Always agree to install the first time.<br>If when using Safari in a PC you suffer persistant interuption from a message asking you to install Java when you already have it, go to Windows C:/Program Files x86/Safari/Plugins and delete, or save elsewhere, the file ''npJavaPlugin.dll''. No harm will come. 
##Internet Explorer may occasionally show a red warning "This page requires ''Javascript'' to run properly". Go to INTERNET OPTIONS - ADVANCED - scroll down and ''tick "Allow active content to run in files on my computer"''. Javascript (not Java!) is, as well as HTML, a code used in some webpages and is a necessary part of their correct running.
##Firefox is free of these complications and runs javascript for interactive websites by default.
This behaviour remains from the days when Java had serious security flaws, now partially corrected. Always keep Java up to date and allow automatic update. However, with Windows 10, if you use Google Chrome 64-bit however, you'll have to use Java 64-bit. It all comes down to the web browser you use. Also, like stated above, if you don't need/use Java, do not install it. It's just an additional security hole on a system, updated or not. Best advice is don't use the intrusive Chrome browser and uninstall Java.
-----
<br><br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Some Edge [[Browser Set Up]] ideas''<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:65em;''Other than emailing, surfing on the Web is the most frequent activity you undertake using the Internet.''<br>There are many references to browser use on other pages and this page aims to collect together this guidance and provide more detail. The aim is to get the best out of the browser of your choice by knowing it's features.|
}}}
''First, __[[What browser are you using?|https://www.whatismybrowser.com/]]__'' &nbsp; &nbsp; Click the link to discover details about the browser you are using now.<br><br>

{{invisibletable{
|width:5em;|Click on ''"View more information about your web browser"'' to check that everything is up to date <br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''- particularly Adobe Flash and Java.''|
}}}
!1. Definition -  What is a browser? 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;A browser displays the content of a file with a chosen URL ([[web address|Topic Slides/Web2a URLs.JPG]]) on the world wide web. Each browser displays this information slightly differently and the browser features enable you to automate its behaviour to your liking and ensure its security. You should always use the most recent version of a browser available for your operating system.|[[What is a URL|http://pc.net/glossary/definition/url]]<br><br>[[How to check Version|http://www.ucalgary.ca/ittraining/files/ittraining/fc_setting_your_browser_psoft_downloads_nov13j.pdf]]|
}}}
!2. Features of a Browser 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;This comprehensive website gives plenty of detail on browser features and use that is applicable to most versions of Internet Explorer and Firefox. Investigate the menu content of the browser TOOLBAR and RIGHT CLICK on various empty spaces of your browser to discover many useful options and commands.<br>''Translation tools'' are now plentiful on the Internet. These are found easily by searching the keyword "translate". The Chrome browser, a Google product, has an inbuilt Translation tool which can be activated in advanced settings. &nbsp; &nbsp; See also [[Taskbar|Moving The Taskbar]]|[[Browser Features|http://academic.stedwards.edu/competency/module2/Lesson6/intertexplorpartsofintertexpl.htm]]<br><br>[[Chrome Tips|http://mashable.com/2010/09/09/chrome-tips-tricks-shortcuts/]]<br><br>[[The Address Bar|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/a/addrebar.htm]]<br><br>[[Menu Bar|Files/Menu Bar.jpg]]|
}}}
!3. Choice of Browser - Comparison
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;This is a matter of personal preference. We stick with the familiar but you could be more adventurous and discover something better. We base our preferencees around vertical space to view pages, easy access of features, availability of suitable add-ons, colour and ambiance of the browser style and theme. These websites offer a good comparison of the various browsers available.<br><br>''Google Chrome browser'' is a resource hungary browser and fights Firefox and Edge for dominance. My personal advice is uninstall it.|[[Compare Browsers|http://internet-browser-review.toptenreviews.com/]]<br><br>[[Which is Best?|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2966127/browsers/the-best-web-browser-of-2015-firefox-chrome-edge-ie-and-opera-compared.html]]<br><br>[[Google Chrome is Malware|https://www.gnu.org/proprietary/malware-google.en.html]]|
}}}
!4. Latest version for your operating system. 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;This is mainly a security issue. Use the latest version for your operating system even if it means getting used to a new layout. This Wilipedia site shows the most recent version for your operating system.<br>Remember Microsoft no longer supports XP or Vista and so advice is scarce. Vista users should use Internet Explorer v9 and for W7 & W8, version 11.<br>Check the [[latest version of Mozilla Firefox|https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/new/]] that can be used on XP upwards.<br><br>''For Windows 10'' the Microsoft browser ''Edge'' is proving very good, secure and feature rich. Firefox is fast and offers many add-on features. Google is said to be addressing the resource heavy Chrome browser which otherwise offers good service. See [[Windows10|Windows10##Windows]] for more details of Edge features.|[[Most Recent|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_web_browsers]]<br><br>[[XP and Vista|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/best-browser-which-should-you-be-using-932466]]<br><br>[[IEv9 Guide|http://www.visualsteps.com/downloads/A_short_guide_to_Internet_Explorer_9.pdf]]<br><br>[[FireFox Guide|http://www.accessfirefox.org/Firefox_Beginners_Guide.php]]|
}}}
!5. Tabs
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Tabbed browsing is a relatively new and very useful feature found in some Web browsers. [[Tabbed browsing|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/t/tabbrows.htm]] is a function of some Web browsers that allows users to surf and view multiple pages by loading the Web sites into "tabbed" sections of one page, rather than multiple windows. This allows the user to view a selection of favorite sites in one window, view multiple search results at the same time, and would allow you to set several pages as [[your home page|http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/H/home_page.html]], rather than just one. Tabs can be managed, organised, edited, repositioned and pinned as APP ~TABs.<br>[[This Firefox ADD-ON|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-Gb/firefox/addon/new-tab-homepage/?src=search]] usefully makes a new tab open with your home page.|[[Chrome Tabs|https://support.google.com/chrome/answer/95622?hl=en-GB]]<br><br>[[Firefox Tabs|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/tabs-organize-websites-single-window]]<br><br>[[IE v9 Tabs|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaYU52Q55D8]]<br><br>[[Firefox App Tabs|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BC2QuMH0xd0]]|
}}}
!6. Bookmarks
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Internet Explorer alone uses the term "Favorite" for Bookmark". Bookmarks are website shortcuts one makes many of, but rarely uses because a quick Google search will find the favourite site! If you are determined, then right click an empty space on the browser Menubar and tick "BOOKMARK TOOLBAR" where a small number of shortcuts for regular use can be displayed. Otherwise, if you habitually make many, religiously organise your bookmarks into well named FOLDERS. Bookmarks can be syncronised between browsers and other computers.<br><br>''Some Edge [[Browser Set Up]] ideas''|[[Make Bookmarks|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/use-bookmarks-to-save-and-organize-websites]]<br><br>[[Import Bookmarks|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/import-bookmarks-google-chrome]]<br><br>[[Syncronize Firefox|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/use-sync-share-bookmarks-and-more-with-firefox-mobile]]<br><br>[[Syncronize Chrome|http://www.guidingtech.com/3125/chrome-bookmarks-sync/]]|
}}}
!7. Copying from webpages
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Save'' -The least effective method is to save the page as an .html or .txt file.<br>''Print'' - Whole pages can be printed to .pdf file using the ~CUTEpdf utility. Print-preview first to check the content and format. Firefox gives the cleanest copy.<br>''Copy to text'' - Highlight the section of text and/or picture and COPY & PASTE to a word processor page or to the body of an email.<br>''Snipping Tool'' - A snipping tool is built into Vista, W7 and W8 but has to be downloaded for XP. This tool enables a selection to be cropped and saved to a .jpg file. The selection cannot extend beyond the visible section of the webpage.<br>''~Shift-Prt Scr'' - Using the PRINT SCREEN key copies the whole screen to the CLIPBOARD from where it can pasted into an editor, such as Irfanview, cropped or resized and saved.<br>''Note taking and organisation utilities'' - including ''[[Evernote, Pocket|http://www.businessbee.com/resources/news/operations-buzz/buzzbattle-pocket-vs-evernote-organizational-app-best-business/]]'', ''[[OneNote|http://www.onenote.com/download]]'' and ''~KNote'' <br>''Short ~URLs'' - Some web addresses are very long and this tool creates a ~TinyURL to copy into an email.|[[CUTEpdf|http://www.cutepdf.com/products/cutepdf/writer.asp%22]]<br><br>[[Irfanview|http://fileforum.betanews.com/detail/IrfanView-32bit/967963863/1]]<br><br>[[Use Snipping Tool|http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/tutorials/how-to-use-the-windows-snipping-tool/]]<br><br>[[Evernote|http://evernote.com/webclipper/]]<br><br>[[NoteTaking Utilities|http://www.snapfiles.com/freeware/productivity/fwnotetaking.html]]<br><br>[[TinyURL|http://tinyurl.com/]]<br><br>[[KNote|http://www.smartgoldfish.com/download.html]]|
}}}
!8. Add-ons
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;All browsers have the facility to add additional facilities to the basic structure, known as Add-ons or Plug-ins. Access to ~ADD-ONs in the TOOLS MENU will show those already installed and access to a store of others available. In the past with slower operating systems and older versions of browser, excessive use of add-ons led to slow performance and [[crashing|Crash]]. This has been rectified with the latest browser versions and the cautious use of approved compatible add-ons improves your surfing experience. Add-ons are available for security, appearance of browser, enhancing facilities such as tabs, menu items, zoom, page preview, Internet radio, language translation, etc. Adblock Plus, a useful deterrent, is [[now available for IE.|http://simple-adblock.com/]]|[[Advice|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/how-do-browser-add-ons-affect-my-computer]]<br><br>[[Internet Explorer v9|http://www.howtogeek.com/115222/disable-add-ons-to-speed-up-browsing-in-internet-explorer-9/]]<br><br>[[Security Add-ons|http://lifehacker.com/5770947/five-best-browser-security-extensions]]<br><br>[[Some FireFox Addons|Files/My Firefox Add-ons.JPG]]|
}}}
!9. Blocking Ads
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;While there are ~ADD-ONs which block ads(!), there are other methods available. To stop Google using your profile picture and name in adverts, go to [[www.snipca.com/10351|http://www.snipca.com/10351]] and untick the box against "Based on my activity, Google may....."<br>This Google setting page may also be found [[on this link|https://plus.google.com/settings/endorsements?hl=en]].<br>The Google ''Opt Out Settings'' page is [[accessed here|https://support.google.com/ads/answer/2662922]]<br>To ''opt out of Google ads'' completely [[use this link|https://www.google.com/settings/u/0/ads/plugin?hl=en-GB&sig=ACi0TCgu2ws7T8iXnGi6dbldDs5uf82TASPXUs10gl0G5-_HdTbCrX8cgMnZ1xWSArgAas7lkQnNHW9fAPswtWhi2qloi7OJQCjukNhGIIW9ITFrZ6wwmYiy8-EQnTBY4z77GH6dbhBIOTB799cv8k4JfFmLyjCBM5IYBAD1dOGlwh3bJsFL_oo]] to go to the page to download the add-on for the browser you are currently using. However, Google makes it very difficult to install in spite of appearing to be helpful and to comply with EU law. !<br>Adblock Plus stops you seeing the adverts on your browser page. It does not stop Google collecting your search interests which are used to make those profile related adverts on the page in the first place. ''Ghostery'' aims to stop the tracking ........&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Ghostery|https://www.ghostery.com/en/]]. ''Disconnect me'' doesn't sell the data. The choice is yours.......[[Disconnect Me|https://disconnect.me/disconnect#]]<br>Blocking pop-up window ads - [[Microfoft Advice|http://www.microsoft.com/en-GB/security/resources/popup-whatis.aspx]] ....and [[How best to close them|http://netsecurity.about.com/od/popupsandspyware/qt/aaclosepopup.htm]]<br><br>''Embedded Video Players'' You may have ad-blocking software, such as Adblock Plus, installed on your browser. It is possible this software, or similar browser add-ons and extensions, are affecting the appearance of BBC embedded video on your PC.<br>You may need to check the ''filters in options settings on your browser add-ons'' to ensure they aren't blocking the player or Adobe Flash. Adding the bbc.co.uk domain to the list of allowed sites or removing the filter specifically blocking the bbc player, should let BBC embedded content through. |[[Removing  Adds|http://www.lab99.com/how-to-remove-advertisements-from-websites]]<br><br>[[Google|https://support.google.com/ads/answer/2662850?hl=en-GB]]<br><br>[[AdblockPlus|https://adblockplus.org/en/tutorials]]<br><br>[[AdBlock Plus Features|https://adblockplus.org/en/features]]<br><br>[[AdBlock & Google|http://www.tomshardware.com/news/Google-Adblock-Plus-Whitelist,23408.html]]<br><br>[[Other Blockers|http://lifehacker.com/the-best-browser-extensions-that-protect-your-privacy-479408034]]<br><br>[[Ghostery|https://www.ghostery.com/en/why-ghostery/for-individuals/]]<br><br><br>[[Flash Player Check|http://helpx.adobe.com/flash-player/kb/installation-problems-flash-player-windows.html]]|
}}}   
!!Using Adobe Flash
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The BBC has been one of the last to be persuaded not to require the use of Adobe Flash to view videos. Adobe Flash has been notorious in requiring repeated updates to mend security violations by hackers. <br>''~HTML5'' is a web authoring technology which incorporates an alternative way of playing videos in a webpage. Many YouTube videos will play using ~HTML5 in supported browsers. You can request that the ~HTML5 player be used if your browser doesn't use it by default, but most do now by default.  You can use ~HTML5 in BBC iPlayer by visiting www.bbc.co.uk/html5 and opting to use ~HTML5 Player. To test whether your system will play videos without flash you can either uninstall Adobe Flash altogether or install an extension which will toggle Flash on or off such as "~FlashDisable"  in ~FireFox. ''__Note__'' BBC News videos still require that Adobe Flash be installed in most browsers. ''There is one useful exception. BBC News videos can be played without installing Adobe Flash in Internet Explorer Version 11 in Windows 10, in which Flash is embedded in the browser.'' |[[Default use of HTML5|http://www.ghacks.net/2014/07/17/google-enforces-html5-youtube-firefox-33-newer/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[BBC Explanation|http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/2010/08/html5_open_standards_and_the_b.html]]|
}}}
!10. Blocking Junk Downloads
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;On sites such as Filehippo, Softpedia and Download.com, although they are carefully scanned for malware,  there is usually one safe link for download without junk and a number of doggy links. The safest way to identify the safe link is to install the add-on [[Adblock Plus|https://adblockplus.org/en/tutorials]]. This will remove the doggy links and it is then easier to see the safe link. This saves uninstalling the unsolicited downloads used to pay for the free software. Use Filehippo to download the free version of AVG antivirus safely rather than ~AVGs official site, but install Adblock Plus first. The site ''~MajorGeeks.com'' is considered a safe download site which clearly labels software that comes with bundleware extras.|
}}}
!11. Java and Javascript
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Keep Jave up to date by accepting all updates. It is an intregal part of many programs in your computer. There have been issues with the JAVA ~PLUG-IN used in browsers. It is wise to disable the browser plug-in but there is no need to uninstall Java in your computer completely. See the "Java Issues" link and the comments on the article.<br>Distinguish between Java and the completely unrelated Javascript. Javascript ''should be enabled'' in your browser to make the page display properly.<br>If when using Safari in a PC you suffer persistant interuption from a message asking you to install Java when you already have it, go to Windows C:/Program Files x86/Safari/Plugins and delete or save elsewhere the file ''npJavaPlugin.dll''. No harm will come.|[[Java Issues|http://lifehacker.com/5988800/what-is-java-is-it-insecure-and-should-i-use-it]]<br><br>[[Javascript|http://www.howtogeek.com/138865/htg-explains-should-you-disable-javascript/]]<br><br>[[Activating Javascript|http://activatejavascript.org/en/instructions/ie#instructions]]<br><br>[[Programming]]|
}}}
!12. Privacy 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Cookies'' - New laws have addressed concerns about privacy and personnal data. The default setting you will find in ~TOOLS-OPTIONS-PRIVACY is sufficient.<br><br>''History'' - Google has already noted your search keywords, so the history of your surfing is merely there for your convenience. You can however stop advert tracking.<br><br>''~InPrivate browsing'' - this option in a dedicated browser merely avoids history being saved on your computer. It does not eliminate Google keyword collection.<br><br>''The seriously paranoid surfer'' might consider browsing with the ''Epic Browser''. This browser ensures, by default, that everything you do remains private by blocking all trackers, third-party cookies and ads, redirecting your searches through a proxy server using an encrypted connection when you visit a website and automatically clears all browsing history data at the end of the session. However this is temporarily written to your hard drive and it could be argued by the pedantic that if there is something worse than no security it is false security, believing you are safe when you are not, because it wouldn’t be difficult for a nosy person to uncover this again using any cheap undelete software. - See more [[in this article.|http://www.privacydusk.com/windows-privacy/epic-privacy-browser-review-shows-data-leaks/]]<br><br>''View Permissions you have granted''. When you install a mobile app or PC utility you give permission for the software to access your data. Using Google Maps would be usless without giving access to your location, but some features may go beyond the intrusion necessary to make them work poperly. Be aware of the permissions you have granted.<br>''~FireFox'' - Type "about:permissions" into the address bar and press Enter.<br>''Chrome'' - All or nothing. Go to SETTINGS - EXTENSIONS and see the PERMISSIONS tab.<br>''Internet Explorer'' - [[Manage Cookies|http://gbradhopkins.com/pc/tutorial/view-and-delete-cookies-in-internet-explorer]] in Internet Options<br>''Edge'' - [[Privacy|http://lifehacker.com/what-windows-10s-privacy-nightmare-settings-actually-1722267229]]<br>''Android'' - Go to SETTINGS - APPS - App Info<br>''Apple iOS'' - No control <br>''Google Account'' - Go to [[Google Permissions Page|https://security.google.com/settings/security/permissions?pli=1]] where you can revoke permissions.<br>''Microsoft Account'' - Go to [[Microsoft Account Permissions|https://account.live.com/Permissions]]<br><br>''~MyPermissiions Cleaner'' is a utility which will scan all your major services looking for all services that can access your information. It is worth installing only if you make excessive use of social media and have been careless with installations.<br><br>''If you suspect'' your email address has been compromised and your password stolen, use the trusted, reputable and secure site called "Haveibeenpwned?" to check. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See also [[Passwords]]|[[About Cookies|http://www.aboutcookies.org/default.aspx]]<br><br>[[Deleting Cookies|http://www.pcworld.com/article/242939/how_to_delete_cookies.html]]<br><br>[[Webwise|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/about-cookies]]<br><br>[[Google Tracking|http://howto.cnet.com/8301-11310_39-57368016-285/how-to-prevent-google-from-tracking-you/]]<br><br>[[Cookie Profiling|http://www.allaboutcookies.org/cookies/cookie-profiling.html]]<br><br><br>[[Epic Review|http://uk.pcmag.com/epic-privacy-browser/178/review/epic-privacy-browser]]<br><br>[[Epic Download|https://www.epicbrowser.com/]]<br><br>[[Private Browsing|https://bitcoinnewsmagazine.com/private-browsing-how-to-stop-web-browser-leaks/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Browser Leaks|https://www.browserleaks.com/]]<br><br><br><br>[[gMail Privacy|http://lifehacker.com/how-to-limit-gmails-personalized-ads-1564245951]]<br><br><br>[[MyPermissions Cleaner|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/downloads/3329320/mypermissions-cleaner-for-internet-explorer-051/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Have I Been Pwned?|https://haveibeenpwned.com/]]|
}}}
+++[<strong>&nbsp; If you suspect unusual Internet activity</strong> when your computer is idle , click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br>''Unusual Internet Activity''<br><br>If you suspect your Internet is running slowly or that there is internet activity when your computer is idle, the cause could be:<br>1. Normal routine update of programs, Apps, drivers, news streams, cloud systems and web pages.<br>For these you will have at some time cautiously given permission to connect to the Internet.<br>2. Malicious code feeding back data from webcam, key-logging utilities and rootkit remote control.<br>Assuming your AV software has not intercepted malware, run the ~MalwareBytes utility which you always have ready installed in your PC.<br><br>''Malware Symptoms''<br><br>While these types of malware differ greatly in how they spread and infect computers, they can all produce similar symptoms. Computers that are infected with malware can exhibit any of the following symptoms:<br>Increased CPU usage<br>Slow computer or web browser speeds<br>Problems connecting to networks<br>Freezing or crashing<br>Modified or deleted files<br>Appearance of strange files, programs, or desktop icons<br>Programs running, turning off, or reconfiguring themselves <br>(malware will often reconfigure or turn off antivirus and firewall programs)<br>Strange computer behaviour<br>Emails/messages being sent automatically and without user’s knowledge (a friend receives a strange email from you that you did not send) <br><br>''Internet activity can be monitored by:''<br><br>1. Viewing the ~TaskManager, Performance tab choosing "Internet" or "Ethernet",<br>2. Downloading and using the safe real-time Internet monitoring utility Glassware, <br>3. Recording a period of activity with the Windows "netstat command"and analysing it with tools in "~SysInternal Tools".  See link.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[List of Malware Types|https://www.veracode.com/blog/2012/10/common-malware-types-cybersecurity-101]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Glassware Download|https://www.glasswire.com/download/]]<br><br>[[Netstat Command|http://www.howtogeek.com/98601/easily-monitor-your-computers-internet-connection-activity/]]<br><br>[[SysInternal Tools|http://www.howtogeek.com/school/sysinternals-pro/lesson10/all/#]]|
}}}
===  
!13. Security 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;It is a balance of convenience against risk of intrusion whether or not to allow the browser to save passwords. If you are ultra careful not to surf onto dodgy sites or click on suspicious email or browser links, then it is safe to go for convenience. Otherwise don't. The free Bitdefender Safeplay offers a very secure browser.<br>However, default browser security settings, an up-to-date browser version, Windows Update and an active [[malware software|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/resources/malware-whatis.aspx]] will give you peace of mind when surfing. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br><br>''ALWAYS'' hover your mouse over a link on a web page to ensure that the actual URL is the same as the typed URL or is reasonable, especially if it is ''not a TRUSTED site''. Be particularly cautious of TIFF image files. ''Install [[Web of Trust|http://www.mywot.com/]] (WOT)'' - Traffic Light indicator of safe sites.|[[Firefox|http://netsquirrel.com/articles/ff_saved_passwords.html]]<br><br>[[Internet Explorer|http://www.howtogeek.com/68231/how-secure-are-your-saved-internet-explorer-passwords/]]<br><br>[[Chrome|http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9241508/Chrome_s_password_security_insanity_can_be_cured]]<br><br>[[Opera|http://www.threattracksecurity.com/it-blog/browser-password-storage-an-overview/]]<br><br>[[BitDefender Safepay|http://www.bitdefender.co.uk/solutions/safepay.html]]|
}}}
!14. History of the Internet
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;This is a collection of sites concerning the History, Use and Future of the Internet. Care must be taken to distinguish between "The Internet" and the "World Wide Web" which is just part of the former. <br><br>In addition to the WWW, the Internet provides a number of services which enable computers to communicate and each uses a separate "Protocol" and "Port". Some of these protocols are SMTP, POP, IMAP (Email), FTP (File Transfer), HTTP (the WWW), Telnet (Remote Connection), IRC (Internet Relay Chat), VoIC (Voice), Trojans, etc..<br><br>The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his "Galactic Network" concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today.<br><br>''Sir Tim ~Berners-Lee''<br>In 1980, while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, he first described the concept of a global system, based on the concept of 'hypertext', that would allow researchers anywhere to share information. He also built a prototype called 'Enquire'.<br><br>In 1994, Berners Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium at the Laboratory of Computer Science (LCS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston. He has served as director of the consortium since then. He also works as a senior research scientist at LCS which has now become the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.|<br>[[Internet Knowledgebase|http://www.livinginternet.com/i/i.htm]]<br><br>[[Internet Protocols|http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level_Computing/AQA/Computer_Components,_The_Stored_Program_Concept_and_the_Internet/Structure_of_the_Internet/Protocols#Common_Standard_Protocols]]<br><br>[[Internet Services|http://www.informatics.buzdo.com/p914-internet-services.htm]]<br><br>[[Annual Web Index|http://thewebindex.org/]]<br><br>[[Web Report|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-30432487]]<br><br>[[Brief History|http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet]]<br><br>[[Internet Origin|http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/origins.html]]<br><br>[[What is it?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XE_FPEFpHt4]]<br><br>[[Sir Tim Berners-Lee|http://webfoundation.org/about/sir-tim-berners-lee/]]<br><br>[[Artificial Intelligence|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/31047780]]<br><br>[[AI in depth|http://www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/pages/reference%20articles/what%20is%20ai.html]]|
}}}


-------
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Here are some examples offering the opportunity to build your own PC starting from bare-bones and customising. This is a feasable DIY task if you are after high performance at reduced cost and enjoy "Meccano". Build your own will give you a high performance quality computer at 50% the cost of an equivalent specification Windows PC and 25% the cost of an Apple Mac. You will need to add a monitor but your HDTV offers an excellent solution.<br><br>''1. Intel NUC ~D54250WYX'' - comes with a processor but no memory, storage, ~WiFi or operating system. You add these yourself to suit your needs.You would end up with a high performance PC costing £480 which would otherwise cost £650 for the same performance. A monitor is not included in this calculation.<br><br>''2 CCL Alpha ~XM-2 Mini PC'' - This British built unit comes with memory, storage, operating system and ~WiFi included but customizable. Your spec could be:<br>Intel Core i3-3227U Processor<br>Kingston 8GB ~DDR3 1333MHz SODIMM (1x8GB)<br>Plextor ~PX-128M5M 128GB mSATA SSD<br>Gigabyte Brix Ultra Compact PC ~GB-XM12 (i3-3227U/1 x mSATA/2 x ~SO-DIMM ~DDR3/~WiFi)<br>3 Year Collect & Return warranty<br>Panda Internet Security 2013 - License<br>This would total £505 to which you may need to add a monitor and extra external storage.<br><br>''3. Zotac Range ~ZBox'' This is a huge range of quality barebones mini ~PCs, with a choice of CPU, some of which are available through Amazon. Installing RAM, an SSD and Operating System is very simple and offers the opportunity to make a customised mini PC to add to a monitor.<br>Here are two models to consider:-<br>(a) ZOTAC ZBOX ~CI320 NANO Barebone Intel Celeron N2930 with 500GB SSD and 8GB RAM for £265.<br>(b) ZOTAC ZBOX ~IQ01 Barebone Intel Core i7-4770T (quad core, 2.5 ~GHz up to 3.7 ~GHz) with 500GB SSD and 16GB RAM for £644. Import from USA through Amazon.com may save a further 10%.<br><br>4. ''Installing an Operating System.'' This is straightforward and done before adding the provided device drivers. However, see the link concerning the difference between an OEM and retail version of OS.<br><br>''5. Sequence of Build.''<br>1. Insert RAM and harddrives. Attach USB cables, attach monitor and DVD drive. Check power.<br>2. Enter BIOS and check which boot drive is selected.<br>3. Install Windows 7 with correct Licence Key. Individually install drivers from manufacturer's disk.<br>4. Validate Windows. <br>5. Download and install Windows 10.<br>6. Setup and customise Window's preferences if not done in Windows 7.<br>7. Install additional drives. Manage Computer Disks to partition and create D: drive for mass storage.<br>8. Make system image on D: drive and recovery disk/ flash drive<br>''Time:'' Item 1 - Half an hour, Item3 - 2 hours, Item 5 - 3 to 5 hours depending on broadband speed.|<br>[[TechRadar|http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/the-best-and-worst-things-about-building-your-own-pc-1082523]]<br><br>[[More Computers|http://www.morecomputers.com/extra.aspx?pn=BOXD54250WYK3&referer=Froogle1&gclid=CImJje3z87sCFWbLtAodAV8ASw]]<br><br>[[Review|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/barebones/1304788/intel-nuc-kit-d54250wyk]]<br><br>[[CCL MX-3|http://www.cclonline.com/product/114468/NoMfgCode/All-CCL-Desktops/CCL-Alpha-XM-3-Mini-PC/CCL-ALP-XM3/]]<br><br>[[CCL MX-2|http://www.cclonline.com/page/customise/CCL-ALP-XM2/]]<br><br>[[CCL Products|http://www.cclonline.com/article/1570/Preview/cclonline/CCL-s-First-New-PC-of-2014/]]<br><br>[[Ebuyer Choice|http://www.ebuyer.com/store/Components/cat/Barebones]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Zotac|https://www.zotac.com/gb/product/mini_pcs/iq01#spec]]<br><br>[[ZBox Review|http://www.stuff.tv/zbox-iq01-plus/review]]<br><br>[[ZBox at Amazon|http://www.amazon.co.uk/s/ref=nb_sb_ss_i_1_15?url=search-alias%3Dcomputers&field-keywords=zotac+zbox+nano&sprefix=zotac+zbox+nano%2Ccomputers%2C332]]<br><br>[[Differencr OEM Retail|http://www.howtogeek.com/198358/whats-the-difference-between-the-system-builder-and-full-version-editions-of-windows/]]<br><br>[[Build Your Own PC|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lPIXAtNGGCw]]<br><br>[[CPU Comparison|http://anishbkumar.blogspot.co.uk/2012_05_01_archive.html]]|
}}}
----
 <br><br>
!!1. Overview
{{twocolumns{
An AIO is an ''~All-in-One PC'' which is like a desktop monitor with the computer included. It is a very large tablet. It comes with a wireless keyboard and mouse and has the advantages of a larger screen than a laptop, is mobile round the house, is more compact than a desktop and compatible with living room use rather than office. ''A laptop'' is very mobile and essential if you want to take your computer out of the house frequently. It is convenient for living room use.<br>''A Netbook'' is a small laptop without a CD/DVD Drive. Desktops for domestic use are now less fashionable. [[''The tablet offers greater mobility''|Tablets]], is designed for  apps and has limited utility. Alternatively, you could always [[BuildYourOwn]] computer and achieve high performance and value for money, or [[upgrade|UpgradeYourPC]] your current machine. 
}}}
''In brief,'' a useful sequence to follow when researching is: (1) ~PriceRunner, (2) Use expert reviews, [[TechRadar|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/pc-mac-desktops]], [[Expert|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/pcs]] and [[Trusted|http://www.trustedreviews.com/laptops]] Reviews.(3) Manufacturer's website spec and features, (4) Price comparison taking into account delivery, warranty and other services.
''In reality'', as buyers, we have two choices, to buy intuitively, which means submit slavishly to marketing pressure and fashion, or to research thoroughly and impassionately to match our genuine need with value for money. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[TED - Making Bad Decisions|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-4flnuxNV4]]
!!2. Rough Guide to PC Specification
The guide below outlines a middle of the road machine with hints to those wishing to go up-market and a warning that "budget" ~PCs are priced as such because they lack one or more important elements of specification that offers a good computer experience.<br>
+++[For PC Specification Guide, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
<br>
''CPU'' - There are four grades of CPU to consider. Assuming you choose an Intel chip,. Celeron and Pentium chips are "entry level" and found in cheaper machines, while Core i3, Core i5 and Core i7 are progressively more powerful each adding successively £75-£100 to the price. Go for i3 for everyday email, surfing and word processing. Go for i5 if you are looking for a multimedia machine. and only spend on i7 if you want very fast graphics for games in which there are rapidly moving images.
&nbsp;
''CPU speed'' - 2.3GHz is adequate
&nbsp;
''RAM'' is important. RAM is the working space in which programs run. Too little slows the machine. Minimum 2GBytes, 4GBytes is better and 6 or 8 very nice but not essential for most users. W8 uses less RAM than Vista or W7 and so, on an old machine, allows the machine to run faster.
&nbsp;
''Windows 8.1'' has all of W7 and much more. It is a better experience than W7. Ignor the doubting Thomases who bought W7 just before W8 was launched or later to get a bargain. You can upgrade an old XP or Vista machine for less than £40 and it will be revitalized and run faster. You might need to add £30 worth of RAM to make it even better. Windows 10 is a worthwhile ''free'' upgrade if you buy with Windows 7 or 8.1 installed, so no worries if you are offered the latter.
&nbsp;
''Screen Size.'' This is a diagonal measure of the screen in inches.
&nbsp;
''Screen Resolution.'' This needs careful study depending on your eyesight. Essentially a high resolution screen, HD,( 1920 × 1080 pixels) on a small screen size squeezes a lot of data into a small space and can be difficult to see as you get older. The AIO is a solution.
&nbsp;
''Touch Screen'' - Nice but not essential for W8. Adds £200 to the cost.
&nbsp;
''Hard disk'' - Most are reliable these days. A size of 500GB is adequate. Double this you will rarely fill and 2 ~TeraBytes is a an additional cost necessary only if you are storing films on disk. 250 GB or less is budget and may lead to slow processing because of the lack of unused space on the hard disk which is used for temporary storage of  pages.
&nbsp;
''Wifi'' - look for 802.11 b/g/n. Anything better needs to match your modem/router to get value for the extra cost/speed.
&nbsp;
''Check for'' speaker quality, built in Bluetooth, the number of USB 2.0, USB 3.0, (VGA), HDMI ports, SD card slots, webcam (about 5Mpixels).
&nbsp;
''Above all - use review sites such as ~ExpertReview, ~TechRadar, ~TrustedReview and CNET.'' Compare prices between Amazon and other suppliers, carefully using the FULL model number obtained from the manufacturer's site. An item OMITTED from a specification should initiate a double check on your value-for-price decision.
===
<br>
''Product comparison'' - price and specification.
Price comparison is only of value if like products are compared. Imagine, for the sake of comparison, you are researching the purchase of an Asus AIO computer, and have decided on the 22" model, apparently,  Asus ~ET2220IUTI. [[This slide demonstrates|Topic%20Slides/Web08%20Shopping%20ASUS%20Model.jpg]] the variation in price you will find for this model. None is trying to pull the wool over your eyes; this would be achieved by the omission of detail in the specification. In this illustration the secret is in the model number extension, "B0**K". [[This slide shows|Topic%20Slides/Web08a%20Shopping%20AOI2.JPG]] how much price variation there can be for the same model, all "~B010K", with identical spec on the same site. They rarely come up on the same search and you have to watch prices daily. If "there are only 15 left", they may go up! Other factors, such as delivery cost and speed, bundled software, warranty, condition and minor omitted detail of component version, may affect the offer price.
&nbsp;&nbsp;
[[''Price Comparison'' sites|http://www.pricelocator.co.uk/compare/computers]] don't take this detailed comparison into account and their results are only an initial guide. Some retailers may be omitted unless they pay for inclusion. Omission of spec detail is rife on the Internet in an attempt to offer a competitive price. 
&nbsp;
The site, ''[[PriceRunner|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/ba/224/Tablets-buying-advice]]'' is invaluable for price and specification guidance on buying laptops, ~AIOs, mobile phones, tablets, etc.  Price Runner has a very useful [[side by side short-list comparison feature|Topic Slides/Tablet Comparison.jpg]].  Also [[dealo|http://www.idealo.co.uk/compare/3964775/asus-et2220iuti-b010k.html]] and [[Kelkoo|http://www.kelkoo.co.uk/kss-asus-et2220iuti.html]] are worth including in your research.&nbsp;
These links might be useful - [[Price Checker|http://www.pcchecker.co.uk/laptops/]] - [[Computer Shopper|http://www.computershopper.com/]] and [[Buying Guide|http://www.cclonline.com/article/352/Buying-Guide/All-CCL-Desktops/Computer-Buying-Guide-A-System-Hardware-Breakdown/]] - and perhaps - [[Hot Deals|http://www.hotukdeals.com/computers/deals/hot]]

!!3. Tablets
The same principles apply when you are choosing the best tablet. Some alternative operating systems used for tablets are: Apple iOS, Android, Windows 8 and [[Amazon Fire OS|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Kindle-Fire-HD-Display-Wi-Fi/dp/B00CTVTJ4Q]]. This is a personal choice but affects price, Apple being up to 40% more. Use the filters in [[Price Runner|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/cl/224/Tablets]] and [[TechRadar|http://www.techradar.com/news/mobile-computing/tablets]], [[Expert|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/tablet-pcs]] and [[Trusted|http://www.trustedreviews.com/tablets]] Reviews.
!!4 Other Operating Systems
Microsoft Windows is not the only operating system to consider. The future may be trail-blazed, for example, by [[Chrome OS|http://www.networkworld.com/news/2009/111909-best-and-worst-features-of-chrome-os-googlesubnet.html]] from Google wich offers a fast booting, inexpensive cloud based system. [[Linux based operating systems|http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2009/06/top-5-best-linux-os-distributions/]] are another alternative as, of course, is the more expensive, [[less cross-platform but polished, Apple iOS.|http://www.businessinsider.com/the-9-most-important-differences-between-macs-and-pcs-2012-8?op=1&IR=T]]
!!5. Buying Almost New
Some of the best deals are found by considering a refurbished Desktop or Laptop from a reputable source. Thes sources are the manufacturer or a company that specialises in refurbished, not second-hand hardware. See [[Dell|http://outlet.euro.dell.com/Online/InventorySearch.aspx?brandId=7&c=uk&cs=ukdfh1&l=en&s=dfh]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[LaptopsDirect|http://www.laptopsdirect.co.uk/st/refurbished-laptops]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[RefurbishedLaptopsDirect|http://www.refurbishedlaptopsdirect.co.uk/]]
!!6. In Summary
A middle of the road laptop should cost between £375 and £499. A "budget" laptop with items falling below the above guide can be obtained for £250 and £350. Above £600 gives a very good computer experience. ''You should not need to spend over £800 for an excellent home machine, but buy as much RAM and, secondly, CPU speed as you can afford.'' Apple products carry a 40% to 100% cost premium above Microsoft products for the same performance with less compatibility with peripherals. Their finish and feel is often superior. Interestingly, the 16GB iPhone 5S selling at £549 costs only £123 to make. If you are prepared to venture into the world of Cloud Computing, then consider the [[ChromeBook|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/laptops-portable-pcs/laptops-and-netbooks/samsung-chromebook-1111354/review/4#articleContent]] at £299.
''Check out the Toshiba Satellite ~C50-A-156 at c£349, the Asus ~X555LA-XX273H at c£399, Asus ~X552CL at £349 and Microsoft's new [[Surface Pro 3|http://www.johnlewis.com/microsoft-surface-pro-3-intel-core-i3-4gb-ram-windows-8-1-pro-12-64gb-wi-fi-silver/p1655157?kpid=233928796&s_kenid=3908faca-3e78-6969-2b05-000064b89332&s_kwcid=402x33637&tmad=c&tmcampid=73&kpid=233928796]] at £639.''
Consider a mini PC @£129 running W10 that you link to a TV monitor with HTMI cable and attach a wireless mouse and keyboard, eg [[Modecom FreePC|http://www.modecom.eu/freepc/mini_pc1/product/]]<br>
Buying online often saves up to 20% of cost and is more reliable because a company's reputation is more harshly tested by their customers. [[Online buying|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/0/22728224]] is now [[very secure|http://www.getsafeonline.org/shopping-banking/shopping1/]] provided you use reputable companies. Look for deals with Windows 7 installed and upgrade to W10 in autumn 2015.
&nbsp;
Think twice before paying as much to have your new machine to be "set-up" as the machine costs in the first place, by a local retailer. These offers are a scam and provide no more than you [[could achieve yourself|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/windows-and-office/10-things-you-should-still-do-to-every-windows-pc/4681/]] in an hour, and are being charged at a rate of as much as £300/hour. All new products now have set-up wizards into which you need only to enter personal data and preferences. There is plenty of free help available in ~U3A, through Google search and in [[on-line articles|http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/tech/how-buy-new-computer?page=all]]. [[Transferring files|http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/tech-tips-and-tricks/how-to-transfer-files-to-a-new-computer.html]] to your new computer.

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&nbsp;
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
 
<br><br><br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:48em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>From the links on this page you will be able to build up an understanding of "The Cloud"</strong><br><br>A <strong>Server</strong> is a computer on a network, such as the Internet, that distributes information to other PCs (<strong>the clients</strong>). It is specially designed to store large amounts of data and systems, perhaps without a Graphical Computer Interface (GCI), the front-end familiar in a PC.<br><br>In the future, no longer will we have computers with complex operating systems and software resident on our hard drives, with the associated <strong>capital outlay</strong>. Instead we will employ simple light terminals,<a href="http://www.pcworld.com/article/2047076/the-pc-monitor-is-dead-meet-the-new-smart-monitor.html" target="_blank"> <u>smart monitors</u></a>, whose client function is merely to access the Internet and so the services available <strong>in the cloud for a fee</strong>.<br><br><strong>Because "The Cloud" is just another name for services on the Internet</strong>, it is accessed on a Web Browser, just like a web page. Sometime the service provider installs a folder on your computer for easy access, e.g. DropBox or One Drive. Sometimes the services for storage or utilities are free up to a given useage level after which a charge is made. All this is made clear when you set up the account.</p></html>|<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[What is the Cloud|http://mashable.com/2013/08/26/what-is-the-cloud/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Try DropBox|https://www.dropbox.com/downloading]]<br><br>[[Word Online|https://office.live.com/start/Word.aspx?omkt=en-GB#]]|
}}}
!''Put in perspective''. 
''The Cloud'' is a collective noun for a number of cloud services, already well over the horizon, but when fully overhead, will revolutionise our use of computers. It is a service provided over the Internet and resident on very large servers often in jurisdictions outside that of the user.  We will still need to learn to use these services but the concern for malware protection, software version upgrading, program compatibility and hardware malfunction will be very much in the hands of the service provider. There will be concern for [[privacy|http://www.techradar.com/news/internet/data-privacy-how-safe-is-your-data-in-the-cloud--1170332]], [[commercial security|http://www.computerweekly.com/news/2240089111/Top-five-cloud-computing-security-issues]], [[reliability|http://arstechnica.com/business/2009/07/cloud-computing-promise-still-stormy-with-reliability-issues/]] and __broadband speed__, which we will grow to accept with improvement. Using Cloud services is simply using someone else's computer hard drive,  or ''server'' to provide the computing, storage and syncing functions. These functions are available from any location. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Services for consumers|http://cloud-services-review.toptenreviews.com/confused-about-the-cloud-deciphering-cloud-services-for-consumers.html]]
!''Cloud Service Providers''
There are hundreds of Cloud Service Providers. This [[list|http://www.cloudpro.co.uk/providers]] makes the point. There are [[three types of Cloud services|http://www.securityweek.com/three-categories-cloud-computing-whats-your-flavor]] but, as consumers, we are interested only in the [["Software as a Service''|http://www.techradar.com/news/internet/best-cloud-storage-dropbox-vs-skydrive-vs-google-drive-vs-icloud-1120024]] (~SaaS) one. [[Here is a brief explanation.|http://www.cio.com/article/501814/Cloud_Computing_Definitions_and_Solutions]]
!Cloud Services
There are [[three types of Cloud services|http://www.rackspace.com/knowledge_center/whitepaper/understanding-the-cloud-computing-stack-saas-paas-iaas]]. As consumers we are aware of only the first, the type that offers storage and utilities.

|centered|k
| ''Type'' | ''Software'' | ''Infrastructure'' | ''Platform'' |
| ''Known as'' | [[SaaS|http://www.comparethecloud.net/cloud-computing/software-as-a-service/]] | [[IaaS|http://www.clouds360.com/iaas.php]] | [[PaaS|http://www.comparethecloud.net/cloud-computing/platform-as-a-service/]] |
| ''Service'' | ''Applications for End-users'' | Servers, storage, networks, operating systems | Tools and services  for Developers |
| ''Examples'' |Google Docs, Microsoft Office 365, and Salesforce| Amazon ~EC2 and Rackspace Cloud Hosting | Windows Azure |

[[Demystifying the three types|http://www.skytap.com/blog/demystifying-saas-paas-and-iaas]]. In reality the boundries between the three types are hazy. with many providers offering a [[wide variety of service types|http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/hh509051.aspx]].
!Some Cloud Storage Providers
All providers [[offering storage|http://www.zdnet.com/the-top-10-personal-cloud-storage-services-7000011729/]], offer additional services, but these providers are known principally for [[Storage.|http://webtrends.about.com/od/office20/tp/Free-Cloud-Storage-Providers-Services.htm]]

|centered|k
| ''Provider'' | ''Name'' | ''Service'' |
|Dropbox| [[DropBox|https://www.dropbox.com/help]] | Storage & Desktop Clients |
|Microsoft | [[OneDrive|https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-gb/support/]] | Storage & Desktop Clients |
|Google | [[Drive|https://support.google.com/drive/?hl=en#topic=14940]] | Storage & Desktop Clients |
|Apple | [[iCloud|https://www.apple.com/uk/support/ipad/icloud-itunes/]] | Storage & online music and wireless services |
|Amazon | [[Cloud Drive|http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=hp_short_clouddrive?nodeId=200896440]] | Storage & Desktop Clients |
<br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Choice comparison|http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/onedrive-dropbox-google-drive-and-box-which-cloud-storage-service-is-right-for-you/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[More Choice Comparison|http://www.alphr.com/dropbox/7034/onedrive-vs-google-drive-vs-dropbox-the-best-cloud-storage-service-of-2015]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Price Comparison|http://www.techradar.com/news/internet/which-cloud-services-are-right-for-you-1055614]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Price per GByte Chart|http://cdn.ghacks.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/cloud-hosting-price-comparison.jpg]]
!Some Cloud Computing Providers
These offer computing utilities or programs, and usually storage as well.

|centered|k
| ''Provider'' | ''Name'' | ''Service'' |
| Microsoft |Microsoft Azure|Virtual environment for Developers|
| Google |Google App Engine|Platform for Developers|
| Amazon |Amazon Web Services|Platform for Developers|
|Rackspace|Public Cloud|Databases and web hosting|
|Salesforce.com|Force.com|Sales & marketing Services|

!Some End-user Cloud Services 
''[[Microsoft Office 365|http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/]]'', although "in the Clouds" is not a true Cloud Computing service because two users cannot use the same document at the same time. However it represents a major Office utility provider leading the way away from the client based MS Office 2010 and MS Office 2013 suites that we are familiar with at the moment.  [[Tutorials|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-OD5Lom-TU]]
''[[Google Docs|http://www.google.com/drive/apps.html]]''. You have access to Google's suite of Office utilities from the main page used for Google Search. 
To get started with Google Docs try this [[tutorial|http://edutech.msu.edu/online/googledocs/googledocs.html]]
''[[DropBox|https://www.dropbox.com/tour]]''   ~DropBox is both  [[SaaS and IaaS|http://www.techopedia.com/definition/26850/dropbox]]. The free file sharing service provided by ~DropBox is easy and safe to use for domestic purposes. Here is a [[Getting Started Tutorial.|http://www.slideshare.net/ceheit3/dropbox-tutorial-for-pc]]
''[[Apple iCloud|http://www.pcworld.com/article/237086/Apple_iCloud_What_it_is_and_What_it_Costs.html]].'' Apple is an example of a provider that is aiming to make all its services cloud based, providing inclusive syncing between all its hardware devies. Its [[philosophy contrasts|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/tech-sanity-check/apple-cloud-vs-google-cloud-the-philosophical-differences/8492/]] with Google. iCloud backup is used as an [[alternative to local iTunes backup|http://www.imobie.com/support/icloud-or-itunes-backup.htm]].
''[[Google Drive|https://tools.google.com/dlpage/drive/index.html]]'' An excellent free alternative Office Suite.. Drive's primary purpose is to let you store files online accessible on any device from anywhere. There are Apps for Android and iOS.
''[[Microsoft OneDrive|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-8/getting-started-onedrive-tutorial]]'' - Windows 10 is closely integrated with ~OneDrive and provides 1GB of free Cloud storage enabled with your Microsoft Account. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[OneDrive Security|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/onedrive/security]]

----------------------


<br><br><br>
!Some Cloud Storage Providers
All providers who [[offer storage|http://www.zdnet.com/the-top-10-personal-cloud-storage-services-7000011729/]], offer additional services, but these providers are known principally for their [[Storage.|http://webtrends.about.com/od/office20/tp/Free-Cloud-Storage-Providers-Services.htm]]. Those listed are '' free personal storage'' providers. There are many others providing a commercial service. See the [[Cloud]] page for a full summary of The Cloud.

~ZDNet writes, "So which is the best?  I use all of them, but when it comes to the bread and butter work of cloud file serving, Dropbox is still the best of the best."

The table below shows ''Features'' and ''How to Use'' for each provider listed. 

|centered|k
| ''Provider'' | ''Name'' |  ''Service'' | Location | ''Features'' | ''Learn'' |
|Dropbox Inc.| [[DropBox|https://www.dropbox.com/help]] | Storage & Desktop Clients | USA | [[What is offered|https://www.dropbox.com/tour/0]] | [[How you use it|https://www.dropbox.com/help/4/en]] |
|Microsoft Corp. | [[OneDrive|https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-gb/support/]] | Storage & Desktop Clients | USA | [[How it Works|https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-gb/support/]] | [[Help|https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-gb/support/]] |
|Google Inc. | [[Drive|https://support.google.com/drive/?hl=en#topic=14940]] | Storage & Desktop Clients | USA | [[Features|https://support.google.com/drive/topic/2375005?hl=en&ref_topic=14940]] | [[Help Center|https://support.google.com/drive/?hl=en#]] |
|Apple Inc. | [[iCloud|https://www.apple.com/uk/support/ipad/icloud-itunes/]] | Storage & online music and wireless services | USA | [[iCloud Features|https://www.apple.com/uk/support/systemstatus/]] | [[FAQ|http://support.apple.com/kb/HT4436]] |
|Amazon Media EU | [[Cloud Drive|http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=hp_short_clouddrive?nodeId=200896440]] | Storage & Desktop Clients | USA | [[Features|http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=hp_cld_200896480_feat?nodeId=200896480#features]] | [[How to|http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=hp_cld_200896460_updw?nodeId=200896460]] |
|Box Inc. | [[Box|https://www.box.com/en_GB/home/]] | Storage | UK | [[Features|https://www.box.com/en_GB/personal/store-files-online/]] | [[Tutorial|http://www.grovo.com/box]] |
|Mediafire.com | [[Mediafire|http://mediafire.com/]] | Storage | USA | [[Features|http://www.mediafire.com/]] | [[Help|http://www.mediafire.com/help/help_with_desktop.php]] |
|Bitcassa Corp | [[Bitcasa|https://www.bitcasa.com/]] | Storage | USA | [[Features|https://www.bitcasa.com/features]] | [[Help Center|https://support.bitcasa.com/hc/en-us/categories/200135458]] |
<br>
|centered|k
|[[Choice comparison|http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/onedrive-dropbox-google-drive-and-box-which-cloud-storage-service-is-right-for-you/]] | [[Price Comparison|http://www.techradar.com/news/internet/which-cloud-services-are-right-for-you-1055614]] | [[Price per GByte Chart|http://time.com/25107/chart-cloud-storage-services-compared/]] | [[Top 10 Providers|http://www.zdnet.com/the-top-10-personal-cloud-storage-services-7000011729/]] | [[Security of Data|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing/cloud-storage3.htm]] |

!Terms of Use
Most Terms of Use contain words like this. The legal obligations you enter into when uploading your data are subject to the legal provisions of the country of storage and the country of copyright.:- <br>
"When you upload text, software, scripts, graphics, photos, sounds, music, videos, audiovisual combinations, interactive features and other materials that may be viewed on, or accessed through the Services, we refer to it as “Content”. You affirm, represent, and warrant that you own or have the necessary licenses, rights, consents, and permissions to store, share or distribute the Content.

You retain all of your ownership rights in your Content. We don’t claim any ownership in or to any of your Content."

''Security.'' Most providers reassure you that no one can see your data unless you positively or inadvertantly share it with a link to a third party. Commercial users question security because there is no guarantee that the storage providers themselves will not view the data unless encrypted. This need not be a concern for personal non-sensitive data. Most providers give security advice - here is [[OneDrive's|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/onedrive/security]] and [[DropBox's|https://www.dropbox.com/help/363/en]].
----


 
 
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
!!Introduction
|width:45em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The topic of communication is extensive.</strong> With it's origin partly in cave drawing and the lacemaking and weaving industry, the technology has been hijacked into a massive "ology", protected in mystery by the three letter acronym "ICT", while it is really a set of skills learnt in the nursery of nearly every animal in the kingdom and honed in human culture through education and practice. Studying the subject makes us aware of the elements of these innate skills and the technology enables us to extend our messages throughout space and time in our modern world. Whether you are broadcasting, listening to a message or networking, it is essential to know the elements of the process and to understand that communication is a <u> two way process.</u> The topic then, divides itself into the matter of human communication skills and the technical process of communication from the computing point of view.<br><br>The eight elements are:<br><strong>Source, Message, Channel, Receiver, Feedback, Environment, Context and Interference.</strong> These are very well explained in the link ''What is Communication''.<br><br>This link offers a brief <a href="http://www.creativedisplaysnow.com/articles/history-of-communication-from-cave-drawings-to-the-web/" target="_blank"><u>History of Communication</u></a></html>|[[Summary of Videos on Communication Page]]<br><br>&nbsp; <html><img alt="" src="Files/CommsModel.jpg" style="height:150px; width: 290px" /></html><br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[What is communication|http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/15?e=mclean-ch01_s02#mclean-ch01_s02]]<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Animal Communication|http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/an-introduction-to-animal-communication-23648715]]<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Language Acquisition|http://www.eslbase.com/articles/language-acquisition]]<br><br>[[What is Information|https://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~jcgl/Scots_Guide/iandm/part1/page1.html]] &nbsp; [[Where does it come from?|https://francoistremblay.wordpress.com/2010/09/21/where-did-the-information-come-from/]]<br><br>[[Does Information require an originator?|https://answersingenesis.org/genetics/information-theory/information-science-and-biology/]] &nbsp; [[DNA|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_mjG_txTHec&t=36s]]<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Information Theory|https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/informationtheory]]<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[What is a Meme?|https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-a-meme-2483702]]|
}}}
!!Human Communication Skills
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Channels. </strong>All the elements above require various skills for effective communication. Spoken channels include face-to-face conversations and speeches. Once one adds telephone conversations and voice mail messages, radio, public address systems, and voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) one encroaches on the fields of technology. Written channels include letters, memorandums, purchase orders, invoices, newspaper and magazine articles, blogs, e-mail, text messages, tweets, and so forth. Again once we progress from the Dickensian quill to the fountain pen, through Alfred Lord Tennyson's noisy recording of his "Charge of The Light Brigade" to the DAB radio and messages from Rosetta and beyond, technology is involved in man's endeavour to overcome the limitations of space and time.</html>|<br>[[Personal Communication|http://aventalearning.com/content168staging/2007LifeSkills/unit5/html/section_2_page_1.html]]<br><br>[[Practical Skills|http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/elearning/communicationskills/index.asp]]<br><br>[[Interpersonal Skills|http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/interpersonal-communication.html]]<br><br>[[Giving a Talk|http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jrs/speaking.html]]|
}}}
!!The Technology
{{invisibletable{
|width:48em;<html><p align="justify">Of the elements above, if we exclude entirely robotic communication, the technology is concerned essentially with the <strong>channel of communication, </strong> through which the message and the feedback are transmitted and noise minimised. <br><br>The technology concerns three main types of system:<br><strong>1. Information Systems.</strong> This type of ICT system is focused on managing data and information. Examples of these might be a club membership system or a supermarket stock system.&nbsp; &nbsp; See <strong><a href="Worksheet.html#BasicMSOffice">BasicMSOffice</a></strong><br><strong>2. Control systems.</strong> These ICT systems mainly control machines. They use input, process and output, but the output may be moving a robot arm to weld a car chassis rather than information, and involve the science of Dynamics.&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See "Principles of Control" in <strong><a href="Worksheet.html#Synergy">Synergy</a></strong><br><strong>3. Communications systems.</strong> The output of these ICT systems is the successful transport of data from one place to another. &nbsp; &nbsp; See <strong><a href="Worksheet.html#MeetingSystems" />MeetingSystems</a></strong><br><br>It is the first and last of these that concern us here.<br><br><strong>Remember, data doesn't have meaning or create meaning.</strong> Only people can give it meaning; and different people can give it different meanings. That is why personal skills, ethics and morals come into the picture.<br><br><strong>The Computer and the Brain</strong> The links concerning the brain are selected for their overview, clairity of diagrams and explanation, and relevance to the link between neuroscience and computer science. They will require your patience to view at least once and your willingness to perhaps repeat view to understand unfamiliar jargon. They touch on the facinating topic of consciousness from both the philosophical and the scientific direction. This subject encompasses our communication with other brains, within our own brain, with our computer as operator and with the wider world outside ourselves, as well as <a href="http://www.kurzweilai.net/discovery-of-quantum-vibrations-in-microtubules-inside-brain-neurons-corroborates-controversial-20-year-old-theory-of-consciousness" target="_blank"><b><u>microtubules.</u></b></a><br>  &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cz-3WDdqbj0" target="_blank"><b><u>Recent Brain Research</u></b></a>&nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vso9jgfpI_c" target="_blank"><b><u>Long Term Memory</u></b></a> &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRVrvpJOztw" target="_blank"><b><u>The Aging Brain</u></b></a> &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z41BTeAU7DI" target="_blank"><u><b> Plasticity</u></b></a><br><br>''So, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evQsOFQju08" target="-blank"><strong>is your red the same as my red?</strong>"</a><br><br><iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/evQsOFQju08" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> &nbsp; <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/Vsauce/videos" target="_blank"><u>Vsauce Channel</u></a><br><br>AND, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5my9udw5_H4" target="_blank"><strong>is your time the same as my time?</strong></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4c1lqFXHvqI" target="_blank"><strong>New Senses</strong></a><br><br><u>We do not store </u>the stream of online data entering the <strong>brain</strong> from the senses. We use it to create and refresh a model of what we think the world looks like, then discard the data. (Get the picture?!) We use the model that we store in memory to make comparisons, see differences, make deductions and guess the future (<strong>our mind</strong>). Our skillfulness at doing this is described as <strong>intelligence</strong>. Our awareness of doing this is called <strong>consciousness'</strong>. Descartes - "I think, therefore I am."<br><br><u>The mammalian brain</u> uses <a href="http://gotocon.com/dl/goto-aar-2013/slides/JeffHawkins_ComputingLikeTheBrainThePathToMachineIntelligence.pdf" target="_blank"><strong>Sparse Distributed Representation</strong></a><a href=" http://www.cortical.io/static/downloads/semantic-folding-theory-white-paper.pdf" target="_blank">(SDR)</a> unlike silicon computers which arbitrarily assign meaning to bytes and process serially. In the mammalian brain the bytes hold the <u>actual</u> information and process data in parallel - all the time we stay "online" (live) or do not suffer "noise" (dementia, eg <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjgBnx1jVIU" target="_blank"><strong>Alzheimer's</strong></a>) or "chemical interference" <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4scfgPVT0MY" target="_blank"><strong>(Anesthesia)</strong></a>.</html>|[[Robotic Communication|http://www.swarmrobot.org/Communication.html]]<br><br>[[Communication Channels|http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/5?e=carpenter-ch12_s04]]<br><br>[[Communication Channels|http://homepages.wmich.edu/~bowman/channels.html]]<br><br>[[Information Systems|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_system]]<br><br>[[Control Systems|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-OqgFE9SD4]]<br><br>[[Communication Systems|http://managementstudyguide.com/different-types-of-communication-system.htm]]<br><br>[[TED - Big Data|http://www.ted.com/talks/susan_etlinger_what_do_we_do_with_all_this_big_data?language=en]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Neuroscience|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_ZTNmkIiBc]]<br><br>[[Consciousness - TED1|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjbWr3ODbAo&index=3&list=PL97795F5F212C4BD2]] &nbsp; [[TED2|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWOC29YitGQ]]<br><br>[[Quantum Consciousness|https://medium.com/the-physics-arxiv-blog/why-physicists-are-saying-consciousness-is-a-state-of-matter-like-a-solid-a-liquid-or-a-gas-5e7ed624986d]] &nbsp; [[TED3|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpUVot-4GPM]]<br><br>[[Brain Structure and Function|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enSy28rBIIM]]<br><br>[[The Brain-Top to Bottom|http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/avance.php]]<br><br>[[Differences Brain vs Computer|http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/27/why-the-brain-is-not-like-a-co/]]<br><br>[[Our Sense of Self|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMrzdk_YnYY]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Explored|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWfRWdeuPb4]]<br><br>[[Quantum Mind|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEpUIcOodnM]] &nbsp; [[Quantum Measurement|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdqC2bVLesQ]]<br><br>[[Schrodinger's Cat|http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Schrodingers-cat]] &nbsp; [[QuantumMechanics]]<br><br><html><span><textarea rows="11" cols="31" readOnly>The video to the left is one of a series of videos in the YouTube Channel "Vsauce". Some may find Michael Steven's voice irritating but in defense (note the American spelling), the videos are amusing, informative, accurate in scientific detail and cover a wide variety of questions appealing to the curious. (Perhaps I should add, in my opinion!) </textarea></span></html><br><br>[[Colour Theory|http://99designs.com/designer-blog/2012/08/29/the-7-step-guide-to-understanding-color-theory/]]<br><br><br>''These videos introduce recent progress in different areas of neuroscience:''<br><br>[[Mental Health|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lx27gzXLDic]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Psychiactric Disorder|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8Bd_p8pbQI]]<br><br>[[at Behaviour Health Centre, California|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d2a6lekGkgQ]]<br><br>[[Neuroscience at the Centre of Drugs Policy|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-d08KGYIE0]]<br><br>[[The Neuroscience of Learning and Memory|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cljtsv-CTBY]]|
}}} 
!!Communications Systems
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">Communication Systems are classified in different ways, by physical structure or by signal type.<br><br>Of the various Communication Systems, <strong>Digital Communication</strong> is the system that is used by <a href="http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html" target="_blank"><u>the Network</u></a> called <a href="http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/internet.htm" target="_blank"><u>the Internet</u>.</a> If you have the patience and an hour, the YouTube lecture on "The Introduction to Principes of Digital Communication Lec 1", given by MIT Prof. Robert Gallager, will give you a taste of the subject. You will need at hand, knowledge of the jargon words - Analogue, Digital, Encode, Algorithm, Quantify, Probability and Noise.<br>You may also enjoy an introduction to Probability, Algorithms and another link about Waveforms.<br><br>If you fancy distraction down another mathematical path, consider <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractal_art" target="_blank"><u>Fractal Art</u></a> and <a href="http://www.popmath.org.uk/rpamaths/rpampages/sunflower.html" target="_blank"><u>Flower Arrangements</u></a></html>|<br>[[Types of Comm. System|http://www.daenotes.com/electronics/communication-system/types-communication-systems]]<br><br>[[Digital Communication|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KXFF8m4uGDc]]<br><br>[[Probability|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9WZyLZCBzs]]&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Algorithms|Files/algorithmsandflowcharts1-1.pdf]]<br><br>[[Some Waveforms|http://public.wsu.edu/~jkrug/MUS364/audio/Waveforms.htm]]<br><br>[[EM Radiation|http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_pre_2011/wave_model/]]|
}}}
''The BBC is currently collaborating with tech company This Place, to develop a way people can select programmes on iPlayer using a cheap, brainwave-reading headset.'' <br>[[BBC TV Control|http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/internet/entries/cd1e4242-3dd2-4e48-8556-8a5ecec6b056]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Brain Computer Interface|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain%E2%80%93computer_interface]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Brainwave Starter Kit|http://store.neurosky.com/products/brainwave-starter-kit]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[On a lighter side|Files/CatEars.jpg]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[What are Brain Waves|http://hubpages.com/hub/What-are-Brain-Waves-Theta-Delta-Alpha-Beta-brain-waves-What-is-brainwave-entrainment]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Brainwave Management|http://www.brainworksneurotherapy.com/what-are-brainwaves]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[NeuroHealth|http://nhahealth.com/brainwaves-the-language/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The Future|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/tapping-brainwaves-will-brains-soon-hackable/]]<br><br> [[A multi-channel detector|http://www.transparentcorp.com/products/eeg/#neurosky]], combined with the appropriate software, [[is required for computer control|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTcvqCXesZw]], replacing the keyboard and mouse. [[Emotiv EPOC on TED Talks|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs2GDSYYCoA]]
!!''Personal Time Management''
{{invisibletable{
|width:5em;|width:75em;[[Tutorial|http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/fcs7/fcs7101/fcs7101.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Guide|http://www.time-management-guide.com/]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Basic Management Skills|http://www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/basic_management_skills.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Learning to Learn|https://www.msu.edu/course/cep/813/web/learningtolearnsoftware.htm]]&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Effective Learning|http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/tp/effective-learning.htm]] &nbsp; [[Lifeskills for Grandchildren|https://www.barclayslifeskills.com/]] <br><br>[[Life Skills|http://www.exforsys.com/career-center/life-skills.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The Brain's GPS|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130804144401.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Saving Time|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-30005279]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The Science of Persuasion|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Mindfulness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nwwKbM_vJc]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Your Creative Side|http://www.keepinspiring.me/10-brainstorming-techniques-tips-for-tapping-into-your-creative-side/]]|
}}}
----
QuantumMechanics

<br><br><br>

{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Using CONTROL PANEL is at the heart of good computer housekeeping and setting it up for easy use is worthwhile.</strong><br><br>By <a href="./Worksheet.html#Default"><strong><u>Default</u></strong></a> the Windows CONTROL PANEL is set to display its elements as "links", as a window with links to other tools. It is often difficult to find what you are looking for in this display. This form of display can be customised to <strong>"display as menu"</strong> giving a list in alphabetical order.<br><br>To customise the Control Panel, simply right click on the START globe and, in PROPERTIES, select CUSTOMISE. All the set up options are listed in a menu. Choose "display as menu" where appropriate.<br><br><strong>God Mode.</strong> God Mode is a collection of all Windows controls collected together in one quick alphabetical list. The list can be pinned to the start menu for easy access. To make this list, make a new folder on the desktop and enter as its name:   God Mode.{ED7BA470-8E54-465E-825C-99712043E01C}</html><br><br>''__Windows 10.__'' See the [[Windows10]] Setup page.<br> ''Control Panel.'' Over the years Control Panel, when presented as a link panel, has grown into a jumbled mess. The option to present Control Panel as a menu in the START has been dropped, so is no longer a solution. However, discover the ''[[combo dropdown menu|Files/ControlPanelMenu.jpg]]'' in File Manager when Control Panel is selected. Find "All Control Panel Items".<br>''Settings'' runs in parallel to Control Panel which Windows10 will eventually drop. Until then take your pick |<br>[[Customize CP in W7|http://www.tweakhound.com/tweaking-windows-7/3/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[How to get God Mode|http://www.askvg.com/truth-behind-hidden-secret-god-mode-found-in-windows-7/]]|
}}}
----
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;The slang name is "Crashing", the formal description is ''"Not Responding"''. Either term, your computer freezes. Usually it is the utility in use that freezes and a visit to [[Task Manager]] will get things started again, if your mouse or keyboard are unaffected.<br>The cause is often over consumption of available memory. See [[HouseKeeping]]. It may also be caused by a corupted file, out of date driver, incompatibility with your operating system or malware activity.<br><br>When a browser displays "Not Responding" in the title bar, it is most likely that you have too many tabs open using excessive memory.<br>If the cause of failure appears to be with Windows itself, go to CONTROL PANEL - TROUBLESHOOTING and chose the appropriate tool.<br><br>''Take a look at:''<br>1. Action Centre - the little flag icon in the System Tray area of the ~TaslBar<br>2. Reliability History - best found by a search with its name in the START search box. View Technical Detail reports.<br><br>''BSOD'' - [[Fixing Blue Screen of Death|http://www.thewindowsclub.com/blue-screen-death-windows-10]] - In a clean and healthy computer the BSOD is a rare error. The causes can be a Windows Update, a device driver update or a recently installed hardware. A crash in which the screen and mouse freeze may have similar causes but show no BSOD. You may alternatively see the illogical error message:- "PAGE_FAULT_IN_NONPAGED_AREA" and [[consider these solutions|http://www.online-tech-tips.com/computer-tips/page-fault-in-non-paged-area-error/]].|
}}}
!Action to take
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''If it happens frequently, investigate the cause, but sometimes the solution is simple, so before taking drastic action, work through these priorities:''<br><br>1. Attempt to close the utility. This will fail if it is not responding, so open TASK MANAGER by right clicking on the taskbar. Identify the utility, highlight and "END PROCESS". While there note how much memory it was using.<br>2. Reboot the computer. Windows is self healing and this often solves the problem.<br>3. Open and close the utility. Often an error message will give a clue or a self repair process will start.<br>4.. Save your data by backing up and uninstall the utility. Download and install a more recent version. If upgrade is available from the utility's menu, this will save uninstalling and saving data.<br>5. Go to "Programs and Features" in CONTROL PANEL, right click the utility and use REPAIR if available.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Help Session|TroubleShootSession]]|
}}}
!Causes
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;1. ''Memory'' See [[HouseKeeping]] para "Running Slowly - RAM"<br>2. ''Corrupted File'' - This is ususally mended by REPAIR or upgrading version<br>3. ''[[Drivers]]'' are best updated in DEVICE MANAGER or from the manufacturer's suport page. &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[Further Setup|Setting Up##Further]].<br>4. ''Incompatible with OS'' - Go to START - PROGRAMS - right click the utility - PROPERTIES - run COMPATIBILITY TROUBLESHOOTER, but always check manufacturers site for advice on comparibility with your OS.<br>5. ''Malware'' - [[See Security|Security##AntiVirus]]|<br><br>[[Drivers|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/update-drivers-recommended-links#update-drivers-recommended-links=windows-vista]]|
}}}
----
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Cut, or Copy, and Paste is the  universal means of transferring text, links and images from page to page or program to program. The best way to hone this skill is to watch a video  - then practice highlighting and copy text, links and images on a blank page. Also, here are the steps you take for each operation in a [[tutorial|http://www.baycongroup.com/windows_xp/04_windows_xp.htm]].<br><br>Once you have mastered the skill of Copy, Cut & Paste and can use it with confidence, you may be interested in the facility to copy & Paste ''between devices''. [[PushBullet|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/reviews/google-android/3425661/pushbullet-review/]] is a free mobile app and PC browser add-on that aims to simplify the sharing of data between desktop and mobile computers. It offers a simpler process than sharing through email or ~DropBox.<br><br>Drag & Drop with the mouse is often used to Copy & Paste or move a file to another folder.|[[YouTube Video 1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=629gkPnZ1Ns]]<br>[[YouTube Video 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCYP0mPeDoU]]<br><br><br>[[PushBullet|https://www.pushbullet.com/]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Drag & Drop|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/moving-and-copying-files-by-using-the-drag-and-drop-method]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------

<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The purpose of this page is to describe the window that is accessed by the RUN command, to explain its use and to gather together some facts about MS-DOS.</strong><br><br>In 1979 my first serious PC was a Commodore Pet followed by a 4032 which together with a Disk Drive provided some 175kB of data storage on a 5.25 inch floppy disk and 16kB of RAM and CPU of 1MHz processing power. At the time it provided satisfactory space for client contact details, ran a word processor and a Basic code editor. Compare this with the current typical specifications noted in the page "Buying New" and an inflation adjusted cost of £2600.<br><br>The occasion on which <strong>the DOS window will be of interest</strong> to most PC users is described on the "Task Manager" page in connection with Start Up Programs.</html>|<html> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <div><img alt="" height="196" src="Files/Commodore 4032.jpg" style="height:175px; width: 233px" width="257" /><img alt="" height="196" src="Files/CBM 4040 Disk-drive.jpg" style="height:90px; width: 110px" width="257" /><centre> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Commodore Pet 4032 and disk drive</center></div></html>|
}}}
!!!The RUN Command
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">The RUN command is available in the START menu but may be hidden unless the menu is customised in "Properties" This command opens a dialogue window in which a program name can be entered and the utility opened. For example entering the exact file name such as "FireFox,exe" will open the FireFox browser. Of course it is much easier to use a shortcut or to go to the programs list. However this command opens up easy access to many Windows facilities.<br><br>Grow in confidence by making the window display black text on a white background. Type the command: "color f0" (that's the letter f followed by the digit zero 0). To return to black, type "color". Type ENTER after each command. To leave the window type "Exit" or click the "X" in top right hand corner.</html>|<br>[[Command Prompt|http://pcsupport.about.com/od/termsc/p/command-prompt.htm]]<br><br>[[The RUN Command|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/windows-vista/enable-run-command-on-windows-vista-start-menu/]]<br><br>[[The DOS Wiindow|http://www.c3scripts.com/tutorials/msdos/open-window.html]]|
}}}
!!!The Dos Window
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">With the RUN dialogue window open, entering "cmd" will further open a black window displaying a flashing cursor and the "Command Prompt". The Command Prompt is correctly  "C;\>", but will show as "C:\USERNAME>, from where you as user have access to your computer hard-drive.<br><br>Windows retains in its core all the code which Microsoft used back in 1981 some years before the first Windows Operating System was launched in 1985.<br><br>It is quite safe to use the DOS Window and its commands but perhaps unwise to enter the commands: "format", "regedit" and "tskill" which provide extreme danger when used without the correct parameters.</p></html>|<br><html><img alt="" height="196" src="Files/DOS Window.jpg" style="height:175px; width: 233px" width="257" /></html>|
}}}
!!!Dos Commands
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">Dos Commands are entered at the Command Prompt followed by the ENTER key and are listed in the link displayed on the right of this page.<br><br>Most system features can be reached easily through CONTROL PANEL. However the commands: "cmd", "msconfig", "ipconfig", "fsquirt", "charmap", "eventvwr.msc", "dialer", "optionalfeatures" are worthwhile, can be copied & pasted at the Command Prompt cursor for accuracy and are difficult to access otherwise in Control Panel or Settings.</html>|<br>[[RUN Commands List|http://www.symantec.com/connect/articles/list-run-commands-windows-7-and-8]]|
}}}
+++[To view the functions provided by these RUN commands, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
<br>These RUN commands are to functions also available in Windows control panel. 
#The command cmd opens DOS window and access to the command prompt. Enter the following, without quotes, at the command prompt:
#"msconfig", Opens SYSTEM INFORMATION window and in W7 access to Startup program list.
#"ipconfig/all", Lists network adapter ip addresses.
#"arp -a", gives ip addresses of all devices on your nework.
#"fsquirt",  To transfer files using Bluetooth.
#"charmap", One way to access the Character map.
#"eventvwr.msc", Access to Event Viewer.
#"dialer", Opens Phone Dialer for use with a suitable modem.
#"optionalfeatures", To turn Windows features on.off
#"netplwiz", To access User Accounts panel and control password on/off. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[How|http://pcsupport.about.com/od/windows-8/fl/auto-logon-windows-8.htm]]
#"systempropertiesperformance", Performance options, virtual memory, etc.
#"utilman" Opens Ease of Access Tools window.
===
!!!The ENTER Key
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify";>Historically the "Enter" key is derived from the typewriter carriage "Return" key and some computer keyboards have both with the Return key generating a new line while the Enter key ends editing mode. It typically has an arrow pointing down and left (⏎ or ↵), which is the symbol for carriage return. A tap of the laptop pad and a LEFT click of the mouse give the same "OK" or "Execute" command as the Enter key.  In modern word processing applications, pressing the Return/Enter key ends a paragraph and starts a new one. Spacing between the paragraphs can be defined through paragraph styles.</html>|<br>[[Computer Keyboard|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_keyboard]]|
}}} 
!!The History of Microsoft and Apple.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"; class="fancy";>As regular Microsoft PC users, it is interesting to see recent advances in perspective. A number of links are collected here to that end.</p></html><br>''Some links to the History of Computers:-''|<br> [[History of Microsoft|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows/history#T1=era0]]<br>[[History of Windows|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Microsoft_Windows]]<br>[[Windows OS|http://windows-operating-system-reviews.toptenreviews.com/a-brief-history-of-the-windows-operating-system.html]]<br>[[Microsoft Windows|http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/history_of_microsoft_windows_operating_system.html]]|
}}}
{{fourcolumns{
[[Invention|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm]]<br>[[Gallery|http://royal.pingdom.com/2009/12/11/retro-delight-gallery-of-early-computers-1940s-1960s/]]<br>[[Timeline|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_hardware_2400_BC%E2%80%931949]]<br>[[Apple|http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/01/the-evolution-of-apple-design-between-1977-2008/]]<br>[[An Illustrated History|http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/History.htm]]<br>[[Old Computers|http://www.old-computers.com/museum/default.asp]]<br>[[Obsolete Computers|http://oldcomputers.net/]]<br>[[Microsoft vs Apple Debate|http://www.theoligarch.com/microsoft_vs_apple_history.htm]]
}}}
<br>
------




 

 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;When you insert a CD or DVD, the computer follows instructions controlling Autoplay. Go to CONTROL PANEL - AUTOPLAY and make sure none of the devices has "Take no action" selected. If it has, change it in the adjacent drop-down menu. (see example). Check also that the problem is not with the DVD rather than the PC by trying another DVD from a different source.|<br>[[Autoplay|Files/AutoPlay.jpg]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
 
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>A Database is a structured set of data</strong> held in a computer, especially one accessible in various ways with tools to retrieve information. A <strong>table</strong> is a set of facts or figures systematically displayed in rows and columns.<br><br>One type of database, is the table structure used in MS EXCEL, referred to as a  spreadsheet, where information is stored in rows and columns. A  Relational database consists of a number of connected tables. Another utility, MS ACCESS, contains tools which enable the user to store information (Tables), enter information (Forms), retrieve information (Reports), ask questions of the data (Queries), automatically do routine proceedures (Macros), display proceedures (Modules).<br><br><strong>In Brief.</strong><br><strong>A Spreadsheet is a calculator in the form of a table; a Database is an information storage/retrieval system, part of which is a table.</strong> However, the term "database" is very broad. It is simply a data storage object. A text file is a database. The piece of paper I have in my wallet with all my friends' and family's phone numbers is a database.<br><br><strong>Spreadsheet.</strong><br>A spreadsheet is a computer program that helps you record and analyze numbers. A spreadsheet <strong>consists of a table</strong> of values (numbers and text) arranged in numbered rows and columns. <strong>Cells</strong> are at the intersection of these and each is uniquely named. Each value can have a predefined relationship to the other values. If you change one value, the other values can automatically update. Most spreadsheet applications enable you to produce charts and graphs from the data.<br><br><strong>Database.</strong><br>You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. It is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. Databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records <strong>in a table</strong>. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address and telephone number.</html>|<br>[[What is a Database|http://searchsqlserver.techtarget.com/definition/database]]<br><br>[[Databases|https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Database-basics-a849ac16-07c7-4a31-9948-3c8c94a7c204]]<br><br>[[Understanding Tables|http://www.baycongroup.com/access2007/02_access.html#UnderstandingTables]]<br><br>[[Relational Databases|http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/databases/2databasesrev2.shtml]]<br><br>[[A Table|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/t/table.htm]]<br><br>[[MS Access Overview|http://www.simply-access.com/What-Is-Microsoft-Access.html]]<br><br>[[MS Excel Overview|http://www.austincc.edu/~emeyerth/exceltutor1.htm]]|
}}}


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<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">The word <strong>DEFAULT</strong> occurs frequently - "default program", "default utility", "by default", "set as default".<br><br>It means: <br><br><strong>"A standard setting used by a program or by Windows itself unless you tell it otherwise."</strong></html>|
}}}
!!To set a program as the DEFAULT program for different file types
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">When you click on a file, it will be opened by the DEFAULT program for that type of file - if you have that program in your PC. Just because, say FireFox, is your default browser, it doesn't mean that you can't use other browsers. In fact, if you right-click on a file, one choice will be "Open With?" Here you decide which utility to use manually. However, on all other occassions the DEFAULT utility will open that type of file automatically.<br><strong>To set the default utility</strong> go to CONTROL PANEL - DEFAULT PROGRAMS. Choose the FIRST OPTION offered in the window, "Set your default programs". This is a list of all the utilities in your PC showing, for each selected, the status of defaults. Then select <strong>"Choose defaults for this Program"</strong>. Here you can control which ''file types'' this utility will open automatically.</html>|
}}}
!!To Associate a particular file type with a given Program.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">Sometimes when it is not clear which utility should open a given file type that you are having difficulty with, it is usefull to have a list of files with the associated <strong>possible</strong> utilities which will open it and to set it as default. For this, choose the SECOND OPTION. which is a list of all the file types in your PC showing the current default utility which can be <strong>changed</strong>.</html>|
}}}
!!Things to watch
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>1. When installing a new utility,</strong> it will usually ask if it is to become the DEFAULT for a range of file types. If it doesn't ask. but does so, you will need to reset the defaults to your liking. This can often be done in the utilities PREFERENCES or by the above methods.<br><br><strong>2. Email Attachments.</strong> Having the correct default programs set for most common file types, eliminates the difficulty sometimes found when attempting to open email attachments.<br><br><strong>3. Open Office and other alternatives to MS Office. </strong>It is vital to avoid confusion and irritation, to set the default file type <strong>for SAVING</strong> to the MS Office file types, e.g. doc, docx, xls, etc., unless you intentionally want to work with the Open Office file types. You must choose one or the other, otherwise sever file corruption and loss of data will ensue.<br><br><strong>4. Browsers reading PDF files.</strong> Modern browsers read PDF files by default. Sometimes this limits the features which can be employed with PDF files and it is convenient to reset the default to your preferred PDF reader, which may be ADOBE READER or some alternative.<br><br><strong>5. Free Downloads</strong> often have unsolicitated  malware associated with them. These offers are "ticked" by DEFAULT. Unless you carefully "untick" the offer it will automatically be installed and cause harm or irritation.</html>|
}}}
!!Windows Default Settings
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Windows itself</strong> has settings which are described as DEFAULT. These are the processes you set up in CONTROL PANEL throughout various parts of the system, which you want to run AUTOMATICALLY.<br>For example, a Left press of your MOUSE gives "ENTER" and the Right press gives an "IN CONTEXT" menu, but you could swap these if you are left handed. By default, on boot-up your PC requires a password, but you could remove this requirement. The TASKBAR is at the bottom of the screen by default.</html>|<br>[[Control Panel]]|
}}}
----

{{center{
[img[Topic Slides/Desktop.JPG]]
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:6em;|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The desktop</strong> is your work screen and is really a visible folder containing files, your SHORTCUT ICONS<br><br>Here you organise your shortcut icons and open program windows. Choose a background THEME that makes it easy to see your icons. To avoid clutter your desktop deserves constant househeeping. To hide icons on your desktop (1) organise them into folders if you are reluctant to delete (2) Right Click an empty spot and in the drop down-menu select VIEW. Here the icon size can be chosen and by unticking "Show all Icons", the desktop is cleared instantly.</html>|
}}}
!!!Parts of the Desktop
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">See <strong>Basic Skills</strong><br><br><strong>Shortcut Icons</strong> In the endeavour to keep the Desktop clear, shortcuts to frequently used utilities are best kept by "Pinning to the Taskbar". See <strong>Make a Shortcut.</strong><br><strong>Taskbar </strong> The Taskbar is the repository of all computer controls and consists of four parts: (1) The START, (2) The QUICK START, (3) The SYSTEM TRAY and (4) Hidden controls revealed by inspecting its Right Click Context Menu. The Taskbar can be relocated to other sides of the Desktop. See <strong>Moving The Taskbar</strong><br><strong>Start</strong> Right Click on the START reveals the START MENU in Windows 7, It was removed in Windows 8 where downloading Clasic Start or Classic Shell restores. It returns in Windows 10. It benefits from customisation. See <strong>Start Menu Customisation</strong> and<strong> Windows 8</strong> para 7.<br><strong>Quick Start</strong> The Quick Start area in the middle is where shortcuts to utilities can be "Pinned". Here, windows which have been minimised, can be restored quickly.<br><strong> System Tray</strong> The System Tray, besides showing a clock, houses many small icons representing utilities and systems running in the background. Each utility icon, on right-click, offers quick control of that utility. The tray can be customised.<br><strong>Right Click Context Menu</strong> These menus vary in content depending where the mouse pointer is placed. They are probably the most important and convenient source of control.<br><strong>Wallpaper Theme</strong> Desktop Personalisation is accessed through the right click menu and includes changes to Background Wallpaper, Text Size, Display, Ease of Access and Graphics.</html>|width:20em;<br>[[Basic Skills|Basic Skills##Desktop]]<br><br>[[Make a Shortcut|Make a Shortcut]]<br><br><br>[[Moving The Taskbar]]<br><br><br>[[Start Menu Customisation|Search for Windows Tools]]<br><br>[[Windows 8]]<br><br>[[System Tray Customisation |http://www.howtogeek.com/75510/beginner-how-to-customize-and-tweak-your-system-tray-icons-in-windows-7/]]<br><br>[[Context Menus|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Context_menu]]<br><br>[[Desktop Personalisation|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/personalizing-computer#1TC=windows-7]]<br><br>[[Virtual Desktop|http://dexpot.de/?lang=en]]|
}}}
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<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Downloading files from the Internet is a daunting process for some. There is every reason to be cautious when downloading but there is no reason to deny yourself the benefits of Internet services, which can enhance your computing experience, through fear of the consequences. That fear is allayed by understanding the process and taking the necessary procautions.</strong></html>|.|
}}}

!!The Download Process
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">The most commonly downloaded files are programs, updates, or other kinds of files such as image, music and video files, or documents. Recognise the file you require. <strong>Every file is uniquely identified by its name, its file extention and its size in bytes.</strong> When you intentially copy a known file from the Internet it is no different to when you copy a file from one folder in your computer to another. It is only when you OPEN or INSTALL the recognised file that  any action takes place in your computer.<br><br>The file you wish to download will normally be on a web page that you trust viewed in your browser. It will look something like "flux-setup.exe" or "images4.jpg" or "Motorway Map 2008 print version.pdf". Sometimes the file is presented to you as a link under a "DOWNLOAD BUTTON" which you are invited to click or as a hyperlinked file name which when clicked will download. Always hover your mouse over the link or button and check that the file name revealed is identical to the declared name. Small files, such as images can also be downloaded by RIGHT CLICKING on them, chose COPY and then PASTE into a known suitable folder.<br><br>When you download an attachment from an email, which you should always do before opening it to give your antivirus utility an opportunity to inspect it, the process is slightly different. In most clients, you will be given an opportunity to choose a download location. See SavingAttachments<br><br>You should download only from the developer's official site, or from reputable sites such as Softpedia, CNet, TechSpot, The Windows Club, and FileHippo. Even with these reputable retailers, beware of adware when installing. If the Windows warning "The Publisher could not be verified" appears, cancel the download, unless you are sure it is from a trusted source.</html>|<br>[[Webwise|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/0/22717888]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Download Buttons|http://www.thewindowsclub.com/safe-software-download-sites]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[SavingAttachments]].|
}}}
!!Things that can go wrong
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>1. You lose the downloaded file</strong><br>It is essential that, when you set up your computer, you allocate a DOWNLOADS folder for all Internet downloads to be saved by <strong>default.</strong> Most new computers have a downloads folder already created and most browsers are set to download into this folder. Howerver, just check (1) in Windows Explorer that you have that folder in the path  "C:\Users\&ltYOUR NAME&gt\Downloads" and (2) in your browser OPTIONS that, for downloads, the DOWNLOAD FOLDER is selected. This will ensure that you don't lose files after download. See FAQ.10.<br>There is one exception to this. When you download a "Plugins" or "Extensions" to a browser, this may not appear in your downloads folder but be held in a temporary folder until you install it.<br><br>Most browsers, such as FireFox, have a MenuBar icon which shows the "time left" for the download process and provides a shortcut to your download folder for quick access. You may need to customise the MenuBar to find this facility. Internet Explorer and Chrome provide "View Downloads" in the TOOLS menu.<br><br><strong>2. You inadvertently download the wrong file</strong><br>Clicking on the wrong link will lead to downloading the wrong file. You can always CANCEL the process or DELETE the file from the DOWNLOADS folder.<br><br>One confusing techique on some third party download sites, is the use of additional misleading "Download Buttons" which are linked to advertisment software. Using "AdBlock Plus" will remove much of this confusion.<br><br><strong>3. You download additional unwanted files</strong><br>Some sites offering downloads, usually free ones, will surreptitiously include additional files in a download, often for advertisment purposes. These downloads are described as being "bundled with adware".  See Bundled Downloads.</a> The defence against this practice, if you have to use the site, is to take extreme care and vigilence during the INSTALL stage by choosing "custom install" if offered and UNCHECKING any additional installations, usually cunningly, offered. The link on the right lists some good free software download sites but remember nearly all include adware. The site of the software manufacturer or the support page of a device manufacturer is always the safest source of software rather than the sites of third party retailers of other people's software. <br><br><strong>4. You download hidden malware</strong><br> Not all malware is dangerous. It can just be irritating. However spyware and adware can be downloaded ''and installed'' simply by clicking on an intriguing advert or link while surfing . These programs are more than annoying. They can also pose security risks to everyday Internet users. Good Antivirus protection should catch these intrusions. If you suspect an invasion, often revealed by the computer running slowly or strange computer behaviour, then scan your machine with MalwareBytes.<br>If you encounter a pop-up window offering "Yes" or "No" to be clicked, don't click either. Just close the window by clicking the "X" in the top right hand corner.<br><br><strong>5. You download copyrighted files</strong><br>If a download is OFFERED by the owner, it is being offered to share and is not copyright. However there may be a restriction on reengineering the code within. Always check Terms and Conditions on a site in case the agreement is that you can use the software for personal use but not for commercial use or not for further distribution. On the "Google Images" search site, in "Advanced Search" you can select to filter only images which are free to share.</html>|<br><br>[[Default]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Adblock Plus|https://adblockplus.org/en/tutorials]]<br><br><br><br>[[Bundled Downloads|FreeDownloads##Free]]<br><br><br><br>[[Free Download Sites|http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/best-freeware-download-sites.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Malware|http://uk.norton.com/catch-spyware-before/article]]<br><br><br>[[MalwareBytes|AntiVirusSoftware]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Copyright|Multimedia##Copyright]]|
}}}



!!Installation
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">It is at the Installation stage most care is required. Every piece of software has a certificate in its "digital signature" which is inspected by Windows when you install it. A window will appear with details of this certificate and ask you for permission as Administrator to proceed with installation. If in doubt, don't click "OK". To add to your uncertainty, on many occasions you will see the word "Unknown" when you know it is downloaded from a trusted source. It is at this point experience influences judgement! Good paid-for Antivirus utilities will warn that you are about to download dangerous virus infected software. During the installation process, inspect with utmost care each window at each stage. It is here you watch out for unneeded icons on your desktop or start menu <strong>but particularly for unwanted additional Adware, toolbars and trial programs.</strong></html>|.|
}}}
-------
{{{
<<sectionTOC>>
}}}
<br><br>
!!Download Utilities [[HERE - Click on this link to find useful utilities to download.|Useful Utilities]]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em ;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Downloading Files.</strong> In the OPTIONS of your browser, tell the computer in which folder you wish it to place downloaded files. Then you can find them easily.<br><br><strong>Free Software</strong> - Nothing in life is free. The cost is either to watch adverts or to download extra free trial software. THIS IS USUALLY HARMLESS BUT IRRITATING. Be on your guard during every stage of the installation process to uncheck offers checked by <strong>Default</strong> or for the word <strong>Decline</strong> in very faint print. Take particular care with the <strong>Sourceforge site installer</strong>. On a download webpage also watch for cleverly placed bogus download buttons which cause you to download different software to that you are seeking. If given the choice of <strong>Normal/Recommended</strong> and <strong>Custom Installation</strong>, always choose "Custom" and <strong>deselect unwanted extra software.</strong> See para.10 on the Browsers-"Blocking Junk" page of this Worksheet.<br>The site <strong>MajorGeeks.com</strong> is considered a safe download site which clearly labels software that comes with bundleware extras.<br><br>However, in contrast, <a href="http://www.diffen.com/difference/Freeware_vs_Shareware" target="_blank">FREEWARE</a>, TRIAL and <a href="http://opensourcestrategies.blogspot.co.uk/2005/09/freeware-vs-shareware-vs-open-source.html" target="_blank">OPEN SOURCE></a> software are quite safe and  U3A is recognized as a place of learning by Software4Students. <strong>Open Source Software</strong> is licenced and often free to use, perhaps with a donation. Kingston Office Suite and Libra Office are examples.<br><strong>If possible always download software from its developer's site rather than third party sites.</strong><br><br><strong>Warning.</strong> Never download free software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8) alone. Always use a strong virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware.<br><br>There is a utility called <strong>Ninite</strong> which has good reviews which automatically keeps many utilities up-to-date and also ensures that no unsolicited junk is downloaded when you install.</html>|<br>[[BrowserSetup]]<br><br>[[Browser Options|http://www.guidingtech.com/11776/change-file-download-locations-chrome-Firefox-opera-ie/]]<br><br>[[default|Default]]<br><br>[[FREEWARE|http://www.diffen.com/difference/Freeware_vs_Shareware]]<br><br>[[Open Source|http://opensource.org/about]]<br><br>[[Browser - Blocking Junk|Blocking Junk]]<br><br>[[Freeware Download sites.|http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/best-freeware-download-sites.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Ninite Review|http://www.howtogeek.com/201354/ninite-is-the-only-safe-place-to-get-windows-freeware/]]<br><br>[[Ninite Download|https://ninite.com/]]|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:15em;[[Useful Utilities]]<br><br>[[Blocking Junk]]|width:25em;<br><br>WATCH FOR MISLEADING CHECK BOXES<br>&nbsp; &nbsp;WHEN INSTALLING FREE SOFTWARE|<html> &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/Untick Box.jpg" style="height:90px; width: 400px" /></html>|
}}}
''~DropBox'' - ~DropBox is a sharing facility which will give you access to the Computer Club folder containing tutorials, useful utilities and topic help pages. If you don't already have Dropbox, the link for Dropbox is https://www.dropbox.com/   Click this link, watch the video on the dropbox site. When you download and install Dropbox, a Dropbox folder will appear in Windows Explorer, with a desktop shortcut on your desktop. This done, ''let me know by email'' and I will then send you an invitation to share (have access to) the Computer Club folder which will, when you accept the invitation, appear inside the Dropbox folder in your laptop. Please note, not to delete any of the content of the Computer Club folder otherwise the other Computer Club members will lose it as well !! Otherwise use the folder as though it were a folder in your computer, i.e. watch videos, read files and click on links. It is quite secure. Ring any time if you have a problem.
-----


 
<br><br><br>
!!Look No Hands
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">We are looking at an age when car computers will soon be more powerful than any PC or Mac you will ever own in your life, so really you have been linked here under false pretences. However you may care to view some selected links explaining the Autonomous Driving vehicle, known as the driverless car and the Personnal Aviation Vehicle (PAV). It is an age when you will no longer need to upgrade your PC because its OS will be in The Cloud, but you will need to upgrade the software in your car as this will improve faster than the hardware will rust. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://www.economist.com/node/21560989" target="_blank"><u>Look no Hands</u></a><br><br><br>This page describes the workings, the computing power and the future of the car leading to <a href="http://www.tevproject.com/" target="_blank"><u>Tracked Electric Vehicles.(TEV)</u></a> It invites the conclusion that this automation will expand into the third dimension and turn the drone into a PAV.<br><br>The TEV Project offers an alternative UK investment to the HS2 Train project.<br>To read the complete 2015 updated document, go to:<br><a href="http://www.tevproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/z3Jan2015-TEV-booklet.doc">www.tevproject.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/z3Jan2015-TEV-booklet.doc</a> and download the DOC file.</p></html>|<html><img alt="" src="Files/Nohands.jpg" style="height:170px; width: 220px" /></html><br><br><br>''[[2015 update on the TEV Project|Files/TEV-project 2015.pdf]]''<br><br>[[Video Motorway Conversion|http://subobject.co.uk/work/freeway-conversion-2/]] |
}}}

!!How the Driverless Car Works
<br>
|centered|k
| [[How Stuff Works|http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/trends-innovations/driverless-car.htm]] | [[TechRadar|http://www.techradar.com/news/car-tech/self-driving-cars-the-future-of-transport-explained-1137921/1#articleContent]] | [[History of Guidance Systems|http://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/where-to-a-history-of-autonomous-vehicles/]] | [[Google's|http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/artificial-intelligence/how-google-self-driving-car-works]] | [[Google|http://www.theneweconomy.com/insight/google-driverless-cars]] | [[Myths|http://www.techrepublic.com/article/8-truths-and-myths-of-driverless-cars/]] | [[Five Levels|http://www.wired.co.uk/article/autonomous-car-levels-sae-ranking]] |

!!The Computer
<br>
|centered|k
| [[The car computer|http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/trends-innovations/car-computer.htm]] | [[The chip|http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/freescale-vision-chip-makes-self-driving-cars-a-bit-more-ordinary/]] | [[Data Collection|http://on-demand.gputechconf.com/gtc/2014/presentations/S4761-lidar-ultra-accurate-affordable-localization-mapping.pdf]]  | [[The software|http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9248611/Driverless_cars_Is_that_an_Nvidia_chip_under_the_hood_]] | [[The parts|http://www.slideshare.net/gokulgopiunni/fully-autonomous-driverless-cars-google-car]] | [[Hacking|http://betanews.com/2015/07/27/preventing-iot-cars-from-being-hacked/]] |

!!The Future
<br>
|centered|k
| [[Timeline|http://venturebeat.com/2014/07/17/how-close-are-we-really-to-driverless-cars/]] | [[The Future|http://www.break.com/article/6-driverless-cars-that-could-become-a-reality-2584665]] | [[Future Travel|http://www.virgin.com/travel/the-expert-view-what-will-shape-the-future-of-travel]] | [[Competing Projects|http://www.gizmag.com/future-transport/22959/]] | [[PAV|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personal_air_vehicle]] | ''[[The TEV Project Video|http://www.tevproject.com/]]'' | [[TEV Detail|http://tevsystem.net/TEV.pdf]] |

|centered|k
| [[Other Cool Ideas|http://www.tevproject.com/other-cool-ideas/]] | [[Human GPS|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130804144401.htm]] |
<br>
------------------------
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">A driver is a small piece of software that allows your computer to communicate with hardware devices. It is usually made by the device manufacturer. Windows will normally install the correct drivers when a device is added. The current driver can be identified and updated in Device Manager, but if it's working, don't fix it unnecessarily.<br><br><strong>1. Ways of Updating Drivers</strong><div class="indent4" align="justify"><br><strong>a. Using Windows Update. </strong>Windows Update can automatically download and install recommended updates. Installing any important, recommended and optional updates can update system features and other software that might help fix your problems.<br><strong>b. Install software from the device manufacturer.</strong> If your device came with a disc, that disc might contain software that installs a driver for the device. A device automatically searches for its device driver when installed. Drivers can be safely updated in "Device Manager" found in Control Panel.<br><strong>c. Downloading</strong> and installing the driver yourself. You can search for a driver on the manufacturer's website. Try this if Windows Update can't find a driver for your device and the device didn't come with software that installs a driver. Be very cautious and ensure you download and install the correct one. Never download from 3rd party sites, only from the device manufacturer's site. Google search with keywords: "Manufacturer - Model - UK - DRIVER - DOWNLOAD"<br><strong>d. Windows 10</strong> is excellent at keeping drivers up to date. Any problem is ususally because the device manufacturer has not issued an updated driver. Should the latest driver not be installed, uninstall the old in DEVICE MANAGER, reboot while on line and the new driver if available will be automatically downloaded. It may be necessary to disconnect and reconnect the device to install the driver properly. Third party utilities which scan and charge for updating "Your 357 outdated drivers" are completely unnecessary with Windows 10.</div><br><strong>2. Troubleshooting.</strong><br><br>Using the TroubleShooter will often fix driver problems.<br>Go to START - CONTROL PANEL - TROUBLESHOOTING and choose the appropriate tool.<br><br><strong>3. Out of Date Technology</strong><br><br>Manufacturers update their drivers to match changes in Operating Systems but with improvements in hardware devices there comes a point when the manufacturers decide to promote their new hardware and allow drivers to older hardware to become redundant. When we upgrade an operating system we find the drivers, and so some devices, no longer work. Replacement and recycling follow. This is the price we pay for "technological advance", new facilities, combatting cyber criminals and changes in market demand.</html>|Width:15em;<br>[[Drivers|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/update-drivers-recommended-links#update-drivers-recommended-links=windows-7]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>See [[Crash]]<br><br>[[Updating Drivers 1|http://www.howtogeek.com/98465/htg-explains-when-do-you-need-to-update-your-drivers/]]<br><br>[[Updating Drivers 2|http://www.howtogeek.com/191405/should-you-use-the-hardware-drivers-windows-provides-or-download-your-manufacturers-drivers/]]<br><br>[[See Version of Windows|HouseKeeping##Version]]<br><br><br>[[Intel Driver Scan|https://downloadcenter.intel.com/default.aspx]]<br><br><br>See [[Task Manager]]|
}}}

----
 
<br>''[[DropBox Tour|https://www.dropbox.com/tour]]''<br>
!1. Downloading Dropbox.
For PC, go to [[Dropbox for PC|https://www.dropbox.com/downloading]]
For Mac, go to [[Dropbox for Mac|https://www.dropbox.com/downloading?os=mac]]
For Android, in your tablet go to ~GooglePlay and install the ~DropBox app. [[Description|http://howto.cnet.com/8301-11310_39-57430085-285/download-entire-dropbox-folders-to-your-android-device/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Syncing|https://www.dropbox.com/help/82/en]]
For iPad, in your iPad go to the Apple Store and install the ~DropBox app. [[Description|https://www.dropbox.com/help/49/en]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Syncing|https://www.dropbox.com/help/82/en]]
For Windows Mobile, go to Microsoft Store and install the ~DropBox app and use as for PC.
!2. The Invitation to Join the Computer Club Folder
When you are invited to join, you will receive an email from DropBox on behalf of the Computer Group. Click on the link in this email.
When you click the link in the email, you will be taken to the DropBox website. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Video on Joining a Shared Folder|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=969XnDGywoI]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Video - Using DropBox|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gybe_YlpAe4]]

    When on the dropbox website, if you are not already logged in,
    Click on "Log in" on the top right corner.
    Type your Dropbox email and password and click on "Log in".
    Click on the Sharing tab, on the left hand menu.
    Click on the invitation that you received.
    Click on "Accept". DropBox will do a setup process.

The folder should immediately appear in your Dropbox folder in your PC.  This is the way to add the Computer Club Folder to your Dropbox.
!3. Go to Windows Explorer in W7 (File Explorer in W8)
In the left hand panel of Windows Explorer, you will see a new folder has appeared, called "Dropbox". (a sub folder of your user name folder.)
Open this folder. Inside are the Computer Club folders and files. which you can now use. ''Please don't delete any.''
For convenience in a PC, while the dropbox folder is open, go to the top of the left hand panel and find "Favorites". Right click on ''Favorites'' and click on ''"Add current location to favorites"''. This will put the Dropbox folder easily in view amongst your Favourites.
Next open the Club folder and ''Copy & Paste'' the shortcut link provided in the "New Worksheet Folder", to your desktop, for routine use. ''Please do not delete'' the shortcut which is in ~DropBox. Others will need it.
!4. Viewing the Computer Club Worksheet in a Tablet
''Android'' users can easily read the Worksheet using the apps -"Android Browser" or "Firefox for Android"
To edit Wiki files tablet users should read "Description" above to understand how to install associated  folders and use the ~AndTidWiki app, and ''iPad users'', the app called ~GoodReader. One of the limitations of the iPad is its inability to read HTML document files where relative linked files are not in the same folder and its reluctance to include a ~FireFox browser App in the Apple Store. Please discuss any broken links.
''Apple'' - To view in iPad use [[GoodReader|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/goodreader-for-ipad/id363448914?mt=8]]. See [[To Read in iPad|AppleFileSystem]]. However, it is far easier to use the online version at [[http://tinyurl.com/km3qj2u|http://tinyurl.com/km3qj2u]]
!5. Sharing your ~DropBox with others
This link to the ~DropBox site will show you how to invite others into your ~DropBox - [[Invitation to Join|https://www.dropbox.com/help/19]]
<br>
------
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Duplicates use up a lot of hard disk space because they are usually big files.</strong> <br>Free hard disk space is valuable, even though we now enjoy capacities in the region of TBytes, because the fewer files it stores the faster any one file can be found and because space is used:<br>1. To store large temporary files created during computer processing,<br>2. To provide space for extra virtual memory.<br><br><strong>Duplicates are created when:</strong><br>1. We move files by "Copy and Paste" instead of "Cut and Paste".<br>2.We fail to create logically named folders and fail to use, and consistently use, clear rules when allocating files to these folders, often allocating the same file to two or more folders. For example take the picture of GrandMother on holiday in America. This should be allocated to one of the two folders named "Family" or "America Holiday 2013", not both, and preferably to the latter. If the file itself is clearly named, it can be found by search wherever it is.<br>4. Our camera is set to export large RAW, TIFF, BNP or PNG file types, which we then convert to JPG but retain the original.<br>5. We use a utility to enhance image files, unless we save the enhanced file into the original (unwise) we create many near duplicates with each attempt.<br><br><strong>Deleting Duplicates<br></strong>Prevention is better than cure. In spite of good endeavours, we all end up with  too many duplicates. We fail to make good housekeeping rules and stick to them. Delete duplicates only within your user folders, not in Windows system.<br>Duplicates can be removed by:-<br>1. Manually by inspecting each folder<br>2. Use a freeware utility such as Fast File Duplicate Finder or DupeGuru</html>|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Image Files|http://www.scantips.com/basics09.html]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Finding Duplicates|http://www.howtogeek.com/200962/how-to-find-and-remove-duplicate-files-on-windows/]]<br><br>[[Manual Inspection|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/eliminate-duplicate-files]]<br><br>[[Dupe Guru|http://www.hardcoded.net/dupeguru_pe/]]<br><br>[[Fast Duplicate Finder|http://www.mindgems.com/products/Fast-Duplicate-File-Finder/Fast-Duplicate-File-Finder-About.htm]]|
}}}
----
<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tips</u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; 1. Two very useful features of an email client are "Rules" and "Thread".<br> &nbsp' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2. Never click on a link in an email unless you trust the sender.</html>
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:65em;This page might be read together with the Email paragraph on the BASICS page. Your reputation as a ''good communicator'' depends on the recipiant's perception of your skill. So be well organized and conscious of presentation.|.|
}}}

!Definition
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''An email is a file transmitted over the Internet between two Internet Service Provider's (ISP's) servers, not necessarily between your computer and the reader's computer.<br>An email can be [[encrypted|http://www.pcworld.com/article/254338/how_to_encrypt_your_email.html]]. Content encryption is over the top for domestic emails.''<br><br>There is a difference between __content encryption__ of emails and the __SSL transmission__ of emails (and other sensitive data). Most ~ISPs, but not all, now use SSL transmission and their web address starts ''https:'' &nbsp' &nbsp; See para 12 below.|<br><br><br><br>[[Learn more|http://its.yale.edu/secure-computing/security-standards-and-guidance/device-security/safe-mobile-computing/secure-web-email-ssl-tls]]|
}}}
!Clients
''__A client__ is a desktop computer, workstation or utility that is capable of receiving information and applications from __a server__''.<br>So an email program or utility in your computer is a ''Client''.<br> __''[[Understanding the Server Client concept|Topic Slides/serverclient.jpg]]''__ and [[Account Management]] makes the process of email setup run smoothly.
<br>First, what method do you use to view your emails? There are two ways.
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''2. Two ways of viewing emails'' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Pros and Cons Webmail]]<br>(a) ''By Webmail'' - When you subscribe to an email service you are allocated a page on your ~ISPs website which you access by username and password. From here you can read and send emails. Its only advantage is that you can access your emails on ANY computer, tablet or mobile wherever you are. It has some shortcomings. If you lose your broadband connection, you have no access to your emails.<br>(b) ''By email client'' - An email client is a utility with which you ''download email files from your ISP into your computer'', sort them, action them, even read them and compose replies offline. A client provides an additional spam filter and virus scan and is more secure than Webmail. You can still use Webmail when away from home, but not always your email client.<br><br>''Be careful with'' the meaning of the word ''"Webmail"''. When you subscribe to a broadband ISP, the [[domain of your email address|Topic%20Slides/Email0%20Address.jpg]] is that of the ISP, eg btinternet.com, talktalk.net. Some ~ISPs do not provide a broadband service but do offer email, eg Google (gMail) and Microsoft (Hotmail and Outlook). This is often called uniquely, "Webmail", but can nevertheless be downloaded into a client! One advantage of a service provider like gMail is its independence from your broadband  provider enabling you to change broadband account without having to change email address. The normal use of the term "Webmail" is for email viewable online, accessible with a browser, and is applicable to ALL providers. To add to the confusion, Microsoft also use the word "Outlook" as the name of their email client as well as their email service.<br><br>''3. Choice of Client'' - Most Clients will work with any operating system and any email provider. When downloading the Client program, check the version applicable to your operating sysytem. There are versions of  a client suitable for each version of Windows. If you were fond of Outlook Express, which is no longer available for W7, then "eM Client" is similar, versatile  and easy to set up, as is Thunderbird.<br><br>''4. Setting up a Client utility.'' All clients will have a setup wizard. There are four items of information required if you do it manually. Just the (1) and (2) if you use a wizard. They are: (1) Username (usually your email address), (2) your password ( both these items are provided when you first subscribed for the account), (3) a string of code with the syntax similar to "pop.btinternet.com" or "mail.btinternet.com", (4) a string of code similar to "smtp.btinternet.com - the domain varying with the provider. Notice there is no "@". If necessary, Google with the keywords, EMAIL, SETUP, SMTP, the <DOMAIN NAME> of your provider and the name of the email CLIENT utility to find items (3) and (4). You can set up multiple email accounts in a client, if you have more than one account. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[eM Client|http://www.getapp.com/blog/em-client-professional-email-prices/]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[eM Client Download|http://www.emclient.com/download]]<br><br>''When setting up a ~BTinternet account'' in a client make sure you use the same ID and password as you would use to access your emails on the provider's website, e.g. MY Mail on the BT site where you also access your telephone bill. If you are still using the old Yahoo server for ~BTinternet email it is best to transfer to the BT server.<br>[[This site will tell you|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/57483/~/im-not-sure-if-ive-got-bt-mail-or-bt-yahoo!-mail]] which server you are on.<br><br>''When setting up a ~BTinternet account in eMClient'' (1) Do not use symbols in your BT Mail password, (2) Set SMTP port = 25 and ~POP3 port =110 not those in BT customer advice, both “Use SSL/TLS if available”, othwise error may result.(3) If no error messages, ungrade security to encrypt traffic with SMTP port = 465 and ~POP3 port = 995 and "SSL/TLS Special port (legacy)", as advised by BT customer advice. <br><br>''Difference between receiving with POP and IMAP.''  The main difference between IMAP and POP is that IMAP (Internet Messaged Access Protocol) always syncs with the, for example, BT mail server, so that any changes you make in ''your email program will also appear in your webmail Inbox.'' So if you're going to regularly use webmail and an email client, [[BT recommend using IMAP, particularly if you travel a lot.|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/44934/related/1]]<br>With POP (Post Office Protocol), your email client account and mail server are not synced. This means that whatever changes you make to your email account in your email program will not be transferred to ''your webmail Inbox.'' So, if you are using IMAP and mark a mail as "read", it also gets marked as read in your webmail Inbox. This won't happen with POP, because in this case, emails are downloaded to your computer or device and any changes you make on your device won't be reflected on the mail server. There are many alternative settings in POP and IMAP which vary between providers and [[which complicate the difference|http://whatismyipaddress.com/imap]] in behaviour of the two systems. Understanding rests with the concepts of "downloading" and "syncing".<br><br>''Mail Merge.'' To broadcast __individual emails__ to a number of recipients without using "Undisclosed Recipients" and "bcc", the Mail Merge feature of MS Word can be used with a csv data file. You may need to convert exported contacts from VCF(Vcard) to csv format, because some email clients export contacts only as VCF.|[[The two ways|Topic%20Slides/Email2%20Clients%20&%20Servers.JPG]]<br><br>[[Webmail|http://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-your-computer/webmail/]]<br><br>[[Using a Client|http://www.cartanova.ca/green-business-blog/item/54-why-use-an-email-client]]<br><br>[[Using Windows Mail|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-handle-email-in-windows-live-mail.html]]<br><br>[[gMail Setup1|Files/Setting%20up%20Gmail.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Setup2|http://digitalunite.com/guides/email/how-create-gmail-account]]<br><br>[[Create gmail Account|https://accounts.google.com/SignUp]]<br><br>[[Outlook 2013 Setup|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3BqANfScj4]]<br><br>[[Best Free Clients|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/windows-7-email-5-best-free-clients-903699]]<br><br>[[More comparison|http://www.geeksquad.co.uk/articles/microsoft-outlook-what-are-the-best-free-alternatives#Webmail]]<br><br>[[More Clients Compared|http://ghost1227.com/2014/01/review-email-clients/]]<br><br>[[Setting up a Client|http://www.123-reg.co.uk/support/answers/Email/Email-Client-and-Mobile-Device-Setup/setting-up-your-email-address-to-an-email-client-1110/]]<br><br>[[Thunderbird Download|http://www.mozilla.org/en-GB/thunderbird/?flang=en-GB]]<br><br>[[BTinternet|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/44917]]<br><br>[[List of Servers|http://computerlearnhow.com/pop-and-smtp-servers-for-gmail-hotmail-and-other-providers/]]<br><br>[[List of Servers|http://en.kioskea.net/faq/9166-smtp-imap-and-pop-server-settings-for-major-isps#bt-internet]]<br><br> <br><br>[[Thunderbird|http://computerlearnhow.com/mozilla-thunderbird-email-setup-for-gmail-short-tutorial/]]<br><br>[[eM Client|http://www.studiocoast.com.au/knowledgebase/764/email/setting-up-email-on-em-client.aspx]]<br><br>[[Using eM Client|http://blog.garethjmsaunders.co.uk/2014/09/24/using-em-client-with-gmail/]]<br><br>[[What is IMAP?|http://www.howtogeek.com/99423/email-whats-the-difference-in-pop3-imap-and-exchange/]]<br><br><br>[[Convert VCF to CSV|http://sourceforge.net/projects/bulkvcftocsv/]]|
}}}
!Features
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''5. Two types of email format.'' Emails can be sent and received written in PLAIN TEXT or HTML TEXT. Choose one or the other in setup. The latter has the advantage of formatting like MS Word while the former is more secure and less susceptible to infection with malware code, especially embedded in images . You can set up your client to retain the same format as the received email. This is a kindness to your correspondent who might prefer working in and receiving Plain Text. ''Always hover your mouse over a link'' to confirm it is trustworthy before opening it. Most email clients will not download embedded images in the preview panel even if the received email is written in HTML. However by setting "Read in PLAIN TEXT" in OPTIONS is safest. There is a balance to be struck  between convenience/enjoyment and security and the trust you place in your malware protection.<br><br>''6. Sub Folders and Rules'' Creating sub Folders in your INBOX, for different topics, enables good organization. Daily emails can be inspected and the unwanted deleted. Those retained can then be moved to appropriate  topic folders. This can also be achived AUTOMATICALLY using RULES. Rules select emails on the basis of sender address, subject keyword, domain, etc. You will find RULES in the Tools Menu, Mail Options, Preferences of most clients.<br><br>''7. Threads or Conversation View'' Some clients have "Conversation View" a feature which lets you view emails in your inbox in the order of their [[''thread''|http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/outlook-help/view-your-inbox-messages-by-thread-HA010274741.aspx]] rather than date.<br><br>''8. Attachments'' Guidance on attachments is well covered in BASICS.<br>In general, make sure your [[anti-virus protection|AntiVirusSoftware]] is up to date and save the attachment to an appropriately chosen folder or view it in situ. This [[tutorial|http://help.yahoo.com/uk/bt/tutorials/cg/cg_attachments3.html]] applies to most Webmail providers.<br>In the body of your email [[ALWAYS|Files/Attachment%20etiquette.JPG]] tell the recipient that there is an email attached and what it is about. This enables them to assess security issues and how to open the attachment.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Make Rule Filters|http://help.yahoo.com/sbc/tutorials/mmail/mm_filter1.html]]<br><br>[[Client Features|http://email-client.findthebest.com/d/a/Conversation-View]]<br><br>[[Attachments - adding|Files/Email%20Attachmentsand%20Resizing.pdf]]<br><br>[[Attachments - opening|http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/attachments.htm]]<br><br>[[Attachments - opening|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=THIdNJg15mI]]|
}}} 
!Copying and Printing
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''9. Copying from Emails''<br>See para 7 of BROWSERS<br>Editing another person's email is not permitted, but after selecting REPLY or FORWARD, editing and removing unwanted text and images is possible. In some cases you may wish to retain the thread of the conversation but, as you already have the content elsewhere, removing unwanted images is wise otherwise an ever growing email length builds with later exchanges.<br><br>''10. Printing Emails and Attachments''<br>A whole email, without attachments, is printed to paper, or PDF, using PRINT in the FILE menu. Parts can be selected and printed choosing the appropriate option in the PRINT DIALOGUE WINDOW. Strict security advice advises that an attachment be downloaded to computer before viewing, copying or printing, especially if using Webmail, but if your email client initiates a virus scan automatically, this is unnecessary and the attachment can be OPENED to view or print in situ. Be particularly cautious of attachments to emails from unknown sources. Do not open them.<br><br>''11. Links in Emails''<br>Remembering the neccessary precautions (See [[Security|Security##Spam]]), active links can be placed in and copied from emails using the right-click context menu feature. Take care to separate the beginning and end of a link from the text of your email. Difficulty and corruption can occur with very long links which occupy more than one line. Use the convenience of the "shortened link" to guard against this. There are [[many shortener tools|http://www.cssrex.com/tips-tricks/top-25-url-shortener-tools-websites/]] but a favourite is [[TinyURL|http://tinyurl.com/]].|<br><br>[[Example|Topic Slides/Email1.pdf]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Dialogue Boxes|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s1p4.html]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Tiny.cc Link|http://tiny.cc/]]<br><br>[[Reviews|http://www.nickyeoman.com/links/social-media/url-shorteners]]|
}}}
!Saving Attachments
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''It is important to realise'' that, when you ''OPEN'' an attachment to an email, it opens by default in a ''temporary folder''. There are two consequences to this:<br>1. A DOC file or an XLS spreadsheet file will be in ''Read Only'' mode and therefore cannot be edited until saved to your computer file system of folders.<br>2. ''When SAVING'' any file, with "SAVE AS", you must be particularly vigilant to follow the ''rule of three''. Check the file type, check the file name, but above all, check the ''FOLDER'' to which you wish to save it. See ~FAQs 9 and 11. <br><br>Distinguish between the commands: "SAVE" and "SAVE AS". &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[FAQ 9|Saving a File]] &nbsp; See also [[Reading Attachments]]<br><br>''Security.'' Never open an attachment file which has an .exe extension. See [[EmailSecurity]] &nbsp; &nbsp;[[Dangerous File Types|http://www.file-extensions.org/filetype/extension/name/dangerous-malicious-files]]||[[Save As|Files/SaveAs.jpg]]<br><br>[[FAQ 9|Saving a File]]<br><br>[[FAQ 11|Reading Attachments]]<br><br>[[Default]]<br><br>[[Zamzar File Converter|http://www.zamzar.com/#]]|
}}}
!Security  
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''11. Spam and Phishing Emails''<br>Phishing emails are on the rise, with more than a third aimed at stealing money. Many are designed to distribute malware. Minimize spam by care ''not to inadvertently leave unchecked'' options concerning distribution of personal data and email address to third parties when subscribing to websites, buying goods, downloading software and PARTICULARLY when dealing with [[PHISHING|Topic%20Slides/Email00%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] emails or communitating with collegues you suspect being slack on security. Phishing emails are characterised by an invitation to click on a link for reward or to avoid some disadvantage, are often but not always, addressed  to "undisclosed Recipients" and often written in poor grammar. Watch for misspelt domain names. For example "online.btcom" is phishing while "ebilling@bt.com" is genuine. Watch also for a BT alert coming from an "amazon.co.uk" domain! (Notice lower case A). These criminals do not want too many replies to sort through. Only a few from really gullible victims suits their purpose. Occasionally a phishing email can come from the address book of a known sender, when their password has been hacked. If in doubt, don't click on the link but go to the provider's genuine web site and navigate to that service.<br> &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Example1|Topic%20Slides/Email000%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Example2|Topic%20Slides/Email001%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Example3|Topic Slides/Email002.JPG]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Email Header Analyser|http://mxtoolbox.com/EmailHeaders.aspx]] &nbsp; &nbsp; Right click on email to view header.<br><br>''ALWAYS'' hover your mouse over a link in an email to ensure that the actual URL is the same as the typed URL and appears reasonable, even if the email appears to be genuine. Be particularly careful with TIFF image files.<br>There are two levels of spam filter when you use an email client and you can assist the software's learning process by using the SPAM or JUNK key, if provided, rather than just deleting. Having the email address of friendly correspondents in the CONTACTS or ADDRESS BOOK reduces the chance of the filter misdirecting important emails.<br>You cannot get a virus just by reading an email. Opening an email in the reading pane of any fairly modern email client alone cannot infect your computer. You are not OPENING an email when it is read in the viewing panel of an email client. You ARE opening it when you double click it in the listing or when you reply or forward it. Opening a spam email in HTML text code presents the greatest risk of malware entering your system if the spam is malicious. Even then, good up-to-date virus and malware software should protect. So don't reply to a spam email from a known sender to  tell  them their account has been hacked. Ring them up to advise them to change their password.<br>''About ~GameOver Zeus''. The ~GameOver Zeus trojan is spread through drive-by downloads, where the cybercriminals create a website that downloads malware onto any unprotected computer that visits that site. It is also distributed through the Cutwail spam botnet via phishing, where cybercriminals send counterfeit emails that appear to be legitimate communications from well-known businesses and organizations. These deceptive emails contain realistic language that could entice the recipient to click on a link or attachment, which ultimately deploys the ~GameOver Zeus malware onto the victim’s computer. The botnet automatically begins key logging when a user of an infected computer types into the Web browser, unwittingly giving cybercriminals access to passwords and private account information. The infected computer sends stolen data to the botnet’s server, and stores it there for later use by the criminal. See "Removing Zeus".<br>''Ransomware'' - The ~CryptoLocker scam is spread via an attachment which claims to be a voicemail, fax, invoice or transaction from your bank, encrypts your computer files and asks for a RANSOM to decrypy them. [[Decryption is not honoured and is impossible.|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28661463]] DO NOT OPEN emails or attachments claiming to be from a BANK or SECURITY company. Delete them. Your bank does not communicate with you by email nor does a security company send updates by email. Even more to watch is an email purporting to give advice on combating ~CryptoLocker which itself is a phishing email and contains a link to download the malware. Once infected, your computer is a write-off; don't pay any ransom but report to [[actionfraud.police.uk|http://www.actionfraud.police.uk/]]<br><br>''12. Encryption of Emails'' To secure the connection between your email provider and your computer or other device, you need to set up Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption - the same protection scheme that you depend on when checking your bank account or making online purchases. Check your Email Settings to discover if your client uses SSL.<br>If you check your email with a Web browser (whether on a desktop, a laptop, a smartphone, or a tablet), take a moment to ensure that SSL/TLS encryption is active. If it is, the website address (URL) will begin with ''[[https: instead of http|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQsKdtjwtYI]]''; depending on your browser, you should see some additional indication, such as a notification next to the address bar or a small yellow padlock icon on the status bar at the bottom of the browser window.<br>''Note.'' For ~BTinternet, the BT Yahoo mail server does require authentication, but this is not SSL, and the mail server [[doesn't support SSL by default|http://help.yahoo.com/kb/index?page=content&amp;y=PROD_MAIL_ML&amp;locale=en_US&amp;id=SLN3610]].  Make sure you tick the right box when setting up Live Mail. Webmail uses an https: address. There have been [[problems with the SSL/TLS system|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-26935905]]. ~BTInternet no longer uses the Yahoo servers.<br><br>''13. Email Account Password'' - Use a strong password and change it frequently. Change it in your account on your providers website (Webmail) and then in your client. See password generation on the [[SECURITY|Security##Passwords]] page para.2<br><br>Gmail now has a feature in 'Settings' where you can force [[SSH encrypted|http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/SSH.html]] pages each time you load gmail. This makes it harder or hackers to find holes into your account but does not avoid keyword scanning by the ISP for [[contextual advertisment data|http://ask-leo.com/does_google_read_my_email.html]] or [[spam filtering|http://www.leadformix.com/blog/2013/09/top-100-spam-trigger-words-and-phrases-to-avoid/]]. Any email account is at risk to hacking and to [[keyword scanning|http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-04/27/how-deep-packet-inspection-works]] by the ISP when stored on a US server, [[particularly Google|http://www.dailytech.com/Google+Yes+we+Read+Your+Gmail/article33184.htm]]. The strength of your password is key to keeping your account secure from hacking.  See EmailSecurity|<br>[[Opening an Email|http://www.howtogeek.com/135546/htg-explains-why-you-cant-get-infected-just-by-opening-an-email-and-when-you-can/]]<br><br>[[Spam Advice|http://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-your-computer/spam-and-scam-email/]]<br><br>[[Phishing Guide|Topic%20Slides/Email6%20Phishing%20Guide.jpg]]<br><br>[[Quiz|http://www.opendns.com/phishing-quiz/]]<br><br>[[BT emails|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/9191/~/what-is-phishing%3F-is-the-email-i-have-received-genuine%3F]]<br><br>[[Sources of Spam|https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140809202042-140470289-how-do-spammers-get-your-email-address]]<br><br>[[Drowned in Spam|http://askleo.com/im_drowning_in_spam_what_can_i_do/]]<br><br>[[Email Headers|http://www.emailaddressmanager.com/tips/header.html]]<br><br>[[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br><br><br><br>[[MS Security Centre|https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/wdsi/products?hdrFo=account&navV3Index=1]]<br><br><br><br>[[Ransom Spam|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-24964426]]<br><br>[[Removing Zeus|http://support.microsoft.com/gp/cu_sc_virsec_master]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Encryption|http://www.pcworld.com/article/254338/how_to_encrypt_your_email.html]]<br><br>[[How is email encrypted|http://www.pcworld.com/article/254338/how_to_encrypt_your_email.html]]<br><br>[[Thunderbird SSL|http://www.names.co.uk/support/email/upgrading_to_ssl/1375-how_to_enable_ssl_in_mozilla_thunderbird.html]]<br><br>[[Enigmail|https://securityinabox.org/en/thunderbird_main]]<br><br>[[BT Yahoo|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/6400/~/why-am-i-having-problems-receiving-bt-yahoo!-emails?]]<br><br>[[However|http://community.bt.com/t5/Other-BB-Queries/Email-Security-and-Encryption/td-p/894110]]<br><br> [[Account Security|http://www.google.co.uk/goodtoknow/online-safety/passwords/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Oops #007 Error|https://productforums.google.com/forum/#!topic/gmail/RME6foPlsdo;context-place=forum/gmail]]<br><br>[[Changing Passwords|Passwords##Changing]]|
}}}
!Etiquette
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''In a nutshell'' be aware of, and empathize with, your reader.<br><br>''Politely'' make it clear if you expect an answer, then you won't be disappointed by no reply<br><br>''Indicate'' in the body [[if you have added|Files/Attachment etiquette.jpg]] an attachment and mention the file type.<br><br>''Consider'' the size of your attachment in relation to the recipiant's facility to download it and the file type in relation to their ability to open it.<br><br>Emailing can be full of unintended pitfalls. Studying the Watson ''Tone Analyser'' can be a surprisingly fruitful passtime.|[[Topic Slide|Topic%20Slides/Email4%20Etiquette.JPG]]<br><br>[[12 Tips|http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/outlook-help/12-tips-for-better-e-mail-etiquette-HA001205410.aspx]]<br><br>[[Emoticons|http://pc.net/emoticons/]]<br><br>[[Smileys|http://uk.messenger.yahoo.com/features/emoticons/]]<br><br>[[Beware Emojis|http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/news/phones/2014/12/got-a-samsung-phone-you-could-get-charged-extra-for-sending-emojis?utm_source=MSE_Newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_term=08-Dec-15-v2&utm_campaign=nt-hiya&utm_content=19]]<br><br>[[Tone Analyser|http://www.ibm.com/watson/developercloud/tone-analyzer.html]]|
}}}  

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{{{
<<sectionTOC>>
}}}
 
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">We often think of exporting email date only when we change computers. However, as with other data, accidents do happen and backing up either some or all of your emails and particularly contacts, is a wise insurance. The process is easy and reliable.<br><br>Some email clients have an automatic <u>Backup facility</u> while most have a manual <u>Export and Import facility.</u><br><br><strong><u> Backup facility</u></strong>. - works in the background but has the disadvantage that individual emails and contacts cannot be accessed -all are restored.<br><strong><u>Export and Import facility.</u></strong>.  Not all clients export to the same file types, so if you are changing clients, take care to choose a common file type that can be imported into the new client. Microsoft Word for Mail Merge and the Outlook Client offer a choice of alternative file types. You export to a carefully noted easily found location on an external drive (SSD) for later import. The standard file types are:<br><strong>a. Emails - .eml</strong> file with a single file for each email<br><strong>b. Contacts - .vcf</strong> file with a choice of a single file or a separate fle for each contact. Some clients will export to <strong>.csv files</strong> (comma separated value file).<br><strong>c. Events and Tasks - .ics</strong> file with a choice of a single file or a separate fle for each contact.<br><strong>d. Settings - .xml</strong> file with just one file for your settings.<br><br>The advantage of saving to a single file per email is that you can view saved emails individually without first importing them back nto the client.<br><br><strong><u>Transferring Email</u></strong>. - In the FILE menu of your old email client you will find an EXPORT command. Your contacts and old emails can be exported separately into files which can be transferred to the new computer, and then IMPORTED into the new client. There are a number of different export file types so check which file type the new client will import and choose the common one.<br><br><strong><u>Saving Gmail Emails and Contacts to Computer</u></strong> - Just set up your Gmail account as POP3 in any client and your gmails and contacts will be downloaded. After all that's what a client does.<br><br><strong><u>Windows 10 Mail App</u></strong> - If you are one of those people who hoards emails from a previous life, don't use the Mail App. It has no Import or Export facility. Although you can set up POP3 in Advanced Settings, emails cannot be exported to a folder for backup.  Luckily all messages are stored locally as .eml files in a Mail folder located deep in your hidden AppData folder but they are not easy to identify, See Mail Tutorial link.  - </html>|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Export - Outlook|https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Export-or-backup-email-contacts-and-calendar-to-an-Outlook-pst-file-14252b52-3075-4e9b-be4e-ff9ef1068f91]]<br><br>[[Export - Thunderbird|http://its.isber.ucsb.edu/guides/exporting-e-mail-thunderbird]] <br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Mail Tutorial|http://www.eightforums.com/tutorials/27669-mail-app-backup-email-messages-windows-8-a.html]]|
}}}
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<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tip</u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; Always hover your mouse over a link to reveal its address.</strong></html>
<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''Spam and Phishing Emails''<br>Phishing emails are on the rise, with more than a third aimed at stealing money. Many are designed to distribute malware. Minimize spam by care not to inadvertently leave unchecked options concerning distribution of personal data and email address to third parties when subscribing to websites, buying goods, downloading software and PARTICULARLY when dealing with [[PHISHING|Topic%20Slides/Email00%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] emails or communitating with collegues you suspect being slack on security. Phishing emails are characterised by an invitation to click on a link for reward or to avoid some disadvantage, are often but not always, addressed  to "undisclosed Recipients" and often written in poor grammar.  Watch for misspelt domain names. These criminals do not want too many replies to sort through. Only a few from really gullible victims suits their purpose. Occasionally a phishing email can come from the address book of a known sender, when their password has been hacked. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Example1|Topic%20Slides/Email000%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Example2|Topic%20Slides/Email001%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Example3|Topic Slides/Email002.JPG]]<br><br>''ALWAYS'' hover your mouse over a link in an email to ensure that the actual URL is the same as the typed URL and appears reasonable, even if the email appears to be genuine. Be particularly careful with TIFF image files.<br>There are two levels of spam filter when you use an email client and you can assist the software's learning process by using the SPAM key, if provided, rather than just deleting. Having the email address of friendly correspondents in the CONTACTS or ADDRESS BOOK reduces the chance of the filter misdirecting important emails.<br>You cannot get a virus just by reading an email. Opening an email in the reading pane of any fairly modern email client alone cannot infect your computer. ''You are not OPENING an email when it is read in the viewing panel of an email client.'' You ARE opening it when you double click it in the listing or when you reply or forward it. Opening a spam email in HTML text code presents the greatest risk of malware entering your system if the spam is malicious. Even then, good up-to-date virus and malware software should protect. So don't reply to a spam email from a known sender to  tell  them their account has been hacked. Ring them up to advise them to change their password.<br><br>''About ~GameOver Zeus''. The ~GameOver Zeus trojan is spread through drive-by downloads, where the cybercriminals create a website that downloads malware onto any unprotected computer that visits that site. It is also distributed through the Cutwail spam botnet via phishing, where cybercriminals send counterfeit emails that appear to be legitimate communications from well-known businesses and organizations. These deceptive emails contain realistic language that could entice the recipient to click on a link or attachment, which ultimately deploys the ~GameOver Zeus malware onto the victim’s computer. The botnet automatically begins key logging when a user of an infected computer types into the Web browser, unwittingly giving cybercriminals access to passwords and private account information. The infected computer sends stolen data to the botnet’s server, and stores it there for later use by the criminal.<br><br>''Ransomware'' - The ~CryptoLocker scam is spread via an attachment which claims to be a voicemail, fax, invoice or transaction from your bank, encrypts your computer files and asks for a RANSOM to decrypy them. [[Decryption is not honoured and is impossible.|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28661463]] DO NOT OPEN emails or attachments claiming to be from a BANK or SECURITY company. Delete them. Your bank does not communicate with you by email or security company send updates by email. Even more to watch is an email purporting to give advice on combating ~CryptoLocker which itself is a phishing email and contains a link to download the malware. Once infected, your computer is a write-off; don't pay any ransom but report to [[actionfraud.police.uk|http://www.actionfraud.police.uk/]]<br><br>''Encryption of Emails'' To secure the connection between your email provider and your computer or other device, you need to set up Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) encryption - the same protection scheme that you depend on when checking your bank account or making online purchases. Check your Email Settings to discover if your client uses encryption.<br>If you check your email with a Web browser (whether on a desktop, a laptop, a smartphone, or a tablet), take a moment to ensure that SSL/TLS encryption is active. If it is, the website address (URL) will begin with ''[[https: instead of http|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQsKdtjwtYI]]''; depending on your browser, you should see some additional indication, such as a notification next to the address bar or a small yellow padlock icon on the status bar at the bottom of the browser window.<br>''Note.'' For ~BTinternet, the BT Yahoo mail server does require authentication, but this is not SSL, and the mail server [[doesn't support SSL by default|http://help.yahoo.com/kb/index?page=content&amp;y=PROD_MAIL_ML&amp;locale=en_US&amp;id=SLN3610]].  Make sure you tick the right box when setting up Live Mail. Webmail uses an https: address.<br><br>''Email Account Password'' - Use a strong password and change it frequently. See password generation on the [[SECURITY|Security##Passwords]] page para.2<br><br>''If you suspect'' your email address has been compromised and your password stolen, use the trusted, reputable and secure site called "Haveibeenpwned?" to check. Next, read this article [[about email account hacking|http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2375028,00.asp]]. Then, change your email account password, particularly if you have unwisely used the same password for any other account. Change it in your account on your providers website (Webmail) and then in your email client. See [[Passwords|Security##Passwords]]|<br>[[Opening an Email|http://www.howtogeek.com/135546/htg-explains-why-you-cant-get-infected-just-by-opening-an-email-and-when-you-can/]]<br><br>[[Spam Advice|http://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-your-computer/spam-and-scam-email/]]<br><br>[[Phishing Guide|Topic%20Slides/Email6%20Phishing%20Guide.jpg]]<br><br>[[Quiz|http://www.opendns.com/phishing-quiz/]]<br><br>[[Sources of Spam|https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140809202042-140470289-how-do-spammers-get-your-email-address]]<br><br>[[Drowned in Spam|http://askleo.com/im_drowning_in_spam_what_can_i_do/]]<br><br>[[About Email Addresses|http://email.about.com/od/emailbehindthescenes/f/email_case_sens.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Ransom Spam|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-24964426]]<br><br>[[Removing Zeus|http://support.microsoft.com/gp/cu_sc_virsec_master]]<br><br><br><br>[[Encryption|http://www.pcworld.com/article/254338/how_to_encrypt_your_email.html]]<br><br>[[How is email encrypted|http://www.pcworld.com/article/254338/how_to_encrypt_your_email.html]]<br><br>[[Thunderbird SSL|http://www.names.co.uk/support/email/upgrading_to_ssl/1375-how_to_enable_ssl_in_mozilla_thunderbird.html]]<br><br>[[Enigmail|https://securityinabox.org/en/thunderbird_main]]<br><br>[[BT Yahoo|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/6400/~/why-am-i-having-problems-receiving-bt-yahoo!-emails?]]<br><br>[[However|http://community.bt.com/t5/Other-BB-Queries/Email-Security-and-Encryption/td-p/894110]]<br><br> [[Account Security|http://www.google.co.uk/goodtoknow/online-safety/passwords/]]<br><br>[[Oops #007 Error|https://productforums.google.com/forum/#!topic/gmail/RME6foPlsdo;context-place=forum/gmail]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Have I Been Pwned?|https://haveibeenpwned.com/]]<br><br>[[If you have been|http://www.pcworld.com/article/229301/sony_pictures_hack.html]]<br><br>[[Changing Passwords|Passwords##Changing]]|
}}}
+++[<strong>&nbsp; If your address book has been hacked</strong>, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br><br>''So how did they get your password in the first place?''<br><br>Some people think that once they've changed their password they're done. Let me ask: If you found a burglar wandering through your house with a copy of your house key, wouldn't you wonder how he got it?<br><br>So the next question you need to answer is how they got your password in the first place. You need to know this so you can prevent them from getting your new password! Here are some possibilities:<br><br>''1. They guessed it'' or discovered it by trial and error. Bad passwords include your name, your birthday, a word from the dictionary, etc. See also [[Passwords]]<br><br>''2. They obtained it from your service provider'' by clicking "lost password" and answering your security questions with information they know about you (mother's maiden name, childhood pet, etc.)<br><br>''3. You gave it to them'', by typing it into their web site. The strongest password in the world is no good if you give it away for the asking! Maybe the web site was a phony one mimicking the login screen for your e-mail service. Or maybe it promised some freebie (e.g. cup of coffee) if you just enter your e-mail address and password. A social networking site may ask for your e-mail password to invite your friends to join their network. Or you may get a phony e-mail, ostensibly from your service provider, asking you to click on a link to a form and enter your information to "confirm" your account.<br><br>''4. You used the same password on another site.'' Many web services require you to sign up with a username and password. Do not choose the same password as for your e-mail account! Doing so would give the operator of that site access to your e-mail account, to read your mail and to send out mail in your name.<br><br>''5. A "spyware" program in your computer (or a public computer you used) saw it.'' Spyware is malicious software which runs stealthily in the background, virtually looking over your shoulder and sending what you type back to its headquarters. One form of spyware, keylogging software, quietly records every keystroke you make. Many virus scanners do not detect spyware, so you should periodically scan your computer with a specific spyware scanner - Malwarebytes ~Anti-Malware Free.||
}}}
===
<br>
+++[<strong>&nbsp; If you suspect unusual Internet activity when your computer is idle,</strong> click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br><br>''Unusual Internet Activity''<br><br>If you suspect your Internet is running slowly or that there is internet activity when your computer is idle, the cause could be:<br>1. Normal routine update of programs, Apps, drivers, news streams, cloud systems and web pages.<br>For these you will have at some time cautiously given permission to connect to the Internet.<br>2. Malicious code feeding back data from webcam, key-logging utilities and rootkit remote control.<br>Assuming your AV software has not intercepted malware, run the ~MalwareBytes utility which you always have ready installed in your PC.<br><br>''Malware Symptoms''<br><br>While these types of malware differ greatly in how they spread and infect computers, they can all produce similar symptoms. Computers that are infected with malware can exhibit any of the following symptoms:<br>Increased CPU usage<br>Slow computer or web browser speeds<br>Problems connecting to networks<br>Freezing or crashing<br>Modified or deleted files<br>Appearance of strange files, programs, or desktop icons<br>Programs running, turning off, or reconfiguring themselves <br>(malware will often reconfigure or turn off antivirus and firewall programs)<br>Strange computer behaviour<br>Emails/messages being sent automatically and without user’s knowledge (a friend receives a strange email from you that you did not send) <br><br>''Internet activity can be monitored by:''<br><br>1. Viewing the ~TaskManager, Performance tab choosing "Internet" or "Ethernet",<br>2. Downloading and using the safe real-time Internet monitoring utility Glassware, <br>3. Recording a period of activity with the Windows "netstat command"and analysing it with tools in "~SysInternal Tools".  See link.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[List of Malware Types|https://www.veracode.com/blog/2012/10/common-malware-types-cybersecurity-101]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Glassware Download|https://www.glasswire.com/download/]]<br><br>[[Netstat Command|http://www.howtogeek.com/98601/easily-monitor-your-computers-internet-connection-activity/]]<br><br>[[SysInternal Tools|http://www.howtogeek.com/school/sysinternals-pro/lesson10/all/#]]|
}}}
===
<br><br><br><br>
-----
<br><br><br><br>
!Basic Skills
{{invisibletable{
|width:90em;''Below are the basic skills'' you need to study to start getting productive use out of the letter writing, calculating and presentation utilities listed below. For each you need the basic skills of: Highlighting, Copy, ''[[Cut & Paste]]'', Opening, Closing & Saving files.|
}}}
!The Utilities
{{invisibletable{
|width:33em;''Word Processor''<br><br>1. Selecting font, style, size; alignment<br>2. Indent, Ruler and Tabs, Numbering<br>3. Tables, Columns, Boarders & Shading<br>4. Menus and Options<br>5. Mail Merge using data in Excel<br>6. Labels & Envelopes<br><br>[[Beginner's Word Tutorial|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/MW/s1p2.html]] |width:30em;''Spread Sheet''<br><br>1. Cells, Copying & Pasting, Sorting<br>2. Formatting Cells<br>3. Cell calculation, Formulae<br>4. Data and using Charts<br>5. Using Templates<br><br><br>[[Beginner's Spreadsheet Tutorial|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/ME/mes1p1.html]]|width:36em;''Presentation''<br><br>1. Text holders, inserting images and text <br>2. Text size, indentation, colour<br>3. Copying and saving pages and presentation<br>4. Using Animation<br>5. Running a Slide Show<br><br><br>[[Beginner's PowerPoint Tutorial|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dgrsVnzB9Vc]]|
}}}
!How to Learn
{{invisibletable{
|width:90em;''Attempt to apply the skill. If you have difficulty'', have a look at the [[Tutorials]] page and choose one that is appropriate, particularly one which demonstrates a skill visually in ~YouTube, such as [[Copy & Paste|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c66pvfilotA]] and [[Word 2010 Parts 1 to 5|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeI-mFTH37w]]. With the more advanced tutorials, make sure you pick a demonstration which uses the same version of utility as you have in your computer.<br><br>Use Google Search for help on concepts not explained in a tutorial. Use the ''[[Jargon page|Jargonbeginners]]'' and [[INDEX]] to learn KEYWORDS to use in search. Using the correct keywords helps you to ask Google the right question to pinpoint the answer.|
}}}
Those using [[OneDrive|Cloud]] have access to the ''Database and Spreadsheet Worksheets''.
----

<br><br>Although many of the issues below are covered in other pages of the Worksheet, the fact that they top the list of queries suggests they may interest you and this page will provide quick access to an answer.
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;[[1. You mentioned your DVD drive wasn't responding to DVDs|DVD Drive]].<br>[[2. I live in Bleasby, but cannot use iPlayer!|Improving Broadband Speed]]<br>[[3. How does one copy from one program to another?|Cut & Paste]]<br>[[4. How do I change text size so it is easier to read?|Text Size]]<br>[[5. Why can't I get on the Internet?|WiFi Not Working]]<br>[[6. I'm using an iPad but cannot access the Worksheet.|Reading Worksheet on iPad]]<br>[[7. Can I have a Windows 8 laptop for less than £400?|W8 for under £400]]<br>[[8. How did you know that picture was taken in Cornwall?|What is EXif]]<br>[[9. When I save a letter in MS Word, I can never find it again.|Saving a File]]<br>[[10. How can I find my Downloads?|Finding Downloads]]<br>[[11. I can't open and read an attachment|Reading Attachments]]<br>[[12. How do I print an attachment?|Printing an Attachment]]|[[13. How do I make an address header in a Word letter?|Address Header]]<br>[[14. I keep losing my mouse pointer.|Mouse Pointer]]<br>[[15. I can't find things you refer to in Control Panel|Search for Windows Tools]]<br>[[16. How do I make a shortcut?|Make a Shortcut]]<br>[[17. How do I move the Taskbar?|Moving The Taskbar]]<br>[[18. What else can I do with my Computer?|Other Computer Uses]]<br>[[19. Is it safe to continue using XP on my Computer?|XP Warning]]<br>[[20. Should I learn Windows Keyboard Shortcuts?|Windows Keyboard Shortcuts]]<br>[[21. What is Ransomware?|Ransomware]]<br>[[22. What future tech. innovations can we expect?|Technological Innovations]]<br>[[23. What happens when I empty the Recycle Bin?|e-Waste]]<br>[[24. What extra precautions should I take on the move?|SecurityOutsideTheHome]]|
}}}

-----

<br><br><br><br>
!3.Cut & Paste 
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Cut, or Copy, and Paste is the  universal means of transferring text, links and images from page to page or program to program. The best way to hone this skill is to watch a video  - then practice highlighting and copy text, links and images on a blank page. Drag & Drop with the mouse is often used to Copy & Paste or move a file to another folder.|[[YouTube Video 1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=629gkPnZ1Ns]]<br>[[YouTube Video 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCYP0mPeDoU]]<br>[[Drag & Drop|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/moving-and-copying-files-by-using-the-drag-and-drop-method]]|
}}}   
!4. Text Size
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Text size can be controlled in a number of ways but it depends where the text is:-<br>1. Icon size on the Desktop - is altered by right clicking an empty spot on the desktop and selecting from the VIEW menu.<br>2. Text size in a browser is altered by selecting the VIEW or CONTENT menu in browser OPTIONS and selecting a comfortable font size.<br>3. The zoom control in a browser also alters the size of the whole page and consequently the readable size of the text.<br>4. Text size in a Word document or email body is altered by highlighting the text and changing the FONT size in the menu. A permanent font size setting is made in the utility's PREFERENCES or OPTIONS menu.<br>5. It is sometimes worth checking your screen RESOLUTION is set to RECOMMENDED. Right click on an empty spot on the desktop and select SCREEN RESOLUTION from the drop-down menu. Select the RECOMMENDED option from the drop-down menu.|
}}}
!14.Mouse Pointer
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;In CONTROL PANEL select MOUSE.<br>There are three changes possible to make to improve visibility of the mouse POINTER.<br>1. Make a large black pointer. On the POINTERS tab choose "Windows Inverted(extra large)".<br>2. Add to the variety of pointers available by downloading BIG RED POINTERS<br>3. On the POINTER OPTIONS tab tick "Show location when I press CTRL key".|[[Mouse Setup|http://qwertytutorials.com/software_tutorials/windows_xp/change_mouse_xp.php]]<br><br>[[Big Red Pointers|http://www.bmyers.com/public/1425.cfm]]|
}}}
!15.Search Windows Tools in Control Panel 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. It is much easier to find items in Control Panel if it "''Displays as a menu''" rather than as a linked window. Customize the START MENU in "Start Menu Properties". The tutorial can be interpreted for Vista and W7. If you have Classic Start installed for Windows 8, the same customization is done in SETTINGS.<br>2. ''A quick way'' to find a Windows Utility is to use the search box at the foot of the START MENU. Well chosen keywords are necessary so you need to know the correct name of the utility you are searching.|[[Customizing Start Menu|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/bcs4p10.html]]<br><br>[[Customize CP in W7|http://www.tweakhound.com/tweaking-windows-7/3/]]<br><br>[[Control Panel]]|
}}}   
!16.Making a Shortcut 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. To make a shortcut ''on the desktop'' from an item elsewhere, right click on the item and from the menu, select "Send to" and from the next menu, select "Desktop (create shortcut)". The shortcut appears on your ''Desktop''. You can rename the shortcut.<br>2. If you want to make a shortcut to an item ''in the same folder'', right click on the item and select "Create Shortcut". You can then move the shortcut to another location.<br>3. To make a short cut on the Desktop, perhaps ''to a website'', right click on an empty space and select NEW - SHORTCUT. In the wizard window, copy the URL from the browser address bar showing the website. Or if perhaps to a file, BROWSE to the file. Click NEXT and enter a NAME for the shortcut. Click FINISH. The word ITEM above refers to a program, a folder, a file or even another shortcut. Alternatively, drag the highlighted address to an open folder in File Explorer.|[[Make a Shortcut to Worksheet|../New Worksheet%20Please%20Read%20First.pdf]]|
}}}
!17. The Taskbar
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;The most common [[aspect ratio|http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530115(v=vs.85).aspx]] of a desk or laptop screen is 16:9 - a wide screen. Because the vertical dimension of the screen determines how much scrolling you have to do to read down the page (given it is at maximum zoom), then moving the taskbar from the default bottom of screen position to one side, increases the viewable depth of the page.<br>''For XP and Vista''- Right-click on your taskbar. If there is a check mark beside Lock the Taskbar, click "Lock the Taskbar" to unlock it. Drag your taskbar to the left, right, or top of your screen. To drag the taskbar, click and hold the mouse button over the taskbar. Then, while holding down the mouse button, drag the taskbar to its new location. When the taskbar is in place, release the mouse button. Re-lock. For ''W7 and W8'', right click on the task bar and select properties; choose location.<br>The preferred side for the taskbar is the ''left'' to minimize confusion with a right hand scroll bar.''To pin a utility shortcut'' to the taskbar, for quick access, right click the item in ''Programs'' and select "Pin to taskbar".|[[Tips|http://lifehacker.com/5532578/the-power-users-guide-to-the-windows-7-taskbar]]|
}}}   
!18.What else can I do with my computer?
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. A [[list of 35 other things|http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/35-cool-and-fun-things-to-try-with-your-pc-669492]] to do with a PC.<br>2. [[Family Research|Family Research]]<br>3. [[Design|http://psd.tutsplus.com/articles/web/50-totally-free-lessons-in-graphic-design-theory/]]<br>4. [[Control Devices|Synergy]]<br>5.[[ Audio and video|Multimedia]]<br>6. [[Communicate|http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/elearning/communicationskills/index.asp]]<br>7. [[Synchronize|http://lifehacker.com/372175/free-ways-to-synchronize-folders-between-computers]] and [[automate|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/how-to-automate-tasks-in-windows-1107254]] computer operations<br>8. [[Photography|http://bestphotolessons.com/]]<br>9. Study subjects [[other than|http://www.bbc.co.uk/learning/onlinecourses/]] Basic Computing. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Resources for Lifelong Learners|http://www.diygenius.com/100-self-education-resources-for-lifelong-learners/]]<br>10. [[Investigate Raspberry Pi|RaspberryPi]]|[[Paint Shop Tutorials|http://www.pspug.org/tut/tutbasic.shtml]]<br><br>[[PhotoShop Tutorials|http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/12/29/our-15-most-popular-photo-editing-tutorials-of-2012/]]<br><br>[[Windows Utilities|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Microsoft_Windows_components]]<br><br>[[Interior Design|http://www.sweethome3d.com/index.jsp]]<br><br>[[CIA Factbook|https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/]]<br><br>[[TED Talks|http://www.ted.com/talks]]|
}}}
!20.Windows Keyboard Shortcuts
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Expert touch typists often prefer to navigate Windows and Utilities with keyboard shortcuts. This saves alternating between the keyboard and the mouse. The list is long and varies between Utilities although there is some standardization. If you use a word-processor frequently is is worth learning those for MS Word.|[[Keyboard Shortcut List|http://www.computerhope.com/shortcut/windows.htm]]|
}}}   


----------------
<br><br><br><br>
!1. DVD Drive
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;When you insert a CD or DVD, the computer follows instructions controlling Autoplay. Go to CONTROL PANEL - AUTOPLAY and make sure none of the devices has "Take no action" selected. If it has, change it in the adjacent drop-down menu. (see example). Check also that the problem is not with the DVD rather than the PC by trying another DVD from a different source.|<br>[[Autoplay|../Files/AutoPlay.jpg]]|
}}}
!2. Broadband Speed 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The BBC recommends 2 Mbits/s for iPlayer to run smothly, although it will run well at 1.3 Mbits/s. Test your broadband speed and compare it with others in your neighbourhood. If your speed is significantly slower than most in your immediate neighbourhood, then you could try these:- <br>1. Try router reboot, and test again. Check expert review for your modem model.<br>2. Consider losses in length of telephone extension cable to the point where your router is plugged in. Test by temporally plugging router to the ''main BT socket''.<br>3. Use Ethernet connection to TV instead of Wifi, although this is untidy.<br>4. Use lower quality iPlayer setting (default) or download the program in iPlayer Desktop.<br>5. After checking with your immediate neighbours and you are certain the cause is not internal, ask for a landline check and then ask your ISP to improve your ADSL signal at the exchange. There is no need to agree to any engineering charges.|[[Broadband Speed|Networks##Making]]<br><br>[[Broadband Speed Tips|http://www.broadband.co.uk/help/speed-up-your-broadband/]]<br><br>[[Improving Speed|http://www.cswbroadband.org.uk/about-broadband/self-help-guides/how-to-improve-your-broadband-speed/]]<br><br>[[Cables at Amazon|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Duronic-Professional-Headed-Network-Cable/dp/B003CL71II/ref=sr_1_4?s=computers&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1380975364&amp;sr=1-4]]<br><br>[[Cabling4Less|http://www.cabling4less.co.uk/category.php?cat_id=158&amp;gclid=CPOA0-OQn7oCFRPItAodMQcASw]]<br><br>[[Expert Review Routers|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/wireless-routers]]<br><br>[[Bandwidth|http://searchenterprisewan.techtarget.com/definition/bandwidth]]|
}}}
!5. ~WiFi will not work
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;Distinguish between your ~WiFi speed and quality, your Broadband (ADSL) speed and quality, and your Internet connection.<br><br>When analysing an Internet connection problem, investigate ''THREE'' areas:-<br>(a) ''The quality of your ADSL Broadband signa''l. The ability to get Internet conection on an alternative device confirms this is OK. Rebooting your router often resolves a problem of connection to the exchange. otherwise speak to your ISP, but first check for faults in the filtered phone line to your router.<br>(b) ''The quality of ~WiFi signal'' transmitted by your Router. The reception of the ~WiFi signal may be improved by repositioning the router. Its strength can be observed using the ''Inssider app''.<br>(c) Reception of an otherwise strong ~WiFi signal then depends on the ''right Network Adapter driver.'' This can be checked and updated in Device Manager.<br><br>At the end of the TASK BAR is the Quick Launch Notification area. The ~WiFi or Network icon for XP differs from that for Vista, W7 and W8. Right click the icon and choose REPAIR or TROUBLESHOOT in the window that appears.  This may be Internet Properties or the Network & Sharing Centre. Then follow advice given by the troubleshooter. If there is a red cross in the Network & Sharing Centre, click it and the Troubleshooter will start. It is possible to have the Icon showing a connection but without Internet access. This could indicate a Router or a Broadband signal problem. It is not possible to have Internet access if ~WiFi is off, without using an Ethernet cable.. ''It is possible that the keyboard ~WiFi toggle key has inadvertently been pressed to OFF.''<br>It is important to make sure that NETWORK DISCOVERY is on. Select "on" from the drop-down menu in the Network Sharing Centre. If there is no ~WiFi icon visible, select Notification Area Icons from Control Panel and select "Show icon".<br><br>Given that your ADSL signal from the exchange is OK and your ~WiFi is functioning correctly and ~BTOpenReach are doing their job correctly, there is still the question of an "Internet connection". This is provided by your Internet Service Provider (ISP) for emails and Web access. If you are receiving ADSL Broadband and your ~WiFi is working correctly, it is rare that you will not have Internet access. You must of course have an ISP Broadband account and corectly set up your modem. However, check the Service status of your ISP in your area. Google search will provide their status Web site. Additionally use the Network TROUBLESHOOTER in CONTROL PANEL which specifically checks and fixes this third element.|[[Network Icons|Files/XP & W7 Network Icons.jpg]]<br><br>[[Network Sharing Centre|../Topic%20Slides/Network%20Sharing%20Centre.JPG]]<br><br>[[Network Sharing Centre|http://www.7tutorials.com/how-troubleshoot-network-problems]]<br><br>[[Make connection|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-find-a-wireless-network-using-windows-7.navId-323046.html]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/troubleshoot-network-connection-problems]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://www8.hp.com/uk/en/support-topics/network-internet-support/slow-dropped-network-connection.html]]<br><br>[[Things to check|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OuZqHSu5c_I]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Setting Up a Modem|http://www.dlink.com/uk/en/support/faq/modems/dsl-modems/dsl-series/how-do-i-setup-my-adsl-ethernet-modem-for-internet-access]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------


!6. iPad - I can't read this Worksheet on my iPad.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Tablets behave slightly differently in some ways to laptops. Their simplicity comes from the use of independent APPS. To deal with files and browsers, they often need some help. To read .html web files, download a file reader app called "~GoodReader". For those using an Android tablet try "HTML Reader".<br>Assuming you have the ~DropBox App installed, to read the Worksheet, open the file "~BasicComputingWorksheet.html" from the ~DropBox folders with ~GoodReader, and bookmark this page. Then open each of the other Worksheet page files in turn. Thereafter the internal links to each page will work and the Worksheet can in future be accessed from the bookmark.<br>There is a series of tutorials on ~YouTube of value to new iPad users. These would supplement the User Guide on the iPad itself.|[[iPad Tutorials|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMht9_F3580]]<br><br>[[50 iPad Tips|http://www.techradar.com/news/mobile-computing/tablets/50-really-useful-ipad-tips-and-tricks-688556]]<br><br>[[iPad Complete Guide|https://manuals.info.apple.com/MANUALS/1000/MA1595/en_US/ipad_user_guide.pdf]]<br><br>[[GoodReader Guide|http://moynihan.ws/iPad_Guides/GoodReader_Guide.html]]|
}}}   
!7. W8 for under £400
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;A number of websites analyze laptops available by features, manufacturer and price.<br>Try these. Consider the Lenovo with 15.6 screen, W8, and Intel i3 processor for £379. Then, of course, there's further help on the [[Buying New|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO]] and [[Shopping|ShoppingOn-Line]] pages of the Worksheet|[[PC World|http://www.pcworld.co.uk/gbuk/lenovo-laptops-netbooks/laptops/laptops/703_7006_70006_1700_ba00002524-bv00302286-ba00002522-bv00172555/299-499-criteria.html]]<br><br>[[Price Runner|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/cl/27/Laptops#attr_54120216=55149838&amp;loadGuide=1&amp;price_min=&amp;price_max=400]]|
}}}
!22. Technological Inovations
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The most bizarre to date is Sony's ~SmartWig which will be able to monitor the wearer's health, give directions and control slideshows streamed to TV by tapping their sideburns! See: www.snipca.com/10824|
}}}     
!23. e-Waste - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;What is it?  Is it exported to Africa?  What can be done?|[[What isit?|http://www.slideshare.net/ketanwadodkar/e-waste-tce-r2]]<br><br>[[What can be Recycled?|http://www.recyclenow.com/why_recycling_matters/electricals/blitz_your_ewaste.html]]<br><br>[[Export|http://rt.com/news/e-waste-illegal-environment-uk-043/]]|
}}}

-----
<br><br><br><br>
!8. What is ~EXif?
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Note'' the FAQ number and click it. Open an image in the image editor and viewer, ''Irfanview'' and inspect FILE INFORMATION in the Image menu. At the bottom of the window showing file name, type, location and size, is a button named "Exif Info". Opening this window reveals information about the camera with which the image was taken. If the camera had collected GPS information, further buttons display the location of the picture on Google Maps and Earth. For ~IrfanView to show Exif Info, you may need to download additional ~PLUG-INS from the ~IrfanView site - Plugins page.  |[[Exif Info|Files/Exif%20GPS.JPG]]<br><br>[[Go to Plugins page|http://www.irfanview.com/]]<br><br>[[PhotoEnhancement]]|
}}} 
!9. Saving a file 
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;When you save a file there are ''THREE essential items'' to check:-<br>1. The destination folder - so you know where to find it.<br>2. The file name - so it can be recognized.<br>3. The file type - so that it can be read by an associated program.|[[Essential Items|Files/SaveAs.JPG]]|
}}}
!10. Finding Downloads -  
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;To avoid losing a file you need to:-<br>1. Save the file to a known destination. See FAQ 9.<br>2. Set your browser so save to a known folder in TOOLS - BROWSER OPTIONS<br> A common cause of losing a file is by not checking [[THE FILE DESTINATION|SaveAs.JPG]] when saving, and it disappears into the default "Temporary Folder" used by the utility.<br>If you have lost a file, use SEARCH in Windows Explorer. You will need to know the name, or at least part, of the file.|[[Browser Options|http://www.guidingtech.com/11776/change-file-download-locations-chrome-firefox-opera-ie/]]<br><br>[[Using Search|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/window-on-windows/take-advantage-of-search-filters-in-windows-explorer/3915]]|
}}}
!11.Reading attachments
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;When you click the attached file icon on an email, the computer automatically OPENS the attachment, if:-<br>1. You have the ''appropriate program'' in your computer to read that file type, and<br>2. That program has the correct ''file associations'' for the attachment file type.<br>If you right click the attachment icon, you are given the options to view or save the attachment. See para 9. If you are unable to open the attachment, save it to a known folder. When the file is saved, right click on it and select OPEN WITH. The menu lists the programs available to open the file. For future convenience you may like to set the DEFAULT program associated with this file type. If no program is available to open the file, GOOGLE with keywords "FILE <file extension> OPEN WITH", learn about the file type and install the appropriate utility.|[[Show File Extension -1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkTR2C8eE6s]]<br><br>[[File Association - 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voInaUGlFhk]]<br><br>[[Attachments Tutorial|http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/attachments.htm#opening]]<br><br>[[Set Default Program|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qsPgSZI24s]]|
}}}   
!12.Printing an attachment
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;See paras. 8 and 10 on the Email page of the Worksheet.|[[Email Page|Email]]|
}}}
!13. Address Header
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;This question arises when the composer wants to place the address in the top RH corner of the letter. There are a number of ways - use the feature called HEADER, use TAB STOPS or make a single row TABLE and place the address in the RH cell. The last is the easiest.<br>When this is done it is worth turning your document into a TEMPLATE to avoid having to repeat the process for every letter.<br>This tutorial illustrates TAB STOPS used in a business letter.  [[Tutorial|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVAWnGerrsU]]|[[Using the Header|http://www.officetooltips.com/word_2003/tips/working_with_headers_and_footers.html]]<br><br>[[Using Tab Stops|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s2p4.html]]<br><br>[[Make a Table|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s10p1.html]]<br><br>[[Making a Template|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s8p3.html]]|
}}}
!19. XP Warning
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;If you continue to use Microsoft XP operating system after 8 April 2014, you are putting yourself - and everyone else online - at risk. This is the date Microsoft finally ends its security support for XP. It is now seriously out of date and will be subject to even more attacks by hackers' malware which can spread to others.<br>If you have no alternative, at least ''never go online.'' Please advise your family members who may be unaware of the danger.|
}}}
!21. Ransomware 
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Ransomware is currently one of the ''most dangerous'' and expensive incidents of malware and infects your computer fatally through an attachment on a phishing email. See the entry on the [["Email" page of this Worksheet at para.12.|Email]]|
}}}


-----
   
<br>
''This page offers some rudimentary ideas and links, an introduction to the hobby of Family Research.''
 
!!!''First some general observations:''<br>
1. ''What is the difference between Genealogy and Family Research?''
 [[Genealogy|http://genealogy.about.com/library/glossary/bldef-genealogy.htm]], concerns the study of ancestry and descent, the search for ancestors, recording detail of birth, marriage and death (BMD) and displaying an ancestral tree, while family history, is the narrative of the events in your ancestors' lives and tells your family's story. [[Family history|http://genealogy.about.com/library/glossary/bldef-familyhistory.htm]] is genealogy brought to life.<br>
2. ''DNA'' - If the trend continues at the current rate, by 2016 the majority of children will be born to parents who are not married. It is estimated that around 50,000 births are registered in Britain every year without the father’s name being recorded. Together with possible changes to Census data collection, the traditional techniques used in genealogy will become eroded. The breakdown of the centuries-old surname transmission process is gradually growing with each decade. Genealogists in 100 years time will warn "newbie" researchers that traditional family linking by surname and marriage record is now unreliable and DNA typing will have truly come into its own.<br>
3. ''Accuracy'' - Until recently records were viewed on fiche and hardcopy in National and Regional archives, [[Laterday Saints Centres|https://familysearch.org/locations/centerlocator]], local libraries and family bibles, where calamity has not destroyed them for ever. With the Internet, progressively more records have become available on line. Great [[caution must taken regarding accuracy|http://www.sog.org.uk/learn/education-sub-page-for-testing-navigation/hints-tips-six-standards-and-good-practice-in-genealogy]]. Historically some families blessed with propriety and discipline have left excellent reliable records; others have evaded, misled and misinformed informants, while the process of transcription itself can lead to inaccuracy. The Internet's ability to indiscriminately trawl informal websites and the wishful thinking of very amateur contributors, adds to the danger of relying on the easy access we have to on-line sources. Sources should always be recorded and assessed for  accuracy.<br>
4. ''The [[General Register Office|https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/England_Civil_Registration]]'' holds records, some dating back to 1837 when registration became mandatory. Prior to 1837 for BMD, and 1927 for adoption, your search for records from 1538 onwards, must be in [[church and diocesan archives|https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/England_Church_Records]], and other local sources. There are other sources of information such as Census Records, Wills, Newspapers, National Arhives, gazettes, etc.<br>
5. ''[[Census Records|https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/England_Census]]'' are a valuable resource. They provide a timeline of family progress. Its limitations are script clarity, changes to format over the years, inaccuracies introduced by misspellings, rounding and calculating ages. birth year, and the diligence of the recording officer and the memory of the informant. They provide a starting point for further BMD search back to 1841. The first census listing people by name was taken in 1841 with the census traditionally being taken every ten years since then, except for 1941 (due to WW II) along with the fact that the 1931 census was destroyed during WW II. They are published on line with a delay of 100 years.<br>
!!!''6. Bibligraphy''<br>
• Who Do You Think You Are Encyclopedia - From the makers of the award-winning BBC series and Dr Nick Barratt, the Encyclopedia is divided into sections, each a fascinating standalone reference article so that you can easily pick and mix the relevant information according to the route your journey through your family history takes you.
• DNA and Family History by Chris Pomery - provides the very latest advice on a fast-moving subject, in compact format and at an affordable price. The glossary of terms in this confusing field is particularly good. <br> 	  	 
!!!''7. Databases to Search''
Some databases charge. Most offer the choice of an annual subscription or the purchase of credits usable over a period. The latter offers an opportunity to trial a site for preferred ease of navigation before committing to a subscription.<br>
|centered|k
| !  ''SITE'' | !  COMMENT | !  LINK |
|'' Free BMD '' |A free volunteer project ever growing in completeness | [[FreeBDM|http://www.freebmd.org.uk/]]|
|''Findmypast.com'' |Moderately priced, easy to navigate and comprehensive | [[findmypast.com|http://www.findmypast.co.uk/]]|
|''BMD Index'' |Index for civil BMD records for England and Wales| [[BDM Index|http://www.freebmd.org.uk/]]|
|''The Genealogist. '' |Large, popular, easily navigated site, family tree builder, DNA. | [[The Genealogist|http://www.thegenealogist.co.uk/index.php]]|
|''Family Relatives'' |Less expensive and comprehensive site | [[Family Relatives|http://www.familyrelatives.com/index.php]]|
|''Ancestry'' |Aggressively marketed, expensive but comprehensive and used by professionals. | [[Ancestry|http://www.ancestry.co.uk/]]|
<br>	
!!!''8. Other On-line Search Sites''  
<br>
|centered|k
| !  ''SITE'' | !  COMMENT | !  LINK |
|'' UKBMD.org.uk  '' |Hub for many websites that offer online transcriptions of UK BMD and censuses | [[UKBMD|http://www.ukbmd.org.uk/]]|
|''Family Search '' |This global database based on the IGI, has many unsourced records but is an excellent starting point for BMD search.| [[Family Search|https://familysearch.org/search]]|
|''~RootsWeb'' |Now part of Ancestry.com, but a powerful resource of contributed data| [[RootsWeb|http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/]]|
|''Parish Registers'' |Search by county, an associated site to The Genealogist. | [[Parish Registers|http://www.parishregister.co.uk/online]]|
|''Baptism Records'' |For records prior to 1837, linked to The Genealogist | [[Baptism Records|http://www.ukbaptisms.com/bap_info.htm]]|
|''~RootsUK'' |Free BMD, Censuses up to 1901 and Electoral Roll of London | [[RootsUK|http://www.rootsuk.com/]]|
|''Parish Locator''|A map search site for Parish details| [[Parish Locator|http://maps.familysearch.org/]]|
|''Parish Clerks''|Volunteer source of Parish Records| [[Parish Clerks|http://www.cyndislist.com/volunteer-projects/opcs/]]|
|''Family Hub''|A global hub of family History sites| [[Family History Hub|http://familyhistoryhub.com/]]|
|''War Graves''|[[Search|http://www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead.aspx]] for an individual who died during either World War.| [[War Graves|http://www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead/how-to-find-a-casualty/searching-for-an-individual.aspx]]|
<br>
!!!''9. Sites for Guidance''
|centered|k
| !  ''SITE'' | !  COMMENT | !  LINK |
|Cyndi's List |Renowned, a most comprehensive resource| [[Cyndi's List|http://www.cyndislist.com/]]|
|Search systems net| US Free Public Records| [[Search Systems|http://publicrecords.searchsystems.net/]]|
|Society of Genealogists| Useful Guidance| [[Soc. Genealogists|http://www.sog.org.uk/learn/help-getting-started-with-genealogy/guide-two]]|
|~RootsUK|Guidance on Certificates| [[Roots UK|http://www.rootsuk.com/researchguide/bmd.php#index_provide]]|
|County Sites|For example, the one for Kent| [[Kent|http://www.kent.gov.uk/KCC.ROIS.Web.Sites.Public/Pages/]]|
<br>
!!!''10. Sequence of research''
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;<html><p align="justify">The first rule is to start from the known and work backwards to the unknown. The known might be a grandmothers memory, a note in a book or bible written by a relative, your mother's birth certificate. You need a name, an age and a place. Find a marriage record approximately 22 years earlier, to identify parents of the person and their spouse. Find the birth record of each and then their marriage records. Use Census records to confirm, show siblings, family relationships and further detail. Try to confirm everything at least once by another source.<br>Databases don't provide certificates. They provide some facts and the references necessary to buy the correct certificate. Ultimately a marriage certificate has to be purchased in each generation to confirm the correct spouse.<br>Once the appropriate index entry is found, certificates of birth, marriage and death can be ordered from <a href=www.gro.gov.uk/gro/content/certificates/>www.gro.gov.uk/gro/content/certificates/</a>  Avoid commercial sites.</html>|<br><br>[[Search Plan|http://www.gen-find.com/assets/uploads/tracing_your_family_history_741.pdf]]|
}}}
!!!''11. Information that can be gleaned from GRO Certificates''          See - [[Society of Genealogists|http://www.sog.org.uk/learn/help-getting-started-with-genealogy/guide-three]]     and     [[GRO|https://www.gov.uk/research-family-history]]
<br>
|centered|k
|! Fact available | ! Birth | ! Marriage | ! Death | ! Census | ! Will |
|Date of Birth| x |Age?|Age?|Age?||
|Date of Marriage|| x ||||
|Date of Death||| x |||
|Name of Spouse|| x || x | x |
|Gender| x | x | x | x ||
|Place of Event| x | x | x | x ||
|Parental Details| x | x ||||
|Registration District| x | x | x | x | x |
|Address|||| x | x |
|Occupation|| x | x | x ||
|Informants details| x | x | x | x | x |
|Wealth, Life style||||| x |
<br>
!!!''12. Surnames'' 
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">The concept of a 'surname' is a relatively recent historical development, evolving from a medieval naming practice called a 'byname'. Based on an individual's occupation or area of residence, a byname would be used in situations where multiple people had the same name.<br>Compound surnames in English (and several other European cultures) feature two (or occasionally more) words, often joined by a hyphen or hyphens. However, it is not unusual for compound surnames to be composed of separate words not linked by a hyphen, for example Iain Duncan Smith, a former leader of a British political party, whose surname is "Duncan Smith".</html>|[[One-Name Studies|http://www.one-name.org/index.html]]<br><br>[[Surname Finder|http://www.surnamefinder.com/]]<br><br>[[BBC Article|http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/familyhistory/get_started/surnames_01.shtml#top]]<br><br>[[Heraldrys Institute|http://heraldrysinstitute.com/?re=gogE]]<br><br>[[Surname DNA Projects|http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Surname_DNA_projects]]|
}}}
!!!''13. DNA Testing'' 
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">In his book "DNA and Family History", Chris Pomery writes, "The crucial factor in illegitimacy issues is that a descendent of the man thought responsible for fathering a boy in the main surname's line should be identifiable and willing to take a DNA test to demonstrate the fact of connection. and asks the question, "Just how similar must two DNA haplotypes be before we can say that they are not different?".<br><br>He explains that often comparison is qualitative rather than quantitative and explains the factors used by surname study organizers to  match two haplotype results.<br>Choosing a value-for-money company for DNA test is a minefield. The test question is, "<a href="Interpreting-Genetic-Genealogy-Results_web_optimized.pdf" target="_blank">What will my test results tell me?</a>", and it is vital to find a company with a large local database of members in which to find matches. There are <a href="http://www.dna-testing-adviser.com/FamilyTreeDNA.html" target="_blank">good </a> and <a href="http://www.genomesunzipped.org/tag/britains-dna" target="_blank">bad</a> in every barrel.<br>Understanding DNA is time consuming and requires learning a lot of new jargon.<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rk-8c1ubOMo" target="_blank"><u>The Three Tests</u></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8bsCiq6hvM" target="_blank"><u>The Human Genome</a></u></a></html>|[[DNA & Family History|http://www.dnaandfamilyhistory.com/]]<br><br>[[Beginners DNA|http://www.isogg.org/ec.htm]]<br><br>[[FamilyTreeDna|http://www.familytreedna.co.uk/]]<br>[[yDNA|http://www.genebase.com/doc/ydna-guidebook-3.pdf]]<br>[[mtDNA|http://www.genebase.com/doc/mtdna-guidebook-4.pdf]]<br><br>[[DNA Learning Centre|http://www.genebase.com/learning/]]<br><br>[[JARGON|http://www.isogg.org/course/glossary.htm]] &nbsp; [[DNA|http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/dna.html#c1]]<br><br>[[TED: A Family Tree|http://www.ted.com/talks/spencer_wells_is_building_a_family_tree_for_all_humanity.html]]|
}}}
!!!''14. Wills'' 
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">Probate researchers are also called heir hunters, heir searchers, and forensic genealogist, but that overlooks the valuable resource this is for background family history.<br>Wills are in most cases the only written record (even if as is often the case they were penned by an attorney) left by our ancestors. They can contain vital information to establish or confirm relationships. The most obvious value is in the bequests which may list the names of the testator's wife, children and other family members. This is invaluable both to confirm the relationships and to confirm that these people were still alive at the time the will was written. Daughters may be identified by their married names (and often their husbands will also be named) so their marriages and subsequent descendants may be identified in parish registers.<br>Another value of wills, particularly for farmers, is that they will often name a residence quite precisely, for example the name of a farm or the street in which a testator lived. This can be of considerable value when there are two people of the same name in an area as a means of determining which is which. They may also mention other properties they owned which may help us trace his movements during his life. Place names may help you to identify the property in other records such as deeds and this may lead to new avenues of research.</html>|<br>[[National Archives|http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/records/looking-for-person/willafter1858.htm]]<br><br>[[Probate Records|https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/England_Probate_Records]]<br><br>[[Professional Help|http://researchroots.co.uk/]]|
}}}
!!!''15. Occupations and Membership'' 
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify">There is a multitude of aspects, of personal records to discover, to build a picture of your ancestor's lifestyle: occupation and membership are but two. The study might include <a href="http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/records/looking-for-person/apprentice.htm" target="_blank">apprenticeships</a> and <a href="http://www.genguide.co.uk/source/guilds-freedoms-amp-freemens-or-burgess-rolls-including-scotland/58/" target="_blank">Guilds</a> and help to discover <a href="http://www.whodoyouthinkyouaremagazine.com/take-it-further/jobs/guilds-–&nbsp;guild-records" target="_blank">Who You Think You Are.</a>.</html><br>[[Occupations Glossary|http://homepage.ntlworld.com/hitch/gendocs/trades.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; -  [[English Occupations|https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/England_Occupations]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;[[Old Occupations|http://rmhh.co.uk/occup/]]|<br>[[Checklist of Records|http://www.gen-find.com/assets/uploads/tracing_your_family_history_741.pdf]]<br><br><br>|
}}}
 
-----
''The following pages listed here are accessed from OTHER PAGES and may be difficult to find a second time.''
They are listed here for quick access. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Recent updating is marked *
{{invisibletable{
|width:17em; ''__Basic Operation__''<br><br>[[Account Management]] *<br>[[Basic Skills]]<br>[[Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[BrowserSetup]]<br>''Edge'' [[Browser Set Up]] *<br>[[Cut & Paste]]<br>[[Desktop]]<br>[[Downloading]]<br>[[Duplicates]]<br>[[Effective Search|TroubleShooting##Self]] *<br>[[Email Setup|Email##Client]]<br>[[Email Backup|EmailBackup]] *<br>[[Finding Downloads]]<br>[[Jargonbeginners]]<br>[[Keyboard Shortcuts|Windows Keyboard Shortcuts]]<br>[[Make a Shortcut]]<br>[[Moving The Taskbar]]<br>[[Opening a File|Saving a File##Opening]]<br>[[Pop&IMAP]]<br>[[PrintScreen]]<br>[[Reading Attachments]]<br>[[RightClick]]<br>[[Saving a File]]<br>[[SavingAttachments]]<br>[[Username|Passwords##Changing]]<br>[[YouTube Video List]] *<br>[[YouTube]]<br><br>''__Security__''<br><br>[[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br>[[Blocking Junk]]<br>[[EmailSecurity]]<br>[[MySecurityStrategy]]<br>[[Passwords]]<br>[[Privacy]]<br>[[Ransomware]]<br>[[SecurityOutsideTheHome]]<br>[[Using Flash|Browsers##Using]]<br>[[XP Warning]]|width:17em; ''__Applications__''<br><br>[[BasicEmail]] ''Tutorials''<br> [[BasicMSOffice]] ''Tutorials''<br>[[Default]]<br>[[EssentialStudy]]<br>[[Text Size]]<br>[[Databases|Database and Spreadsheet]]<br>[[Drivers]] *<br>[[DOS]]<br>[[FreeDownloads]]<br>[[Photo Editing|PhotoEnhancement]]<br>[[Programming]]<br>[[Pros and Cons Webmail]]<br>[[Speccy|Performance##Knowing your computer]]<br>[[Tablet Apps|TabletApps]]<br>[[Telestrator]]<br>[[Useful Utilities]]<br>[[What is EXif]]<br>[[Windows8.1|Windows 8]]<br>[[Windows 10 Upgrade?|Windows10Upgrade]]<br>[[Windows 10 Features|Windows10]]<br>[[Worksheet on iPad|Reading Worksheet on iPad]]<br>[[Your Windows 10]]<br><br>''__Devices__''<br><br>[[DVD Drive]]<br>[[Mouse Pointer]]<br>[[PCMacDifferences]]<br>[[RaspberryPi]]<br>[[Screen|Print and Display##Screen]]<br>[[Scanning Photos|Virtual##Virtual Image]]<br>[[Smart Devices]] **<br>[[Sound|Internet Radio##Sound]]<br>[[Tablets]]<br>[[UpgradeYourPC]]<br>[[UpgradingRAM]]<br>[[USBMemorySticks]]<br>[[W10 for under £500]]|width:17em; ''__System__''<br><br>[[BootUpCloseDown]]<br>[[Broadband Speed|Improving Broadband Speed]]<br>[[BackUpRestore]]<br>[[Control Panel]]<br>[[Crash]] *<br>[[Format]]<br>[[Performance]] *<br>[[Running Slowly]]<br>[[Task Manager]]<br>[[RemoteAccess]]<br>[[Search for Tools|Search for Windows Tools]]<br>[[TroubleShooting]] <br><br>''__Network__''<br><br>[[Amazon Echo|Multimedia##Copyright]] *<br>[[CloudStorage]]<br>[[DropBox]]<br>[[HomeGroup]]<br>[[Streaming]]<br>[[The Cloud|Cloud]]<br>[[WiFi Not Working]]<br><br>''__General Interest__''<br><br>[[Ancient Knowledge|Summary of Ancient Knowledge Videos]]<br>[[Brain Waves|Communication##Communications]]<br>[[BuildYourOwn]] ''PC'' <**<br>[[Communication]]<br>[[DriverlessCar]]<br>[[History]]<br>[[MeetingSystems]] <**<br>[[Microscopy]]<br>[[New Technology|Synergy##Technology]] *<br>[[QuantumMechanics]]<br>[[Other Computer Uses]]<br>[[Presentation]]<br>[[Smart TVs|SmartTVs]]<br>[[TEDTalks]] <br>[[Virtual]]<br>[[Ubuntu]] *|width:17em;|''__Recent Additions__''<br><br>[[Saving a File]]<br>[[SavingAttachments]]<br>[[The Cloud|Cloud]] *<br>[[EssentialStudy]]<br>[[BackUpRestore]]<br>[[Privacy]]<br>[[BrowserSetup]]<br>[[FreeDownloads]]<br>[[BasicMSOffice]]<br>[[Crash]] *<br>[[Task Manager]]<br>[[Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[PrintScreen]]<br>[[UpgradingRAM]]<br>[[Virtual]]<br>[[HomeGroup]]<br>[[Downloading]]<br>[[Streaming]]<br>[[Default]]<br>[[BootUpCloseDown]]<br>[[Drivers]]<br>[[DOS]]<br>[[Control Panel]]<br>[[Databases|Database and Spreadsheet]]<br>[[Desktop]]<br>[[Telestrator]]<br>[[Presentation]]<br>[[Communication]] <**<br>[[PhotoEnhancement]]<br>[[PCMacDifferences]]<br>[[RemoteAccess]]<br>[[QuantumComputer|QuantumMechanics]]<br>MathsEasierThanYouThink<br>[[Modem Router Combo|WiFi Not Working##Modem Router Combo]]<br>[[Your Windows 10]]<br>[[Domestic Security|Security Systems]]<br>[[Smart Devices]] *<br>[[Ancient Knowledge|Summary of Ancient Knowledge Videos]] *|
}}}
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<br>
''The following pages listed here are accessed from OTHER PAGES and may be difficult to find a second time.''
They are listed here for quick access.
{{invisibletable{
|width:17em; ''__Basic__''<br><br>[[BasicEmail]] ''Tutorials''<br>[[BasicMSOffice]] ''Tutorials''<br>[[Basic Skills]]<br>[[Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[BootUpCloseDown]]<br>[[BrowserSetup]]<br>[[Crash]]<br>[[Cut & Paste]]<br>[[Default]]<br>[[Desktop]]<br>[[Downloading]]<br>[[Duplicates]] <br>[[EmailSecurity]]<br>[[Email Setup|Email##Client]]<br>[[EssentialStudy]]<br>[[Format]]<br>[[Improving Broadband Speed]]<br>[[Jargonbeginners]]<br> [[Keyboard Shortcuts|Windows Keyboard Shortcuts]]<br>[[Make a Shortcut]]<br>[[Mouse Pointer]]<br>[[Moving The Taskbar]]<br>[[PrintScreen]]<br>[[RightClick]] *<br>[[Running Slowly]]<br>[[Saving a File]]<br>[[Screen|Print and Display##Screen]]<br>[[Sound|Internet Radio##Sound]]<br>[[Task Manager]]<br>[[Text Size]]<br>[[WiFi Not Working]]<br>[[YouTube Video List]]|width:17em; ''__Software__''<br><br>[[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br>[[BackUpRestore]] *<br>[[Blocking Junk]]<br>[[Control Panel]]<br>[[Databases|Database and Spreadsheet]]<br>[[Drivers]]<br>[[DOS]]<br>[[DropBox]]<br>[[Finding Downloads]]<br>[[FreeDownloads]]<br>[[HomeGroup]]<br>[[BasicMSOffice]]<br>[[MySecurityStrategy]]<br>[[Passwords]]<br>[[PhotoEnhancement]] *<br>[[Privacy]]<br>[[Programming]]<br>[[Pros and Cons Webmail]]<br>[[Ransomware]]<br>[[Reading Attachments]]<br>[[Reading Worksheet on iPad]]<br>[[SavingAttachments]]<br>[[Search for Windows Tools]]<br>[[Streaming]]<br>[[Tablet Apps|TabletApps]]<br>[[USBMemorySticks]]<br>[[Useful Utilities]]<br>[[What is EXif]]<br>[[Windows 10 Upgrade?|Windows10Upgrade]] *<br>[[Windows 10 Features|Windows10]] *<br><br>[[Seeking Help|TroubleShooting]]|width:17em;''__General Interest__''<br><br>[[DriverlessCar]] <br>[[MeetingSystems]] *<br>[[Microscopy]]<br>[[Other Computer Uses]]<br>[[Presentation]]<br>[[RaspberryPi]]<br>[[Smart TVs|SmartTVs]]<br>[[Technological Innovations]]<br>[[TEDTalks]] <br>[[The Cloud|Cloud]] <br>[[Virtual]] *<br>[[XP Warning]]<br>[[YouTube]] * <br><br>''__Miscellaneous__''<br><br>[[Brain Waves|Communication##Communications]] *<br>[[BuildYourOwn]] ''PC''<br>[[CloudStorage]]<br>[[DVD Drive]]<br>[[History]]<br>[[Pop&IMAP]]<br>[[RecentUpdates]]<br>[[SecurityOutsideTheHome]]<br>[[Tablets]]<br>[[TroubleShooting]] *<br>[[UpgradeYourPC]]<br>[[UpgradingRAM]]<br>[[W8 for under £400]]<br>[[Windows8.1|Windows 8]]<br><br>[[Tips]]|''__Recent Additions__''<br><br>[[Saving a File]]<br>[[SavingAttachments]]<br>[[The Cloud|Cloud]]<br>[[EssentialStudy]]<br>[[BackUpRestore]]<br>[[Privacy]]<br>[[BrowserSetup]]<br>[[FreeDownloads]]<br>[[BasicMSOffice]]<br>[[Crash]]<br>[[Task Manager]]<br>[[Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[PrintScreen]]<br>[[UpgradingRAM]]<br>[[Virtual]]<br>[[HomeGroup]]<br>[[Downloading]]<br>[[Streaming]]<br>[[Default]]<br>[[BootUpCloseDown]]<br>[[Drivers]]<br>[[DOS]]<br>[[Control Panel]]<br>[[Databases|Database and Spreadsheet]]<br>[[Desktop]]<br>[[Telestrator]]<br>[[Presentation]]<br>[[Communication]] *<br>[[PhotoEnhancement]]<br>[[PCMacDifferences]]<br>[[RemoteAccess]]|
}}}
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{{center{
An * indicates a recent update to the page
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{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;To avoid losing a file you need to:-<br>1. Save the file to a know destination. See para 9.<br>2. Set your browser so save to a know folder in TOOLS - BROWSER OPTIONS<br> A common cause of losing a file is by not checking [[THE FILE DESTINATION|Files/SaveAs.JPG]] when saving, and it disappears into the default "Temporary Folder" used by the utility.<br>If you have lost a file, use SEARCH in Windows Explorer. You will need to know the name, or at least part, of the file.|[[Browser Options|http://www.guidingtech.com/11776/change-file-download-locations-chrome-firefox-opera-ie/]]<br><br>[[Using Search|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/window-on-windows/take-advantage-of-search-filters-in-windows-explorer/3915]]<br><br>[[Default]]|
}}}
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<br><br><br>
!!Using the Worksheet with a Mac
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''The principles of computing and the skills you need are exactly the same in Mac and Windows. It is the PROCEDURES that differ. For example, the concept of "Cut and Paste" is the same in Mac and Windows but the way you do it differs. This page lists how those procedures differ from the Windows procedures discussed in the Worksheet.'' &nbsp; See also Mac ForWinUsers|__[[Back to Last Page|PCMacDifferences]]__<br><br>[[Many Help Videos|https://www.youtube.com/user/MacHelpForMom/videos]]|
}}}
!!!1.  Over the 30 years of Apple and Microsoft history, different terms for the same feature have evolved.  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[History|DOS##The History]]
For example, a Mac alias is called a shortcut in Windows. Here is a quick list of equivalents.+++[List of Mac terms and their Windows equivalents, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]<br>
|centered|k
| !''Mac'' |>|&nbsp; &nbsp;-- &nbsp; &nbsp;| !''Windows'' |
| Cut & Paste - drag & drop or Command + X |>|~| Right-click menu or Control + X |
| Copy & Paste - Right-click menu or Command + C |>|~| Right-click menu or Control + C |
| Alias |>|~| Shortcut |
| Apple Key |>|~| Windows Key |
| Command Key |>|~| Control (Ctrl )Key  |
| Control Key + C |>|~| Right-click |
| Option Key |>|~| Alt Key |
| Cursor |>|~| Mouse Pointer |
| Finder |>|~| Windows (File) Explorer |
| Dock and Desktop Menu Bar |>|~| Taskbar (but customisation different) |
| Terminal |>|~| Command Prompt (RUN) |
| System Preferences |>|~| Control Panel |
===
<br>
!!!2. Throughout the Worksheet you will see the link "~SeeMac".
The link "~SeeMac" will return you to this page for an explanation where the Mac differs.+++[View a summary of Differences for those using this Worksheet, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
!!!Summary of Differences
#The following Worksheet pages are useful for Mac users:<br>BROWSERS, EMAIL, FAMILY RESEARCH, HOUSEKEEPING, JARGON, NETWORKS, PHOTO EDITING, SEARCH, SHOPPING, SOCIAL MEDIA, SYNERGY.
#In Mac "Cut and Paste" is executed by dragging and dropping the file; "Copy and Paste" is, as in Windows, by ~Right-Click or dropdown menu.
#In Mac Finder, an alias (shortcut) to any file is made by selecting "Make Alias" from the right-click menu on that file. Then drag it to the desktop.
#The proceedures applying to Windows File Explorer and Mac Finder are not similar, but the latter can be customised to a similar appearance.
#In Mac, some folders do not isolate files as in Windows. A file copied to another folder in Finder can be trashed when it's source (in "All your Files" folder) is trashed.
#Alternatively to bookmarking, an alias to a website can be made by highlighting the web address in Safari and dragging it to the desktop.
#The Security advice to Windows users is strongly emphasised due to the targeted threat. The same principles apply to Mac users but the threat is less severe.
#Unless specially written or adapted, Windows software will not run on the Mac, and vice versa.
#Networking on a Local Area network (LAN) generally works well between Windows and Mac computers. Apple promotes a "walled-garden" for Apple periferal devices including ~HDTVs, whereas Windows and Android devices have greater universal compatibility. 
#Print allows only all or a range of pages; not individual selected pages.
#Ports and cables often require adapters between Mac and Windows systems.
#Understanding where the Command, Control and Option keys are on a Windows keyboard is one thing; [[realising that their function differs is another.|http://xahlee.info/kbd/apple_pc_kb_diff.html]]
===
<br>
Each of these topics is expanded  below.
!!!3. Browsers
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Safari'' is an excellent, sharp and easily customised browser. Little more need be said other than to mention<br> ''~FireFox for Mac''. This browser maintains its Windows' equivalent high standard and has many useful add-ons.<br>''Safari'' also provides such features as "Open in Dashboard" to make widgets of Web page clips.<br>''Right-click'', with a two-button mouse, offers a variety of "IN CONTEXT" options depending on location, as in Windows. A Mac laptop touch pad can be set up as a two-button mouse. See link for keyboard use.<br>''Plugins'' To find Plugins and Extensions go to the "Extensions tab of Safari Preferences or Options of ~FireFox. Here you will find useful ones such as WOT, Adblockers, Video suppressers, etc.|[[Enable images|http://www.ehow.com/how_5918995_fix-not-showing-up-safari.html]]<br><br>[[Context Menu|http://www.wikihow.com/Right-Click-on-a-Mac]]<br><br>[[ClickToPlugin|http://hoyois.github.io/safariextensions/clicktoplugin/]]|
}}}
!!!4. Aliases and Bookmarks
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>An alias </strong>to a file is made from the right-click menu. This alias automatically appears on the desktop.<br><strong>An alias to a website</strong> can be made by highlighting the web address in Safari and dragging it to the desktop.<br>We make far too many <strong>bookmarks</strong> which are rarely used. A Google search is often as quick. A few regularly used bookmarks kept on the "Favorites ToolBar" is better. The Favorites Bar is a choice offered in "Add Bookmark". A bookmark here to your prefered search engine, such as "Google", set to open in a NEW TAB is a convenient addition.</html>|<br>[[Making an Alias|http://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/mac-software/how-create-shortcuts-on-mac-3613491/]]<br><br>[[Making a Bookmark|http://www.wikihow.com/Add-a-Bookmark-in-Safari]]|
}}}
!!!5. Finder
The default appearence of Finder can be confusing. The following customisation is suggested.
# Using Preferences, General Tab - Tick "Open folders in new tab".
#Sidebar Tab - Untick "All my Files", Tick the minimum number of folders you need.
#Advanced Tab - Tick "Show all file extensions". Acquiring a knowledge of file types from their extension is a basic skill for successful computing.
# In the Finder Menu Bar - add "New Folder" and select "Show in columns". 
!!!6. Preferences
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Program Preferences.'' The Menu Bar of the Mac Desktop will contain different menu options depending on which program you're using, unlike Windows. Here, under the Program name, you will find its "Preferences" on the left. At the right of the Menu Bar are the Notifications.<br>''System Peferences'' are well covered in the link to the right.<br><br>''System Information.'' "About Your Mac", found under the "Apple" Icon on the Menu Bar, - MORE INFORMATION - SYSTEM REPORT - provides a picture of your system settings and facts referred to in the Worksheet.<br><br>''Accessability'' is found in System Preferences. Be familiar with its content. It contains not only useful extra features but settings not included under other preferences, eg extra Mouse and Keyboard control. |<br><br><br>[[System Preferences|http://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/mac-software/system-preferences-mac-osx-yosemite-customise-settings-guide-how-3515967/]]<br><br>[[System Information|http://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/mac-software/whats-my-mac-os-3612428/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Accessibility|http://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/mac-software/spotlight-search-tips-os-x-yosemite-3531280/]]|
}}}
!!!7. Housekeeping
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Mac systems are pretty trouble free, and OS X is a pretty solid system. However, as with all things, an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure, and there are some things that you can do with OS X to keep it running in tip-top shape.<br><br>Make sure Time Machine is running so you always have backup before housekeeping.<br>Restarting your Mac is the simplest and most effective way of housekeeping. The Mac does it for you.<br>You might also check: <br>(a) Keeping software up to date, <br>(b) Performing a Disk Permissions Repair using Disk Utility, <br>(c) Watching your hard drive and removing unnecessary files and utilities, <br>(d) Keeping start up programs to a minimum, <br>(e) Don't be tempted to download third party utilities to clean up or speed up your Mac. <br>Housekeeping principles described on the HouseKeeping page apply equally to the Mac.|[[Housekeeping|http://www.macworld.com/article/2030221/our-favorite-mac-cleanup-tips.html]]<br><br>[[Slow Performance|http://bjokib.com/slow-mac-performance-this-article-solves-it/]]<br><br>[[Speed up|http://www.techradar.com/news/computing/apple/how-to-speed-up-your-mac-in-30-minutes-1161200]]|
}}}
!!!8. Networking
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''~WiFi.''  The ~WiFi icon in the Menu Bar provides access to all available wireless networks. The [[Networks]] page applies to the Mac also.<br><br>''Sharing.'' To share files between computers, __on the same Network and Workgroup__, each computer must be detected by the other and each computer must give permission for the folders to be shared. Further, if sharing with a Windows PC, "Homegroup" cannot be used with a Mac and major folders have to have sharing switched on. In the Mac, SMB and AFP should be selected in PREFERENCES - SHARE - Tick "File" SERVICE - OPTIONS. Also ensure the two are on the same WORKGROUP in PREFERENCES - NETWORK - WIN.<br><br>''Continuity'' concerns sharing between devices so that each has access to the Cloud and processes are continuous between them.|<br><br><br>[[Mac Sharing|http://www.maclife.com/article/howtos/how_set_file_sharing_home]]<br><br>[[Sharing with Windows|http://www.7tutorials.com/how-share-os-x-folders-windows-7]]<br><br><br><br>[[Continuity|http://www.macworld.co.uk/feature/mac/continuity-in-ios-8-os-x-yosemite-handoff-phone-call-text-airdrop-3524705/]]|
}}}
!!!9. Security
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>AntiVirus.</strong><br>Don't fall for the myth that Apple devices are less at risk to malware. There is a growing risk, so take reasonalble precautions by installing antivirus software designed for your device. This is particulrly if you are an adventurous surfer or liable to click on links in phising emails!  Macs suffer severe slowing from many antivirus utilities running real-time scanning and so periodic manually initiated scanning is usually recommended. "Is antivirus protection needed?" <a href="http://www.macworld.co.uk/feature/mac-software/mac-antivirus-internet-security-software-malware-review-3523842/" target="_blank"><u>is often discussed</u></a> and a few utilities are recommended. Apple is often critisised by non-users for ever moving you into an iOS-only walled garden for marketing advantage. The great benefit of this strategy, however, is that users are protected from malware infected third party software and download only approved utilities and apps from the Apple Store.<br><br><strong>Firewall.</strong> Turn Firewall ON in PREFERENCES - SECURITY & PRIVACY - FIREWALL. </html>|<br><br>[[AntiVirus Requirements|http://www.techlicious.com/g<br><br><br>uide/mac-antivirus-internet-security-programs-solutions-apps/]]<br><br>[[Safe Mac|http://www.thesafemac.com/mmg-antivirus/]]<br><br>[[Checking for Viruses|http://www.macworld.co.uk/news/mac-software/checking-your-mac-for-viruses----wait-what-3613377/]]|
}}}
!!!10. Backup
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"> The Mac <strong>Time Machine</strong> is equivalent to <strong>Windows Backup.</strong> Time Machine includes a full System Image and a record of all files at historical time intervals. It is far more useble than the Windows equivalent, but Windows 10 has an improverd version. Both require an external SSD of about 500GB, automatically formated to suit the OS, and older backup folders are progressively deleted when the drive is full.</html>|<br>[[BackUpRestore]]<br><br>[[Time Machine|http://www.macworld.co.uk/news/mac/how-do-i-restore-my-mac-time-machine-3449071/]]|
}}}
----
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''These paragraphs highlight some differences between the Apple mac and the Windows OS.''|__[[Back to Last Page|PCMacDifferences]]__|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Keyboard</strong><br>Mac keyboards have Option and Command keys where standard PC keyboards have Alt and Windows keys. The keyboards are otherwise pretty similar, but new Mac users will need to understand these different keys. Regular Mac users will need to identify the Windows keys which achieve functions with which they are familiar, when reading the Worksheet.<br>Apple’s Mac keyboards do have a Control (Ctrl) key, but the Control key doesn’t function like the Control key on Windows. Keyboard shortcuts like Ctrl+C to copy text won’t work. However Command + C does.<br>These keys can be customised.<br>On a PC keyboard, the Windows key behaves as the Apple Command Key.<br>Understanding where the Command, Control and Option keys are on a Windows keyboard is one thing; <a href="http://xahlee.info/kbd/apple_pc_kb_diff.html" target="_blank"><u>realising that their function differs is another.</u></a><br><br>There are three ways to manipulate files:-  Keyboard key combinations, Drag & Drop, with and without a key combination, and Right-click menu. Users will have their personal preference but learning is quicker by using only one method consistently.</a><br><br><strong>Window Management and Menus</strong><br>The menu bar of the Mac Desktop will contain different menu options depending on which program you're using, unlike Windows. In-context menus, accessed in Windows by "right-click", are the same on the Mac but study the link,"Right-Click and Apple Mouse" to interpret the Worksheet in the two systems.<br><br><br><strong>Files</strong><br>Although theoretically the Mac treats files differently to Windows, their management is similar. In Windows you use Windows Explorer to manage your files. In Mac OS X, you use the Finder to manage your files. You can search for files, copy files, move files, or delete files. You can also see file server connections, inserted DVDs, and USB thumb drives.<br>That said, the default Mac "Finder" file management system is abysmal <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPtmeit5Eq4" target="_blank"><strong><u>unless you customise it</u></strong></a> to your preferred appearance in preferences. Essentually, hide the dangerous "All my Files" and use columns view. Windows File Explorer shows "path" at the top of the window, while <a href="http://macs.about.com/od/usingyourmac/qt/findertip1.htm" " target="_blank"><u>Finder has a "Path Bar" at the bottom.</u></a><br><br><strong>AntiVirus.</strong><br>Don't fall for the myth that Apple devices are less at risk to malware. There is a growing risk, so take reasonalble precautions by installing antivirus software designed for your device. This is particulrly if you are an adventurous surfer or liable to click on links in phising emails!  Macs suffer severe slowing from many antivirus utilities running real-time scanning and so periodic manually initiated scanning is usually recommended. "Is antivirus protection needed?" <a href="http://www.macworld.co.uk/feature/mac-software/mac-antivirus-internet-security-software-malware-review-3523842/" target="_blank"><u>is often discussed</u></a> and a few utilities are recommended. Apple is often critisised by non-users for ever moving you into an iOS-only walled garden for marketing advantage. The great benefit of this strategy, however, is that users are protected from malware infected third party software and download only approved utilities and apps from the Apple Store.<br><br><strong>Software</strong><br>Both Apple and Mcrosoft provide certificates which identify the authenticity of software you might install. In the Mac you can set the level of control in the Security dialogue to one of three levels: (a) Apple App Store only (b) and Identified Developer, or (c) Anywhere. In Windows, when installing, a dialogue displays the presence of the developer's authenticity or states "Unknown" and leaves the decision to the User. The Apple Store promotes Apps for the most recent OS and often withdraws those useable on earlier OS, making users risk downloading from third party sources. In the Mac, there is more control while Microsoft permits a careless user to easily install uncertificated and possibly malware infected software. This user freedom is the opportunity exploited by the hacker and results in Windows being more vulnerable than the Mac. The Windows apologist may be correct in arguing that Windows has access to far more software, however, what is available to the Mac is better scrutinised on behalf of the average user.<br><br><strong>Office Utilities</strong><br>Applications are not compatible across operating systems. That is, if you buy Microsoft Office for Windows, you've got to buy a whole new package/license for Office for Mac.  Some Mac-only apps can export files that work on PC, but won't run on PC's—like iPhoto, for instance.<br><br><strong>Pages</strong> is a utility very similar to MS Word and can be bought instead of investing in a complete Office Suite. It can be set to save (export) .doc or .docx files.<br><br><strong>Sharing on a Network</strong><br>Today Mac OS and Windows can work together in harmony on the same home network, sharing files and printers, mounting one another's drives and using the same equipment, like wireless routers and USB drives. Cross-platform sharing is not as simple as using Homegroup with Windows machines. Workgroups can be shared but at the level of complexity found with Windows XP.<br><br><strong>Mac OS X</strong><br>Mac OS is a line of operating systems created by Apple. The OS comes preloaded on all new Macintosh computers, or Macs. Older machines can be <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_Mini" target="_blank"><u>upgraded within certain limits.</u></a> All of the recent versions are known as OS X (pronounced O-S Ten), and the specific versions include <a href="http://www.macworld.co.uk/review/mac-software/mac-os-x-el-capitan-preview-first-look-review-3613524//" target="_blank"><u>El Capitan</u></a> (release Autumn 2015), <a href="http://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/mac-software/system-preferences-mac-osx-yosemite-customise-settings-guide-how-3515967/" target="_blank"><u>Yosemite</u></a> (released 2014), <a href="http://www.macworld.com/article/2057230/get-to-know-os-x-mavericks-system-preferences.html" target="_blank"><u>Mavericks</u></a> (2013), <a href="http://www.quepublishing.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1946752" target="_blank"><u>Mountain Lion</u></a> (2012), Lion (2011), and Snow Leopard (2009).<br><br><strong>Backup</strong><br>The Mac <strong>Time Machine</strong> is equivalent to <strong>Windows Backup.</strong> Time Machine includes a full System Image and is far more useble than the Windows equivalent. However Windows 10 has an improverd version. Both require an external SSD of about 500GB, automatically formated to suit the OS, and older backup folders are progressively deleted when the drive is full.</html>|<br>[[Three Important Keys|http://www.howtogeek.com/183636/how-the-command-and-option-keys-work-on-a-mac/]]<br><br>[[Mac Keyboard Shortcuts|http://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/mac/keyboard-shortcuts-mac-users-copy-paste-option-3504584/]]<br><br>[[Windows Keyboard|http://macs.about.com/od/faq1/f/windowskeyboard.htm]]<br><br>[[Keyboard Eqivalents|http://www.mtholyoke.edu/lits/labs/docs/MacWinKBeq.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Right Click and Apple Mouse|http://www.macinstruct.com/node/66]]<br><br>[[PC to Mac HowTo Tutorials|http://www.laptopmag.com/pc-to-mac-tutorial]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Using Finder|https://support.apple.com/en-gb/HT201748]]<br><br>[[File Differences in Detail|http://www.acutesystems.com/files.htm]]<br><br>[[Mac File Management|http://www.macworld.com/article/1140847/customizeosxmanagefiles.html]]<br><br>[[Finder Tips|http://lifehacker.com/navigate-files-like-a-pro-with-these-finder-tips-and-tr-1463229668]]<br><br><br>[[AntiVirus Requirements|http://www.techlicious.com/g<br><br><br>uide/mac-antivirus-internet-security-programs-solutions-apps/]]<br><br>[[Safe Mac|http://www.thesafemac.com/mmg-antivirus/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Free OpenSource Software|http://opensourcemac.org/]]<br><br>[[Uninstalling Software|http://www.wikihow.com/Uninstall-Programs-on-Mac-Computers]]<br><br>[[Windows on Mac|http://www.macworld.com/article/1164817/the_best_way_to_run_windows_on_your_mac.html]]<br><br>[[Mac on Windows|http://smallbusiness.chron.com/run-apple-applications-pc-59554.html]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Word Differences|http://blog.parallels.com/windows-on-mac/2014/06/12/2014523the-differences-between-word-for-mac-and-word-for-windows/]]<br><br>[[Excel Differences|http://blog.parallels.com/windows-on-mac/2014/04/18/2014416the-differences-between-excel-for-mac-and-excel-for-window/]]<br><br>[[PowerPoint Differences|http://blogs.parallels.com/windows-on-mac/2014/04/09/201448the-differences-between-powerpoint-for-mac-and-powerpoint-for-windows/]]<br><br>[[Pages|http://www.igeeksblog.com/save-pages-files-as-word-document-format-on-mac/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Word for Mac|http://www.macworld.co.uk/review/office-software/word-for-mac-2016-preview-3612554/]]<br><br>[[Inoperability Guide|http://lifehacker.com/311618/the-complete-guide-to-macwindows-interoperability]]<br><br>[[File Sharing|http://www.7tutorials.com/how-share-os-x-folders-windows-7]]<br><br>[[Media Server|https://plex.tv/features]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[BackUpRestore]]|
}}}
-----
<br><br><br>
In computing the term ''Format'' is used in two ways:
#''As a verb.'' To prepare a disk for use
#''As a noun.'' The style of a page designed with a theme, space between lines and paragraphs, font type, etc., or the structure of a file.
!!!Disk Formatting
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''1. The process of formatting a disk or drive.''<br><br>''2. Partitioning a drive''|[[Formatting|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/formatting-disks-and-drives]]<br><br>[[Partitioning|http://www.pcworld.com/article/248980/how-to-partition-and-format-your-hard-drive-in-windows.html]]|
}}}
!!!Page Format 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;This detail is found in the menus of utilities such as MS Word, Excel, ~PowerPoint. When you format the layout of a page, you can modify the page size, page margins, and line spacing. When you format the text, you can choose the font and font size, as well as text styles, such as bold, underlined, and italics.|
}}}
!!!File Format 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;A file format refers to the way data is saved within a file. For example, some files are saved in a plain text format, while others are saved as binary files, e.g. the body of an email. Software developers often create proprietary file formats for their programs, which prevents the files from being used by other applications, e.g.Open Source Office Suites.|
}}}
----
<br><br>
!Free Downloads
''Free Software'' - Nothing in life is free. The cost is either to watch adverts or to download extra free trial software, know as "bundled software". THIS IS USUALLY HARMLESS BUT IRRITATING. Be on your guard during every stage of the installation process to uncheck offers checked by __[[default|Default]]__ or for the word "Decline" in very faint print. On a download webpage also watch for cleverly placed bogus download buttons which cause you to download different software to that you are seeking. If given the choice of "Normal/Recommended" and "Custom Installation", always choose "Custom" and deselect unwanted extra software. However in contrast, [[FREEWARE|http://www.diffen.com/difference/Freeware_vs_Shareware]], TRIAL and [[OPEN SOURCE|http://opensourcestrategies.blogspot.co.uk/2005/09/freeware-vs-shareware-vs-open-source.html]] software are quite safe and ~U3A is recognized as a place of learning by ~Software4Students. See para. 10 on the [[Browsers|Blocking Junk]] page of this Worksheet.  Some Freeware [[Download sites.|http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/best-freeware-download-sites.htm]]<br>''Warning.'' Never download free software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8) alone. Always use a much stronger virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware.<br>
''Blocking Junk'' On sites such as Filehippo, Softpedia and Download.com, although they are carefully scanned for malware,  there is usually one safe link for download without junk and a number of doggy links. The safest way to identify the safe link is to install the add-on [[Adblock Plus|https://adblockplus.org/en/tutorials]]. This will remove the doggy links and it is then easier to see the safe link. This saves uninstalling the unsolicited downloads used to pay for the free software. Use Filehippo to download the free version of AVG antivirus safely rather than ~AVGs official site, but install Adblock Plus first.
----
<br><br><br><br><br>
{{center{''Although many of the issues below are covered in other pages of the Worksheet, the fact that they top the list of queries suggests they may interest you.<br> This page will provide quick access to an answer when you click on an FAQ and click again to close it.''}}}
 
{{centerleft{{{ display{+++[1. You mentioned your DVD drive wasn't responding to DVDs=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
{{invisibletable{
|width:54em;When you insert a CD or DVD, the computer follows instructions controlling Autoplay.<br>Go to CONTROL PANEL - AUTOPLAY and make sure none of the devices has "Take no action" selected. If it has, change it in the adjacent drop-down menu. (see example). Check also that the problem is not with the DVD rather than the PC by trying another DVD from a different source.|<br>[[Autoplay|Files/AutoPlay.jpg]]|
}}}
-----
===

+++[2. I live in Bleasby, but cannot use iPlayer!|Improving Broadband Speed]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The BBC recommends 2 Mbits/s for iPlayer to run smothly, although it will run well at 1.3 Mbits/s. Test your broadband speed and compare it with others in your neighbourhood. For most in Bleasby, broadband speed is of the order of 4-6 Mbits/s. If your speed is significantly slower than most in your immediate neighbourhood, then you could try these:- <br>1. Try router reboot, and test again. Check expert review for your modem model.<br>2. Consider losses in length of telephone extension cable to the point where your router is plugged in. Test by temporally plugging router to the ''main BT socket''.<br>3. Use Ethernet connection to TV instead of Wifi, although this is untidy.<br>4. Use lower quality iPlayer setting (default) or download the program in iPlayer Desktop.<br>5. After checking with your immediate neighbours and you are certain the cause is not internal, ask for a landline check and then ask your ISP to improve your ADSL signal at the exchange. There is no need to agree to any engineering charges.<br>6. Check and perhaps renew your microfilters, See [[Networks]].<br><br>Although poor broadband speed is often associated with the physical landline connection from the exchange to your property and modem/router and would not improve with a different provider, persistent poor service may necessitate ''switching provider''. [[Ofcom offerers guidance.|http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/internet/broadband-switching/checklist-when-taking-out-new-phone-or-broadband-contract/]] Ofcom says it has made switching broadband provider much easier since the introduction of "migration authorisation codes" (macs), which providers have to give out.|[[Broadband Speed|Networks]]<br><br>[[Broadband Speed Tips|http://www.broadband.co.uk/help/speed-up-your-broadband/]]<br><br>[[Cables at Amazon|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Duronic-Professional-Headed-Network-Cable/dp/B003CL71II/ref=sr_1_4?s=computers&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1380975364&amp;sr=1-4]]<br><br>[[Cabling4Less|http://www.cabling4less.co.uk/category.php?cat_id=158&amp;gclid=CPOA0-OQn7oCFRPItAodMQcASw]]<br><br>[[Expert Review Routers|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/wireless-routers]]<br><br>[[Nottinghamshire Broadband|http://www.cable.co.uk/local/broadband/nottinghamshire/nottingham/]]<br><br>[[MACs|http://ask.ofcom.org.uk/help/internet-service/MAC]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
===

+++[3. How does one copy from one program to another?|Cut & Paste]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Cut, or Copy, and Paste is the  universal means of transferring text, links and images from page to page or program to program. The best way to hone this skill is to watch a video  - then practice highlighting and copy text, links and images on a blank page. Also, here are the steps you take for each operation in a [[tutorial|http://www.baycongroup.com/windows_xp/04_windows_xp.htm]].<br><br>Once you have mastered the skill of Copy, Cut & Paste and can use it with confidence, you may be interested in the facility to copy & Paste ''between devices''. [[PushBullet|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/reviews/google-android/3425661/pushbullet-review/]] is a free mobile app and PC browser add-on that aims to simplify the sharing of data between desktop and mobile computers. It offers a simpler process than sharing through email or ~DropBox.|[[YouTube Video 1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=629gkPnZ1Ns]]<br><br>[[YouTube Video 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCYP0mPeDoU]]<br><br><br>[[PushBullet|https://www.pushbullet.com/]]|
}}}
===
}}}
+++[4. How do I change text size so it is easier to read?|Text Size]
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Text size can be controlled in a number of ways but it depends where the text is:-<br>1. Icon size on the Desktop - is altered by right clicking an empty spot on the desktop and selecting from the VIEW menu.<br>2. Text size in a browser is altered by selecting the VIEW or CONTENT menu in browser OPTIONS and selecting a comfortable font size.<br>3. The zoom control in a browser also alters the size of the whole page and consequently the readable size of the text.<br>4. Text size in a Word document or email body is altered by highlighting the text and changing the FONT size in the menu. A permanent font size setting is made in the utility's PREFERENCES or OPTIONS menu. In Word, you can set the default font on the FONT dialogue window (Ctrl+D)<br>5. It is sometimes worth checking your screen RESOLUTION is set to RECOMMENDED. Right click on an empty spot on the desktop and select SCREEN RESOLUTION from the drop-down menu. Select the RECOMMENDED option from the drop-down menu.|
}}}
-------------------------------
===

+++[5. Why can't I get on the Internet?|WiFi Not Working]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;When analysing an Internet connection problem, investigate ''THREE'' areas:-<br>(a) ''The quality of your ADSL Broadband signa''l. The ability to get Internet conection on an alternative device confirms this is OK. Rebooting your router often resolves a problem of connection to the exchange. otherwise speak to your ISP, but first check for faults in the filtered phone line to your router.<br>(b) ''The quality of ~WiFi signal'' transmitted by your Router. The reception of the ~WiFi signal may be improved by repositioning the router. Its strength can be observed using the ''Inssider app''.<br>(c) Reception of an otherwise strong ~WiFi signal then depends on the ''right Network Adapter driver.'' This can be checked and updated in Device Manager.<br><br>At the end of the TASK BAR is the Quick Launch Notification area. The ~WiFi or Network icon for XP differs from that for Vista, W7 and W8. Right click the icon and choose REPAIR or TROUBLESHOOT in the window that appears.  This may be Internet Properties or the Network & Sharing Centre. Then follow advice given by the troubleshooter. If there is a red cross in the Network & Sharing Centre, click it and the Troubleshooter will start. It is possible to have the Icon showing "Internet Access" but without a working Internet connection. This could indicate a Router or a Broadband signal problem even when your ~WiFi is working well. It is not possible to have Internet access if ~WiFi is off, without using an Ethernet cable.<br><br>''It is possible that the keyboard ~WiFi toggle key has inadvertently been pressed to OFF.''<br><br>It is important to make sure that NETWORK DISCOVERY is on. Select "on" from the drop-down menu in the Network Sharing Centre. If there is no ~WiFi icon visible, select Notification Area Icons from Control Panel and select "Show icon".|[[Network Icons|Files/XP & W7 Network Icons.jpg]]<br><br>[[Network Sharing Centre|../Topic%20Slides/Network%20Sharing%20Centre.JPG]]<br><br>[[Network Sharing Centre|http://www.7tutorials.com/how-troubleshoot-network-problems]]<br><br>[[Make connection|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-find-a-wireless-network-using-windows-7.navId-323046.html]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/troubleshoot-network-connection-problems]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://www8.hp.com/uk/en/support-topics/network-internet-support/slow-dropped-network-connection.html]]<br><br>[[Things to check|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OuZqHSu5c_I]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
===

+++[6. I'm using an iPad but cannot access the Worksheet.|Reading Worksheet on iPad]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;Tablets behave slightly differently in some ways to laptops. Their simplicity comes from the use of independent ~APPs. To deal with files and browsers, they often need some help. To read .html web files in ''iPad'', download a file reader app called "~GoodReader", and bookmark this page.. <br>''Apple'' - To view in iPad try [[TWMobile|http://download.cnet.com/TWMobile/3000-2124_4-75263007.html]]. One of the limitations of the iPad is its inability to read ~WiKi HTML files where relative linked files are not in the same folder and its reluctance to include a ~FireFox browser App in the Apple Store. The worksheet is continually being revised to improve its appearance in iPad, particularly to enable "Topic Slides". Please discuss any broken links.<br><br>There is a series of tutorials on ~YouTube of value to new iPad users. These would supplement the brief User Guide on the iPad itself.<br><br>''Android'' users can easily read the Worksheet using the "Android Browser" or "Firefox for Android" app.|[[iPad Tutorials|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMht9_F3580]]<br><br>[[50 iPad Tips|http://www.techradar.com/news/mobile-computing/tablets/50-really-useful-ipad-tips-and-tricks-688556]]<br><br>[[iPad Quick Guide|http://www.hhdev.psu.edu/iss/training/documents/ipad-quick-reference-2.pdf]]<br><br>[[GoodReader Guide|http://www.goodiware.com/gr-man.html]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
===

+++[7. Can I have a Windows 8 laptop for less than £400?|W8 for under £400]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;A number of websites analyze laptops available by features, manufacturer and price.<br>Try these. Consider the Lenovo Essential B590 (~MBX2VUK) or Asus ~X551CA (~SX153H)  with 15.6 screen, W8, and Intel i3 processor for £380 to £410. Prices will vary with RAM and Hard drive size. Then, of course, there's further help on the [[Buying New|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO]] and [[Shopping|ShoppingOn-Line]] pages of the Worksheet|[[PC World|http://www.pcworld.co.uk/gbuk/lenovo-laptops-netbooks/laptops/laptops/703_7006_70006_1700_ba00002524-bv00302286-ba00002522-bv00172555/299-499-criteria.html]]<br><br>[[Price Runner|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/cl/27/Laptops#attr_54120216=55149838&amp;loadGuide=1&amp;price_min=&amp;price_max=400]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
===

+++[8. How did you know that picture was taken in Cornwall?|What is EXif]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;Open an image in the image editor and viewer, ''Irfanview'' and inspect FILE INFORMATION in the Image menu. At the bottom of the window showing file name, type, location and size, is a button named "Exif Info". Opening this window reveals information about the camera with which the image was taken. If the camera had collected GPS information, further buttons display the location of the picture on Google Maps and Earth. For ~IrfanView to show Exif Info, you may need to download additional ~PLUG-INS from the ~IrfanView site - Plugins page.  |[[Exif Info|Files/Exif%20GPS.JPG]]<br><br>[[Go to Plugins page|http://www.irfanview.com/]]|
}}}
----
===

+++[9. When I save a letter in MS Word, I can never find it again.|Saving a File]
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''Save As''<br>When you save a file there are ''THREE essential items'' to check:-<br>1. The destination folder - so you know where to find it.<br>2. The file name - so it can be recognized.<br>3. The file type - so that it can be read by an associated program.<br><br> Be particularly vigilant when saving [[Email]] attachments. &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[SavingAttachments]]<br><br>''Save''<br>The "Save" command differs from the "Save As" command in that it saves the file back into the same folder from which it was opened.<br><br>''Other commands'' you may like to compare are "Export", "Move To" and "Paste".|[[Essential Items|Files/SaveAs.JPG]]|
}}}
----
===

+++[10. How can I find my Downloads?|Finding Downloads]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;To avoid losing a file you need to:-<br>1. Save the file to a know destination. See FAQ 9.<br>2. Set your browser to save to a known folder in TOOLS - OPTIONS<br> A common cause of losing a file is by not checking [[THE FILE DESTINATION|Files/SaveAs.JPG]] when saving, and it disappears into the default "Temporary Folder" used by the utility.<br>If you have lost a file, use SEARCH in Windows Explorer. You will need to know the name, or at least part, of the file.|[[Browser Options|http://www.guidingtech.com/11776/change-file-download-locations-chrome-firefox-opera-ie/]]<br><br>[[Using Search|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/window-on-windows/take-advantage-of-search-filters-in-windows-explorer/3915]]|
}}}
----
===

+++[11. I can't open and read an attachment|Reading Attachments]
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;When you click the attached file icon on an email, the computer automatically OPENS the attachment, if:-<br>1. You have the ''appropriate program'' in your computer to read that file type, and<br>2. That program has the correct ''file associations'' for the attachment file type.<br>If you right click the attachment icon, you are given the options to view or save the attachment. See para 9. If you are unable to open the attachment, save it to a known folder. When the file is saved, right click on it and select OPEN WITH. The menu lists the programs available to open the file. For future convenience you may like to set the DEFAULT program associated with this file type. If no program is available to open the file, GOOGLE with keywords "FILE <file extension> OPEN WITH", learn about the file type and install the appropriate utility.|[[Show File Extension -1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkTR2C8eE6s]]<br><br>[[File Association - 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voInaUGlFhk]]<br><br>[[Attachments Tutorial|http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/attachments.htm#opening]]<br><br>[[Set Default Program|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qsPgSZI24s]]|
}}}
----
===

+++[12. How do I print an attachment?|Printing an Attachment]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;See paras. 8 and 10 on the [[Email|Email]] page of the Worksheet.|[[Email Page|Email]]|
}}}
-----
===

+++[13. How do I make an address header in a Word letter?|Address Header]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;This question arises when the composer wants to place the address in the top RH corner of the letter. There are a number of ways - use the feature called HEADER, use TAB STOPS or make a single row TABLE and place the address in the RH cell. The last is the easiest.<br>When this is done it is worth turning your document into a TEMPLATE to avoid having to repeat the process for every letter.<br>This tutorial illustrates TAB STOPS used in a business letter.  [[Tutorial|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVAWnGerrsU]]|[[Using the Header|http://www.officetooltips.com/word_2003/tips/working_with_headers_and_footers.html]]<br><br>[[Using Tab Stops|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s2p4.html]]<br><br>[[Make a Table|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s10p1.html]]<br><br>[[Making a Template|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/word2007_2010/s8p3.html]]|
}}}
-----
===

+++[14. I keep losing my mouse pointer.|Mouse Pointer]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;In CONTROL PANEL select MOUSE.<br>There are three changes possible to make to improve visibility of the mouse POINTER.<br>1. Make a large black pointer. On the POINTERS tab choose "Windows Inverted(extra large)".<br>2. Add to the variety of pointers available by downloading BIG RED POINTERS<br>3. On the POINTER OPTIONS tab tick "Show location when I press CTRL key".|[[Mouse Setup|http://qwertytutorials.com/software_tutorials/windows_xp/change_mouse_xp.php]]<br><br>[[Big Red Pointers|http://www.bmyers.com/public/1425.cfm]]|
}}}
------------------------
===

+++[15. I can't find things you refer to in Control Panel|Search for Windows Tools]
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;1. It is much easier to find items in Control Panel if it "''Displays as a menu''" rather than as a linked window. Customize the START MENU in "Start Menu Properties". The tutorial can be interpreted for Vista and W7. If you have Classic Start installed for Windows 8, the same customization is done in SETTINGS.<br>2. ''A quick way'' to find a Windows Utility is to use the search box at the foot of the START MENU. Well chosen keywords are necessary so you need to know the correct name of the utility you are searching.|[[Customizing Start Menu|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/bcs4p10.html]]|
}}}
-----------------------
===

+++[16. How do I make a shortcut?|Make a Shortcut]
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;1. To make a shortcut ''on the desktop'' from an item elsewhere, ''right click'' on the item and from the menu, select "Send to" and from the next menu, select "Desktop (create shortcut)". The shortcut appears on your ''Desktop''. You can rename the shortcut.<br>2. If you want to make a shortcut to an item ''in the same folder'', right click on the item and select "Create Shortcut". You can then move the shortcut to another location.<br>3. To make a short cut on the Desktop, perhaps ''to a website'', right click on an empty space and select NEW - SHORTCUT. In the wizard window, copy the URL from the browser address bar showing the website. Or if perhaps to a file, BROWSE to the file. Click NEXT and enter a NAME for the shortcut. Click FINISH. The word ITEM above refers to a program, a folder, a file or even another shortcut.|[[Make a Shortcut to Worksheet|Files/To read the Basic Computing Worksheet.pdf]]|
}}}
--------
===

+++[17. How do I move the Taskbar?|Moving The Taskbar]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The most common [[aspect ratio|http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530115(v=vs.85).aspx]] of a desk or laptop screen is 16:9 - a wide screen. Because the vertical dimension of the screen determines how much scrolling you have to do to read down the page (given it is at maximum zoom), then ''moving the taskbar from the default bottom of screen position'' to one side, increases the viewable depth of the page.<br>''For XP and Vista''- Right-click on your taskbar. If there is a check mark beside Lock the Taskbar, click "Lock the Taskbar" to unlock it. Drag your taskbar to the left, right, or top of your screen. To drag the taskbar, click and hold the mouse button over the taskbar. Then, while holding down the mouse button, drag the taskbar to its new location. When the taskbar is in place, release the mouse button. Re-lock. For ''W7 and W8'', right click on the task bar and select properties; choose location.<br>The preferred side for the taskbar is the ''left'' to minimize confusion with a right hand scroll bar.''To pin a utility'' to the taskbar, for quick access, right click the item in ''Programs'' and select "Pin to taskbar".|[[Tips|http://lifehacker.com/5532578/the-power-users-guide-to-the-windows-7-taskbar]]|
}}}   
----
===

+++[18. What else can I do with my Computer?|Other Computer Uses]
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;1. A [[list of 35 other things|http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/35-cool-and-fun-things-to-try-with-your-pc-669492]] ''to do with a PC.''<br>2. [[Family Research|Family Research]]<br>3. [[Design|http://psd.tutsplus.com/articles/web/50-totally-free-lessons-in-graphic-design-theory/]]<br>4. [[Control Devices|Synergy]]<br>5.[[ Audio and video|Multimedia]]<br>6. [[Communicate|http://www.livingmadeeasy.org.uk/communication/computer-use-3627/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Communication]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[MeetingSystems]]<br>7. [[Synchronize|http://lifehacker.com/372175/free-ways-to-synchronize-folders-between-computers]] and [[automate|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/how-to-automate-tasks-in-windows-1107254]] computer operations<br>8. [[Photography|http://bestphotolessons.com/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Paint.net|http://www.getpaint.net/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Windows Movie Maker|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-live/movie-maker]]<br>9. Study subjects [[other than|http://www.bbc.co.uk/learning/onlinecourses/]] Basic Computing. &nbsp; [[Resources|http://www.diygenius.com/100-self-education-resources-for-lifelong-learners/]]<br>10. [[Investigate Raspberry Pi|RaspberryPi]]<br>11. BuildYourOwn PC<br>12. [[Programming]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Curious.com|https://curious.com/]]<br>13. Take up Amateur Radio [[Virtual Ham Radio|http://www.hamsphere.com/]]<br>14. Computer Assisted Design (CAD) in 3D &nbsp; &nbsp; [[FreeCAD|http://www.freecadweb.org/]]|[[Paint Shop Tutorials|http://www.pspug.org/tut/tutbasic.shtml]]<br><br>[[PhotoShop Tutorials|http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/12/29/our-15-most-popular-photo-editing-tutorials-of-2012/]]<br><br>[[Windows Utilities|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Microsoft_Windows_components]]<br><br>[[Interior Design|http://www.sweethome3d.com/index.jsp]]<br><br>[[CIA Factbook|https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/]]<br><br>[[TED Talks|http://www.ted.com/talks]]<br><br>[[A History of Ideas|http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/3vVjcY47k2p5Wsnj3ZFHV5W/a-history-of-ideas]]|
}}}
------
===

+++[19. Is it safe to continue using XP on my Computer?|XP Warning]
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;If you continue to use @@color: red; ''Microsoft XP operating system after 8 April 2014, you are putting yourself - and everyone else online - at risk.''@@ This is the date Microsoft finally ends its security support for XP. It is now seriously out of date and will be subject to even more attacks by hackers' malware which can spread to others.<br>If you have no alternative, at least ''never go online.'' Please advise your family members who may be unaware of the danger.|
}}}
------
===

+++[20. Should I learn Windows Keyboard Shortcuts?|Windows Keyboard Shortcuts]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;Expert touch typists often prefer to navigate Windows and Utilities with keyboard shortcuts. This saves alternating between the keyboard and the mouse. The list is long and varies between Utilities although there is some standardization. If you use a word-processor frequently is is worth learning those for MS Word.|[[Keyboard Shortcut List|http://www.computerhope.com/shortcut/windows.htm]]<br><br>[[Using the Keyboard|http://digitalunite.com/guides/computer-basics/how-to-use-a-computer-keyboard]]<br><br>[[Function Keys|http://www.watchingthenet.com/your-computer-function-keys-and-their-uses.html]]|
}}}
------
===

+++[21. What is Ransomware?|Ransomware]
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Ransomware is currently @@color: red; ''one of the most dangerous''@@ and expensive incidents of malware and infects your computer fatally through an attachment on a phishing email or from an advert link on a website. See the entry on the [["Email" page of this Worksheet at para.12.|Email##Security]]|
}}}
------
===

+++[22. What future tech. innovations can we expect?|Technological Innovations]
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;The most bizarre to date is Sony's ~SmartWig which will be able to monitor the wearer's health, give directions and control slideshows streamed to TV by tapping their sideburns! See: [[www.snipca.com/10824|http://www.snipca.com/10824]]|[[The Internet of Things|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
===

+++[23. What happens when I empty the Recycle Bin?|e-Waste]
When you empty your Recycle Bin, the files are not permanently lost, just hidden, they can be [[restored|http://www.geek.com/apple/how-to-recover-deleted-files-from-your-pc-or-mobile-device-1537610/]] until the hard drive space is needed for new files, using the "Restore" command in the bin.. [[''Recuva''|http://www.piriform.com/recuva]] is a free utility useful if you have difficulty.<br>
The term "e-Waste" concerns electronic ''hardware.''
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;What is it?<br><br>Is it exported to Africa?<br><br>What can be done?<br><br>[[And do Black Holes Destroy Information?|http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/blogs/physics/2013/12/do-black-holes-destroy-information/]]<br><br>Information cannot be destroyed but it can be lost.|width:20em;[[What is it?|http://www.slideshare.net/ketanwadodkar/e-waste-tce-r2]]<br><br>[[Export|http://rt.com/news/e-waste-illegal-environment-uk-043/]]<br><br>[[What can be Recycled?|http://www.recyclenow.com/why_recycling_matters/electricals/blitz_your_ewaste.html]]<br><br>[[AgeUK RecycleIT|http://www.ageuk.org.uk/get-involved/make-a-donation/recycle-your-it-equipment/]]<br><br>[[Holographic Information|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnETCBOlzJs]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
===

+++[24. What extra precautions should I take on the move?|SecurityOutsideTheHome]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''At home you are relatively safe using the Internet, if you have:''<br><br>1. ~WiFi with a Security Password set,<br>2. Antivirus software installed which protects against, Identity Theft, Spyware and Malware,<br>3. A knowledge of, and skill to combat, the dangers of phishing emails and doggy websites.<br><br>''However as soon as you are mobile and venture outside your home, a new set of threats exist.''|<br><br><br>[[Security]]<br><br>[[USBMemorySticks]]|
}}}
! Security on the Move
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;As soon as you connect to a public hotspot in the Library or in a ~CyberCafe, new risks occur:<br><br>1. People gaining access to your online activity if you are using an unsecured or illicit wireless network.<br>2. 'Shoulder surfing’ – people viewing your screen.<br>3. Loss or theft of your computer, smartphone or tablet.<br>4. Malware, including spyware, on public computers.<br>5. Theft of personal information from, or access to browsing history on public computers.|[[Protecting Yourself|https://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-yourself/using-public-computers/]]<br><br>[[Five Tips|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/public-pc.aspx]]<br><br>[[Smartphones|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/mobile-phone-safety.aspx]]|
}}}
!VPN - Virtual Private Networks
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;If you surf frequently on the move, you might be interested in VPN.<br><br>See [[Virtual|Virtual##3]]|[[VPN|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2030763/how-and-why-to-set-up-a-vpn-today.html]]<br><br>[[Play it Safe|http://www.twortw.com/2010/03/30/how-to-play-it-safe-in-an-internet-cafe/]]|
}}}
----
===

+++[25. How do I change my email password?|Passwords]
!Use a Strong Password
+++[Generate and Use a Strong Password|Strong Password]
{{invisibletable{
|width:43em;''Use a Strong Password'' - Speaking for myself, we are all too lax in the use of strong passwords!  Knowing that passwords [[can be cracked|http://www.nmrc.org/pub/faq/hackfaq/hackfaq-04.html]] using a dictionary or a list of common words and that they are not always encrypted is a guide to making them safe and strong.<br><br>There is one clear message to hear in the matter of "passwords":<br> ''Don't use an easily remembered name or dictionary word when you choose a password.''<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How to create a strong password - [[Guide|http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2008/06/the-ultimate-guide-for-creating-strong-passwords/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Passwords Generator|http://passwordsgenerator.net/]]<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How secure is your password? - [[Test1|https://www.microsoft.com/security/pc-security/password-checker.aspx]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How secure is your password?   [[Test2|http://www.passwordmeter.com/]]<br><br>''An ideal password'' looks something like: ''bReZ£4xMyKaG'' which scores 100% in Test2, but is too short to score "strong" in Test1. It is effective because it contains alternate upper and lower case letters, symbols, numbers, no repeats and 12 characters.|[[Strong Passwords|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/passwords-create.aspx]].<br><br>[[Your Passwords|Files/YourPasswords.jpg]]|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:43em;It is logical to assume that the enemy will not break into your house to steal your password but attack through your computer. Therefore the best option is to make a ''very STRONG password and write it down in a well organised NOTEBOOK'', rather than activating browser SAVING of your passwords or even using a Password Management Tool, like the encrypted one inbuilt into Firefox. Use a different password in each account.<br><br>[[Password Management Tools|http://mashable.com/2010/10/08/password-management-tools/]]. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[LastPass|https://lastpass.com/how-it-works/]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Change Password Frequently|http://lifehacker.com/5966214/how-often-should-i-change-my-passwords]]<br><br>  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Creating a Password..... Contains strong language!|Files/CreatingPassword.pdf]]|
}}}
-----

===
 
!Changing an Email Password
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''Note''<br>1. Your ''Username/ID/email address'' and your ''password'' make a unique ''PAIR''.<br>2. The pair in your email client, used to download your emails from your Webmail page, must be the same as the pair you set in your Webmail page where you access your emails online.<br>3. ~POP3 just downloads while the alternative, called IMAP, synchronises your client with your Webmail.<br><br>''To change your password''<br>1. Generate a ''strong'' password and note it either in your password book or in the Password Manager.<br>2. Using your ''old'' password, login to your account settings in your ''Webmail page'' and find "Change Password". Follow the instructions using the ''new'' Password you have noted together with its paired ID!.<br>3. Logout and in again to test that you can access your emails.<br> Any problem, use "Forgot my password" and start again.<br>4. Go to your account settings in your ''client'', delete the old password and enter the new.<br>5. Click "Send & Receive" to check it works.|<br><br>[[List of Servers|http://en.kioskea.net/faq/9166-smtp-imap-and-pop-server-settings-for-major-isps#bt-internet]]<br><br>[[Username|Passwords##Changing]]|
}}}
------
===

+++[26. What has caused my program to crash?|Crash]
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;The slang name is "Crashing", the formal description is ''"Not Responding"''. Either term, your computer freezes. Usually it is the utility in use that freezes and a visit to [[Task Manager]] will get things started again.<br>The cause is often over consumption of available memory. See [[HouseKeeping]]. It may also be caused by a corupted file, out of date driver, incompatibility with your operating system or malware activity.<br><br>When a browser displays "Not Responding" in the title bar, it is most likely that you have too many tabs open using excessive memory.<br>If the cause of failure appears to be with Windows itself, go to CONTROL PANEL - TROUBLESHOOTING and chose the appropriate tool.<br><br>''Take a look at:''<br>1. Action Centre - the little flag icon in the Quick Start area of the ~TaslBar<br>2. Reliability History - best found by a search with its name in the START search box. View Technical Detail reports|
}}}
!Action to take
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''If it happens frequently, investigate the cause, but sometimes the solution is simple, so before taking drastic action, work through these priorities:''<br><br>1. Attempt to close the utility. This will fail if it is not responding, so open TASK MANAGER by right clicking on the taskbar. Identify the utility, highlight and "END PROCESS". While there note how much memory it was using.<br>2. Reboot the computer. Windows is self healing and this often solves the problem.<br>3. Open and close the utility. Often an error message will give a clue or a self repair process will start.<br>4. Go to "Programs and Features" in CONTROL PANEL, right click the utility and use REPAIR if available.<br>5. Save your data by backing up and uninstall the utility. Download and install a more recent version. If upgrade is available from the utility's menu, this will save uninstalling and saving data.|
}}}
!Causes
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;1. ''Memory'' See [[HouseKeeping]] para "Running Slowly - RAM"<br>2. ''Corrupted File'' - This is ususally mended by REPAIR or upgrading version<br>3. ''Drivers'' are best updated in DEVICE MANAGER or from the manufacturer's support page. &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[Further Setup|Setting Up##Further]].<br>4. ''Incompatible with OS'' - Go to START - PROGRAMS - right click the utility - PROPERTIES - run COMPATIBILITY TROUBLESHOOTER, but always check manufacturers site for advice on comparibility with your OS.<br>5. ''Malware'' - [[See Security|Security##AntiVirus]]|
}}}
----
===
 
+++[27. What should I do if my address book has been hacked.]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br><br>''So how did they get your password in the first place?''<br><br>Some people think that once they've changed their password they're done. Let me ask: If you found a burglar wandering through your house with a copy of your house key, wouldn't you wonder how he got it?<br><br>So the next question you need to answer is how they got your password in the first place. You need to know this so you can prevent them from getting your new password! Here are some possibilities:<br><br>''1. They guessed it'' or discovered it by trial and error. Bad passwords include your name, your birthday, a word from the dictionary, etc. See also [[Passwords]]<br><br>''2. They obtained it from your service provider'' by clicking "lost password" and answering your security questions with information they know about you (mother's maiden name, childhood pet, etc.)<br><br>''3. You gave it to them'', by typing it into their web site. The strongest password in the world is no good if you give it away for the asking! Maybe the web site was a phony one mimicking the login screen for your e-mail service. Or maybe it promised some freebie (e.g. cup of coffee) if you just enter your e-mail address and password. A social networking site may ask for your e-mail password to invite your friends to join their network. Or you may get a phony e-mail, ostensibly from your service provider, asking you to click on a link to a form and enter your information to "confirm" your account.<br><br>''4. You used the same password on another site.'' Many web services require you to sign up with a username and password. Do not choose the same password as for your e-mail account! Doing so would give the operator of that site access to your e-mail account, to read your mail and to send out mail in your name.<br><br>''5. A "spyware" program in your computer (or a public computer you used) saw it.'' Spyware is malicious software which runs stealthily in the background, virtually looking over your shoulder and sending what you type back to its headquarters. One form of spyware, keylogging software, quietly records every keystroke you make. Many virus scanners do not detect spyware, so you should periodically scan your computer with a specific spyware scanner - Malwarebytes ~Anti-Malware Free.||
}}}
===
-------
}}}
{{{
<<sectionTOC>>
}}}
 
 
<br><br><br><br>
!1. Overview
<br>''Windows Explorer'' - This page concerns "Windows Explorer", the file manager, not to be confused with "Internet Explorer" the Web browser.<br>From Windows 8 onwards, Windows Explorer is renamed ''"File Explorer".''
<br>''Windows Explorer'' is an essential utility to master so that you can easily learn how to manage your computer. To be well organized you need to ''master WINDOWS EXPLORER.'' Put a shortcut to it on your desktop TASKBAR.
''Open and close folders''; [[practice starting|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/windows7/6.3]] at the WINDOWS (C:\) folder ([[the root folder|http://learnthat.com/2002/07/understanding-windows-folders/]] on your hard drive) and work your way along the hierarchy of folders. Then OPEN, (by double clicking on it) the folder named USERS, then the one with your name on it. In this folder, are all the sub-folders and files that you make, save and manage yourself. Learn the meaning of the word PATH. Learn about file types and file names. See "Files, Folders and Drives" in [[BASICS|The Basics of Files, Email, Internet]].
<br>''Path'' - for example the PATH to this page you are reading now, if you are viewing it in Dropbox, is:
|Centered|k
|"C:/Users/<''~YourName''>/Dropbox/~ComputerClubFolder/New Worksheet Folder/Worksheet.html "|
Look at the browser address bar above. <br>(Back slashes are used for folders in a computer file system, whereas forward slashes are used in web ~URLs - and Dropbox.)
<br> ''This is by far the most important setting up you will ever do in your computer.'' In the folder with your name (username) on it you should find four folders already made for you. They are ''DOCUMENTS, PICTURES, MUSIC and VIDEOS''. Don't delete these basic folders because Windows recognizes these names for other uses. ''By adding well named sub-folders'' you create an ordered system which facilitates easy search as you develop it.
<br>''Basic Skills'' -  The basic skills to master are opening and closing folders, making a new folder, renaming folders and files, ''using "right click" (in context) [[drop down menus|http://www.maketecheasier.com/5-free-tools-to-manage-the-context-menu-in-windows/]]'', highlighting, making a short cut, copy and paste, cut and paste. Investigate "sort", "view", [["FOLDER OPTIONS"|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/win7/file_extensions.html]] and "show file extension". &nbsp; &nbsp; [[To change Folder View|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acjApArlN9w]]
Important - Adjusting Windows Explorer to show file extensions will speed up your learning about file management. Give this top priority. [[On the VIEW menu...|Topic%20Slides/ShowFileExtensions.jpg]]
There is a series of [[YouTube video tutorials|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lHs8xqvK6Y4]] ideal for this purpose. See the BASICS and TUTORIALS pages of these notes.
<br>''File Extensions'' - The reason being able to see a File Extension is important, besides speeding learning, is that the extension tells you so much about the file. Knowing the TYPE of file it is, is vital to your security when you open it, especially if it is an attachment to an email or a file you have downloaded.
<br>''Libraries'' -  In Windows 7 & 8 there is an extra facility called [[LIBRARIES|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKD7v8BQtfU&index=21&list=UUGHmNNu2TxHVdDvqnpMo9PA]], a folder which collects together copies of your My Documents, My Pictures, My Music and My Video folders, but in W8.1 Microsoft drops the "MY". Files you put in either similarly named folder appear in the other as well. You can add a copy of any folder you wish to the LIBRARY folder for convenient access but this can be confusing because of the duplication it creates. Always use the commands "Add/Remove to/from Libraries" (not copy, paste and delete). In Windows 7 & 8, WINDOWS EXPLORER opens in the LIBRARIES folder by default but this can be changed and has been changed in Windows 8.1.to open in "This PC".  (Confused?)
<br>''Shortcuts'' - Once you have found a file or program you will use often, a shortcut saves you searching for it again. Shortcuts can be placed on the DESKTOP, in the START MENU and on the TASKBAR. Shortcuts can be made by (1) using the RIGHT CLICK MENU on the highlighted file and by selecting SEND TO then DESKTOP or (2) NEW (on a blank spot ON DESKTOP) - SHORTCUT - enter the PATH in the window.
<br>''Desktop'' - The desktop is your work screen and is really a visible folder. Here you organise your shortcut  ICONS and open program windows. Choose a background THEME that makes it easy to see your icons. To avoid clutter your desktop deserves constant househeeping. To hide icons on your desktop (1) organise them into folders if you are reluctant to delete (2) Right Click an empty spot and in the drop down-menu select VIEW. Here the icon size can be chosen and by unticking "Show all Icons", the desktop is cleared instantly.
<br>''Windows'' - Learn how to manipulate windows - open, close, minimize, restore, resize. &nbsp; See [[Basic Skills]] and  [[SeeMac|ForMacUsers]]

!2.Programs to help you Organize 
<br>''Office'' - Free Open Source Office Suites provide an excellent alternative to Microsoft Office and are more intuitive and easier to use. See [[DOWNLOADS|Useful Utilities]]. Their layout and features are almost identical, however take care to set the default save file type to those of MS Office otherwise confusion may result when sharing documents, but also avoid overwriting your original MS Office files otherwise [[data may be lost.|http://www.idealware.org/articles/msoffice_vs_openoffice.php]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;[[Convert .docx file to doc|http://www.doc.investintech.com/]]
''Excel or Apache Spreadsheet'' - is easy to use and contains templates for household budgets, cash flow and creating charts.
''Pictures'' -  Windows Photo Gallery, Picassa. &nbsp; &nbsp; Make ''Irfanview'' your default image viewer, for quick sequential viewing, resizing and information about an image.
''Music'' - Windows Media Player, Audials 10 and iTUNES - See [[Multimedia|Multimedia]] page.
''Projects'' - Collecting together images, documents and web pages associated with various projects you might have underway benefits from software such as - [[gDOC Binder|http://www.gdoc.com/]] (£6 for 10 binders), a utility which creates a book or looseleaf binder.  A [[WiKi|Programming]] is an alternative solution for this purpose.
''Freemind'' -  This is an addictive [[tool|Useful Utilities]] for the extreme organisation geek which provides a visual display of shortcuts and bookmarks.
''Snipping Tool'' - You can take a snapshot of your desktop screen using the "Prt SC" key. This saves an image in the [[CLIP BOARD|Topic%20Slides/Clipboard.JPG]] which you can paste. Windows also provides a SNIPPING TOOL for snapping a selected part of a webpage or document to save as an image.
''Printing'' - As well as printing a page on your printer, installing [[CutePDF|Useful Utilities]] enables you to create and save a PDF file copy of a document or webpage.
''~ClipBoard'' - The Windows Clipboard can store only one item at a time. [[Ditto|http://ditto-cp.sourceforge.net/]] is one of [[many clipboard utilities|http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-clipboard-replacement-utility.htm#Quick_Selection_Guide]] that store many ready for pasting.
''On-screen  Keyboard'' and ''On-screen Calculator'' - Look in PROGRAMS - WINDOWS ACCESSORIES and TASKBAR PROPERTIES.
''Recovering Deleted File'' - Document and email files lost when your trash is emptied can be recovered with the [[Recuva|http://download.cnet.com/Recuva/3000-2242_4-10753287.html]] utility. Help is available at the [[Piriform|http://www.piriform.com/docs/recuva]] site.
''ZIP files'', files that contain a number of compressed documents or files, are sometimes useful for reducing the size of email attachments.&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Using Zip Files|http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/downloadingfiles/f/how-zip-files-work.htm]]
!3.More Organisation
<br>''Bookmarks & Favourites'' - Folder system and toolbar for web addresses.
''Email'' - Set up an INBOX sub-folder system for special emails. (Learn about RULES)
''Resize images'' to send as email attachments.
''File Association'' - Learn about Default Programs.  
''__[[Downloading]]__'' - Set up the default folder in your browser [[OPTIONS|Topic%20Slides/Files6%20Downloading.jpg]] (General TAB)
''Setting up your browser main page'' - Familiarize yourself with browser [[OPTIONS|Topic%20Slides/Files6%20Downloading.jpg]].
''Improving your PC speed'' - Learn about RAM memory and startup progs.
''__[[Control Panel]]__ and __[[Task Manager]]__'' - Learn what is in these two tools.
''Network'' - Share pictures and music between computers and TV by streaming.
''Security'' - Use Microsoft Security Essentials - (Windows Defender) to save Anti-virus software costs.
<br>''Warning.'' Never download free software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8) alone. Always use a strong virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware.
!4. Cloud Storage
This is an area of computing of growing interest and use in everyday computing and will come to revolutionise our computing experience. Using Cloud services is simply using someone else's computer hard drive,  or ''server'' to provide the computing, storage and syncing functions. These functions are available from any location. For an overview - see [[The Cloud|Cloud]]. For detail on various providers we might use, see [[CloudStorage]].
-----

 
<br><br><br><br>
<html><center><h1><font size="6"><strong>Welcome to the Computer Club Worksheet</strong></font><br>
<p>This Guide to Communication combines all pages into one html file and provides a SEARCH facility</p>A learning resource for those motivated by curiosity.<br><br>Things look complicated until you understand them.</p></center></html><br><html><center><p><strong>Worksheet Last Updated: 26 October 2017</strong></p></center></html>
{{center{
Reason for Update: ''__[[Smart Devices]]__'' &nbsp; &nbsp;  ''__[[WiFi|WiFi Not Working]]__''&nbsp; &nbsp; ''__[[Passwords|Passwords##What]]__''  &nbsp; &nbsp; ''__[[Ancient Knowledge|Summary of Ancient Knowledge Videos]]__''  &nbsp; &nbsp; ''__[[Ubuntu]]__''
}}} 
<html><center><h1><font size="2"><strong>Use a Single Click to open links in the Worksheet</strong></font></html><br><br>
<br>
!!!Getting Started First Time
{{invisibletable{
|width:1em;|width:36em;''If Using the Worksheet in ~DropBox,'' &nbsp;<<tiddler ShowPopup with: InDropBox [[Please Read]][[Click to view this note]]>><br><br>''If Using the Worksheet On Line,''&nbsp;<<tiddler ShowPopup with: On_Line [[Please Read]][[Click to view this note]]>><br><br><br><br><html><center><span style="color:red"><strong><font size="2"><u>WINDOWS 10 ALERT</u></font></strong></span></center></html><br><br>__''Windows Updates''__<br><br>''To successfully download and install large Updates, leave your PC on awake overnight and then reboot.<br>Then recheck for further updates. Check History''<br><br><br>__[[Your Windows 10]]__ &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; __''[[Get the Creators Update|https://support.microsoft.com/en-gb/instantanswers/d4efb316-79f0-1aa1-9ef3-dcada78f3fa0/get-the-windows-10-creators-update]]''__<br><br>__''Creators Update (v1707)''__ available on ~UpDate page.<br>Faster, more secure and some additional features. You will know when you have this update by checking the Settings front page for two extra items making 11.<br><br>__''Drivers''__ The Creator Update sets a higher standard for drivers. Unless older ones are updated your computer may behave poorly. Update manually in Device Manager or disconnect and reconnect a device if these are not updated automatically.|width:25em;__''About the Worksheet''__ &nbsp; <<tiddler ShowPopup with: WelcomeNotes [[Please Read]] [[Click to view this note]]>><br><br>''Recent Updates'' &nbsp;<<tiddler ShowPopup with: RecentUpdates [[Please Read]][[Click to view this note]]>><br><br><br><br> <br><br><br>__''Anniversary Update - Version 1607''__<br><br>You will know when you have the Anniversary Update - The ACTION CENTRE square icon moves to the end of the Taskbar beyond the DATE.<br><br>''[[What is the Anniversary Update?|http://www.howtogeek.com/248177/whats-new-in-windows-10s-anniversary-update/]]''<br><br>Security support for Version 1507 will end May 2017. Update now.<br><br><html><span style="color:red"><strong><u>Stop Press</u></strong></span></html><br><br>''Next Update'' [[Windows Fall Creators Update|https://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/upcoming-features]] v 1709. &nbsp; You will know when you have this update by checking the Settings front page for two further items making 13|.|<html> &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/Welcome1.jpg" style="height:120px; width: 160px" /></html>|
}}} 
<br><br>''Please'' report broken links by email to me at: Clive.Bates@btinternet.com &nbsp;+++[or to provide feedback, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
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===
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{{center{
Copyright © 2014-2015 Clive Bates · All Rights Reserved<br>Images used have been selected from those for non-commercial reuse.
}}}
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<br><br>
!History of the Internet
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;This is a collection of sites concerning the History, Use and Future of the Internet. Care must be taken to distinguish between "The Internet" and the "World Wide Web" which is just part of the former. <br><br>In addition to the WWW, the Internet provides a number of services which enable computers to communicate and each uses a separate "Protocol" and "Port". Some of these protocols are SMTP, POP, IMAP (Email), FTP (File Transfer), HTTP (the WWW), Telnet (Remote Connection), IRC (Internet Relay Chat), VoIC (Voice), Trojans, etc..<br><br>The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his "Galactic Network" concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today.<br><br>''Sir Tim ~Berners-Lee''<br>In 1980, while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, he first described the concept of a global system, based on the concept of 'hypertext', that would allow researchers anywhere to share information. He also built a prototype called 'Enquire'.<br><br>In 1994, Berners Lee founded the World Wide Web Consortium at the Laboratory of Computer Science (LCS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston. He has served as director of the consortium since then. He also works as a senior research scientist at LCS which has now become the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.|<br>[[Internet Knowledgebase|http://www.livinginternet.com/i/i.htm]]<br><br>[[Internet Protocols|http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/A-level_Computing/AQA/Computer_Components,_The_Stored_Program_Concept_and_the_Internet/Structure_of_the_Internet/Protocols#Common_Standard_Protocols]]<br><br>[[Internet Services|http://www.informatics.buzdo.com/p914-internet-services.htm]]<br><br>[[Annual Web Index|http://thewebindex.org/]]<br><br>[[Web Report|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-30432487]]<br><br>[[Brief History|http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet]]<br><br>[[Internet Origin|http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/origins.html]]<br><br>[[Sir Tim Berners-Lee|http://webfoundation.org/about/sir-tim-berners-lee/]]<br><br>[[History of Email|http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/email.html]]<br><br>[[Artificial Intelligence|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/31047780]]<br><br>[[AI in depth|http://www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/pages/reference%20articles/what%20is%20ai.html]]<br><br>[[Darwin and Turing|http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/-a-perfect-and-beautiful-machine-what-darwins-theory-of-evolution-reveals-about-artificial-intelligence/258829/]]|
}}}
!!The History of Microsoft.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"; class="fancy";>As regular Microsoft PC users, it is interesting to see recent advances in perspective. A number of links are collected here to that end.</p></html><br>''Some links to the History of Computers:-''|<br> [[History of Microsoft|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows/history#T1=era0]]<br>[[History of Windows|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Microsoft_Windows]]<br>[[Windows OS|http://windows-operating-system-reviews.toptenreviews.com/a-brief-history-of-the-windows-operating-system.html]]<br>[[Microsoft Windows|http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Hardware_Software/history_of_microsoft_windows_operating_system.html]]|
}}}
{{threecolumns{
[[Invention|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000984.htm]]<br>[[Gallery|http://royal.pingdom.com/2009/12/11/retro-delight-gallery-of-early-computers-1940s-1960s/]]<br>[[History of Computing|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware]]<br>[[Apple|http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/01/the-evolution-of-apple-design-between-1977-2008/]]<br>[[An Illustrated History|http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/History.htm]]<br>[[Old Computers|http://www.old-computers.com/museum/default.asp]]<br>[[Obsolete Computers|http://oldcomputers.net/]]<br>[[Timeline of Computing|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware]]<br>[[Sumlock Anita|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumlock_ANITA_calculator]]
}}}
<br>
!!!The ENTER Key
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify";>Historically the "Enter" key is derived from the typewriter carriage "Return" key and some computer keyboards have both with the Return key generating a new line while the Enter key ends editing mode. It typically has an arrow pointing down and left (⏎ or ↵), which is the symbol for carriage return. A tap of the laptop pad and a LEFT click of the mouse give the same "OK" or "Execute" command as the Enter key.  In modern word processing applications, pressing the Return/Enter key ends a paragraph and starts a new one. Spacing between the paragraphs can be defined through paragraph styles.</html>|<br>[[Computer Keyboard|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_keyboard]]|
}}} 
------
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>With excitement growning as the launch of HoloLens draws closer, December 2015, information is released outlining its structure, features and uses. <a href="http://www.alphr.com/microsoft/microsoft-hololens/1001301/you-may-not-get-to-own-a-hololens-until-2020" target="_blank"><u>However don't get too excited.</u></a> This page collects pertinent articles and videos as they become available.</strong><br><br><br>1. <strong>Virtual Reality</strong> - The introduction of <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AADEqLIALk" target="_blank"><u>HoloLens</u></a> makes W10 a platform for domestic VR, or more correctly, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwY-6sQDYnk" target="_blank"><u>augmented reality (AR)</u></a><br>2. <strong>HoloLens</strong>  makes Windows 10 independent of a PC in augmented reality and other uses include Design, Education and Skills Training and Games using Minecraft.<br>3. <strong>Disappointing as it is,</strong> the long delay in the consumer availability of HoloLens is quite understandable. To make it more than just a gimmick, there have to be masses of holographic APPs developed and then available to the general public if it is going to be a sustainable device.</html>|<br>[[TechRadar Review|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/wearables/microsoft-hololens-1281834/review]]<br><br>[[Price|http://www.alphr.com/microsoft/microsoft-hololens]]<br><br>[[Uses|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/8-real-world-uses-microsoft-hololens/]]<br><br>[[Virtual Reality|Virtual##6. Virtual]]<br><br>[[HoloLens Update|http://view.engage.microsofthololens.com/?j=feba11797c61067a&m=fe5815707d6306747013&ls=fe281573746d0c7a701071&l=ff971577&s=fe291573746d017f721579&jb=ff66167674&ju=fe5d1577756c017e7613&r=0]]|
}}}
|| VIDEOS | ARTICLES |
| ''Microsoft ~HoloLens<br>Launch'' |<html><iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/iu0gM0_vxIM" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></html>| This article is Microsoft's full explanation of<br> ~HoloLens' Appearence, Hardware, Design,<br> Uses and potential<br><br>[[Experience HoloLens|https://www.microsoft.com/microsoft-hololens/en-us/experience]] |
| ''Skills Training'' |<html><iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/SKpKlh1-en0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></html>||
| ''Design'' |<html><iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/q0K3n0Gf8mA" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></html>||

!
-----
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>HomeGroup makes sharing files very easy.</strong> As soon as you aquire more than one Windows device in the household, file sharing becomes interesting. With earlier versions of Windows file sharing was tedious, unintuitive and limited to a Workgroup. HOMEGROUP was introduces with Windows 7 and later versions and does all the work for you. It is securely protected by password and what is to be shared is easily controlled.<br><br>This page collects together the various links and tutorials to help your setting up.<br><br>The video listed on the right is a brief explanation of Homegroup in both Windows 7 and Windows 8.</html>|<br>[[Windows 7 HomeGroup|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows7/products/features/homegroup]]<br><br>[[All about Sharing|http://www.howtogeek.com/school/windows-network-sharing/lesson1/]]|
}}}
!Setting Up
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Although Homegroup in either Windows 7 or Windows 8 is very similar, separate tutorials are listed.<br><br>For historical interest or for those wishing to transfer files from an XP machine, the video below on how to set up Workgroup sharing is included. Ignore the "advanced sharing" second half of this video unless you are a glutton for punishment or just enjoy the intricacies of Windows XP. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Setting up Workgroups in XP|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=er3x5r2tMWs]]|[[Video W7 Setup|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows7/help/videos/sharing-files-with-homegroup#tab=newto]]<br><br>[[Windows 8 Setup|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/homegroup-help#homegroup-start-to-finish=windows-81&v1h=win81tab1&v2h=win7tab1]]<br><br>[[Video W8 Setup|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiOZw3mO7qE]]|
!Mixed Networks
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Most probably, as a household acquires new devices, older versions of windows still linger and there is a need to transfer files from an XP device to a newer. For this you will need to be familiar with a WORKGROUP which was the only sharing method in XP and is an optional method in W7.<br><br>Then there is the possiblity you wish to link a smartphone or tablet, Android or Windows Mobile to your home network. For a Windows phone you will have to use ''__DropBox__'' or ''[[OneDrive|https://onedrive.live.com/about/en-gb/support/]]'' for file transfer. In contrast a Windows tablet is easy to connect to Homegroup.&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Windows Tablet Setup|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-connect-your-windows-8-tablet-to-networked-.html]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Android Tablet Setup|http://smallbusiness.chron.com/connect-android-tablet-homegroup-28441.html]]|[[Workgroup vs Homegroup|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-8/domain-workgroup-homegroup-what-is-difference]]<br><br>[[Mixed W7 & W8 Network|http://www.7tutorials.com/homegroup-feature-how-it-works]]<br><br>[[Mixed XP, W7, W8|http://windowssecrets.com/top-story/file-sharing-strategies-for-windows-7-and-8/]]<br><br>[[Android Phone|http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/275503-homegroup-add-android-phone-tablet.html]]|
}}}
-----

<br><br><br><br><br><br>
!Overview
''Technology was once defined as "Anything that doesn't quite work yet".'' Eventually computers will be so perfect we won't notice they are there. In the meantime we are offered the opportunity to personalise and customise these rudimentary robots and frequently introduce errors which have to be corrected.  This is "Housekeeping".<br><br>''Overriding'' in all your routine housekeeping is ensuring that you have installed antiVirus and malware software correctly scheduled to quick scan daily and deep scan weekly. Together with this, ensuring that Windows Updates are installed promptly is vital.<br>
Diagnosing and maintaining your PC is well within your control even if you consider yourself a novice. Personally I advise ''against'' downloading and installing "free" advertised software perporting to "Speed up your PC". With the exception of the reliable "~CCleaner" most are too intrusive, likely to include malware, and batch remove files without your personal decision. Even ~CCleaner comes with additional software by default. This is the way you pay for "free" software. These utilities are just not necessary with the excellent antomatic performance maintenance features of Windos 10.
 
Instead, there are simple tools, built into Windows, that you can use quite safely to solve common irregularities in, and poor performance of, your PC. Below are listed the rudiments of Windows control and diagnostic tools. First navigate to START - SEARCH - (Enter the keywords "System Information") and select this. Note the "Operating System" (OS) in your PC and the "Total Installed Memory". Later inspect other pages and learn more about the resources of your PC. Gradually you will become familiar with the jargon.  Don't be overpowered or expect to understand everything at once. Read these links for advice - [[wiseGEEK|http://www.wisegeek.com/what-factors-determine-computer-speed.htm]] - [[How Stuff Works|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/virtual-memory.htm]] - [[32 Steps|http://www.instructables.com/id/Several-Easy-Steps-to-Boost-Your-Computers-Speed/step17/Performance-Tools/]] - [[Microsoft|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows7/speed-up-your-pc]]
<br>''A quick overview'' of your computer features is found by going to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM. Here you will see your CPU details, RAM and operating system. 
<br>''The Action Centre'' ( the flag icon in the System Tray area in the ~TaskBar) gives a quick summary of any Maintenance and Security issues.
!!!2. Running Slowly. 
Running slowly is the most noticeable source of frustration. Two common causes are:
#Insufficient Installed Memory (RAM) &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[How to upgrade your RAM|UpgradingRAM]]
#Too many programs running in the background. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;    [[Using msconfig|http://techlogon.com/2011/03/25/use-msconfig-to-speed-up-your-computer/]]
#Google Chrome browser is a resource hungary browser and fights Firefox and Edge for dominance.<br>My personal advice is uninstall it.
+++[Running Slowly - Troubleshooting and Solutions, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
<br>''RAM'' provides the working area for programs you use and if insufficient, programs fight for space and the PC runs slowly, sometimes freezes or [[crashes|Crash]]. No PC will work well with less than 2GB of RAM and more is a benefit. Vista is notorious for using an excessive amount of RAM leaving little for programs. Go to [[www.Crucial.com|http://www.crucial.com/uk/systemscanner/]] and "Download the Scanner". After running, this will show how much RAM you have, if you can upgrade and ''which pair of chips to buy.'' Installation is simple and explained.<br>
''Too many programs running in the background'' which start automatically when you reboot your PC cause slow running<br>. 
''Start up Programs.'' Sometimes when software is installed, no option is offered to prohibit its automatic start up on booting up your PC. You have to decide whether or not you need a particular program, running in the background, which is using up PC resources. In the OPTIONS or PREFERENCES menu of most programs there is an entry controlling automatic start up. ''Alternatively every PC has a "Startup" file you can edit.''  In W8 this is found in ''[[Task Manager]]'' and in earlier versions of windows, in Windows Defender. Navigate to START - RUN - (Enter the keyword "msconfig") - OK,  and the startup programs are listed in the "Startup" tab. In Windows 8, this list is in Task Manager. You will be able to recognise many common programs by name to stop them running automatically, Some are also listed in the Noticications area of the Task Bar, while with the more obscure, seek help by Google search, entering the name with the additional key word "STARTUP". In general, it is best to view the list of programs running in the background and then go to that program's PREFERENCES and adjust the startup instruction. Many of the programs in the list will be ''essential'' Windows operating system utilities. Concentrate on the programs you use or have installed and the many unnecessary unused utilities, and trial programs, installed on a new computer by the manufactuter.<br><br>''For a quick check'' open TASKMANAGER and go to the "Processes" tab. Click on the header of the "MEMORY" column and this will bring to the top those utilities which use the most memory. Here you will find ~DropBox, Explorer, ~FireFox and some system files. If there is a utility that you recognise, ''is not a system utility'' and don't realy need to be running all the time which is using more than 10MB of memory, consider removing it from the start up list.<br><br>''Typical high memory users'' are ~DropBox, many tabs open in ~FireFox browser and many windows open at once. ''These are all high resource users.'' Closing utilities and browser tabs when not in use, temporally removing utilities from the start up list and reducing the quality of Windows appearance will improve performance.<br>
''[[Process Piglet|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbsqhSX58w0]]'' is a useful utility which monitors programs that hog memory and provides an alert to identify the cause of slow running. Download it safely [[here|http://www.softpedia.com/get/System/System-Info/Process-Piglet.shtml]].<br>''Task Manager'' itself provides a useful insight into performance and is accessed by a right-click on the ''Taskbar''.<br>
''Diagnosis.'' Windows contains many automatic diagnostic tools. Links to these often appear when an error occurs. More recent versions of Windows offer better access to troubleshooting tools many of which automatically correct settings and solve the problem. Select "Troubleshooting" in Control Panel. For Windows XP  read Troubleshooting.<br> 
''Virtual Memory.'' If your PC still runs slowly, [[crashes|Crash]] or pages report "Not Responding" because you habitually have many programs running at once, may or may not have upgraded your RAM and minimized Startup programs, then increasing Virtual Memory may be a solution. Read this [[tutorial link|http://www.mstoic.com/how-to-increase-virtual-memory/]] and go to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM - ADVANCED SYSTEM SETTINGS - PERFORMANCE SETTINGS - ADVANCED - VIRTUAL MEMORY - CHANGE, choose CUSTOM and increase "initial size" and "maximum" virtual memory ''BOTH identically'' to the recommended size. ''NB.'' If you upgrade from Windows 8 to 8.1, you will need to repeat this customisation.<br> 
Additionally, Google search is an excellent source of solutions. Precise use of the correct keywords is essential. Use the words that appear on error messages and choose Windows Miscrosoft Support , Techradar, ~PCWorld, wiseGEEK or ~ComputerActive sites for ideas and advice. Sometimes the "Forums" offer solutions to common problems.
===
!!!3. Version of Windows Operating System
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Know which version of [[Windows OS|http://www.answers.comQList_all_the_windows_operating_systems_in_order_they_were_released]], you are running; whether it is a [[32bit or 64bit version|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/32-bit-and-64-bit-windows-frequently-asked-questions]]. The 64-bit version of Windows handles large amounts of random access memory (RAM) more effectively than a 32-bit system. Sometimes when downloading software you need to choose the correct match for compatibility. "System type" can be read in the Windows System Information summary or in CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM.<br><br>''System Information'' can be found in PROGRAMS - ADMINISTRATIVE TOOLS and is an invaluable source of facts about your computer hardware, memory, drivers, etc. Alternatively a small program called "Speccy" presents these facts very well and is best downloaded from Piriform.com.<br><br>''Performance'' advice varies with different versions of Windows. See the appropriate Microsoft advice. Control Panel contains "Performance and Information Tools"<br><br>''When downloading software.'' Sometimes software is designed specifically for 32bit or 64bit processors. For 32bit, this will be named "32-bit (x86)" and for 64bit, it will be names "64-bit (x64)".  Confused?.<br>All hardware devices need 64-bit drivers to work on a 64-bit version of Windows. Drivers designed for 32-bit versions of Windows don't work on computers running 64-bit versions of Windows. |[[Operating Systems|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/2]]<br><br>[[Windows 7 OS|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/windows7]]<br><br>[[Speccy|http://www.piriform.com/speccy/download]]<br><br>Performance Advice for [[XP|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-xp/help/setup/maintenance-improve-performance#section_1]]<br>[[for VISTA|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/optimize-windows-vista-for-better-performance]]<br><br>[[for W7|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows7/Optimize-Windows-7-for-better-performance]]<br><br>[[for W8|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-8/improve-pc-performance]]<br><br>[[Future of Windows 7|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2452702/dont-panic-yes-windows-7-is-leaving-mainstream-support-but-it-isnt-being-abandoned.html]]|
}}}
!!!4. Hard Drive
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Your hard drive will look after inself. However, always backup your data in case of calamity. There are only two things to consider, defragging and space.<br>''Defragging'' - the more recent your version of Windows the more automatic this is. Defragging rationalises the space used and tidies up split files to speed up search and PC performance. For XP users see this.<br>''Hard Drive Space'' - Besides storing data and programs, your hard drive also offers any free space, cashe for temporary files, available to help programs run efficiently.  Hard drives are so large now so space limitation is not critical. Older machines may show poor performance if the disk is over full. You can inspect hard drive free space by (in Windows Explorer) right click on COMPUTER - "C:/" and selecting PROPERTIES. See the pie chart.<br>If you want to see how your hard drive is partitioned, go to COMPUTER in the start menu and select MANAGE, open STORAGE in the window and select DISK MANAGEMENT.<br>''Housekeeping Hard Drive Space'' - Windows Explorer doesn't show ''Folder Size'' without inspecting each folder using "Properties". You can download a small useful utility called [[Folder Size|http://foldersize.sourceforge.net/]] which, as an add-on, shows the folder size of any highlighted folder. The removal of duplicate files, particularly large images files will recover hard drive space. Folder size is shown in ''Tooltips'' on hovering, if Foldertips is checked in FOLDER OPTIONS - VIEW.|<br>[[Folder Tips|http://www.nextofwindows.com/windows-7-tip-quickly-find-the-folder-size-in-the-folder-tooltip-in-windows-explorer/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[WirDirStat|http://www.fosshub.com/WinDirStat.html]]|
}}}
!!!5. Browser
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Inspect INTERNET OPTIONS in your browser and consider these:<br>''Default levels of Security and Privacy'' are best.<br>''Temporary Files'' - delete occasionally to reduce the hard drive cashe space need for speedy performance. However, frequently used temporary files enable the browser to respond more quickly. They are also the source of "out of date" versions of a webpages which can be misleading unless refreshed.<br>''Cookies'' - Individually remove nuisance cookies but remember some are helpful.<br>''Add-ons and ~PlugIns'' - keep to a minimum, only essentials to maximize performance.|<br>|
}}}
!!!6. Files
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">Good organization improves operator efficiency and so PC performance!!<br><strong>Duplicate Files</strong> - Unneeded <strong>duplicate</strong> copies of files use up space and so may reduce performance. These are usually large duplicate image files resulting from image enhancement activity. If you carefully rename image files as you enhance them, to preserve the original, you won't find many duplicates. Carefully inspect suspect duplicates in Windows Explorer, view them in their default utility and rename them for deletion with an "X" added to the name. You might employ a "Duplicate Cleaner" to identify these files, but take care with batch deletion.<br><strong>Emails</strong> - Delete unwanted emails to speed up your email client both starting and running. In PREFERENCES control automatic deletion to say, 30 days. Create INBOX sub-folders to store important history.</html>|
}}}
+++[Dealing with Duplicates, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
!!!Duplicates
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Duplicates use up a lot of hard disk space because they are usually big files.</strong> <br>Free hard disk space is valuable, even though we now enjoy capacities in the region of TBytes, because the fewer files it stores the faster any one file can be found and because space is used:<br>1. To store large temporary files created during computer processing,<br>2. To provide space for extra virtual memory.<br><br><strong>Duplicates are created when:</strong><br>1. We move files by "Copy and Paste" instead of "Cut and Paste".<br>2.We fail to create logically named folders and fail to use, and consistently use, clear rules when allocating files to these folders, often allocating the same file to two or more folders. For example take the picture of GrandMother on holiday in America. This should be allocated to one of the two folders named "Family" or "America Holiday 2013", not both, and preferably to the latter. If the file itself is clearly named, it can be found by search wherever it is.<br>4. Our camera is set to export large RAW, TIFF, BNP or PNG file types, which we then convert to JPG but retain the original.<br>5. We use a utility to enhance image files, unless we save the enhanced file into the original (unwise) we create many near duplicates with each attempt.<br><br><strong>Deleting Duplicates<br></strong>Prevention is better than cure. In spite of good endeavours, we all end up with  too many duplicates. We fail to make good housekeeping rules and stick to them. Delete duplicates only within your user folders, not in Windows system.<br>Duplicates can be removed by:-<br>1. Manually by inspecting each folder<br>2. Use a freeware utility such as Fast File Duplicate Finder or DupeGuru</html>|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Image Files|http://www.scantips.com/basics09.html]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Finding Duplicates|http://www.howtogeek.com/200962/how-to-find-and-remove-duplicate-files-on-windows/]]<br><br>[[Manual Inspection|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/eliminate-duplicate-files]]<br><br>[[Dupe Guru|http://www.hardcoded.net/dupeguru_pe/]]<br><br>[[Fast Duplicate Finder|http://www.mindgems.com/products/Fast-Duplicate-File-Finder/Fast-Duplicate-File-Finder-About.htm]]|
}}}
===
!!!7. Windows Hidden Tools
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;There are many useful features in Windows which may be described as "hidden". Knowing and using these is much safer than downloading commercial alternatives. For example Disk Cleanup does the same job as ~CCleaner and is free of tiresome side issues. ''There is Snipping Tool, an excellent Calculator, Sound Recorder, Sticky Notes and an Onscreen Keyboard.''&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Windows Secrets|http://blogs.msdn.com/b/tims/archive/2009/01/12/the-bumper-list-of-windows-7-secrets.aspx]]||[[Hidden Utilities|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/8-hidden-tools-windows-7/]]<br><br>[[Diagnostic Tools|http://www.howtogeek.com/164484/10-useful-system-tools-hidden-in-windows/]]<br><br>[[View Saved Passwords|http://www.technicalnotes.org/how-to-view-your-password-saved-in-microsoft-edge-in-windows-10/]]|
}}}
!!!8. Backup and Restore
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Distinguish between ''file backup and "system image backup"''. The latter takes a snapshot of your entire system which is useful if Windows has to be reinstalled. An alternative to a full file backup using the Windows system, is to use a simpler Microsoft utility such as ~SyncToy.<br>The difference is that ~SyncToy (and its close relative ~SyncBack) store the files in exactly the same structure that you see on your computer. You can easily understand and copy selected backed up files from an external USB backup drive.<br><br>[[Making a ''System Restore Point''|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-create-a-system-restore-point-in-windows-7.html]] is another useful action. This is done automatically when Windows installs an update but it is often wise to make one manually when installing a possibly disruptive utility. Returning your system to this earlier date point, rids the computer of inadvertant changes which are difficult to trace.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[SeeMac|ForMacUsers]]|
}}}
+++[Backup & Restore - Definition of Terms Used, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Definition of Terms used''<br><br>''1. "Windows Backup"'' This tool allows you to backup your operating system, its settings and your data. You can let Windows 7 choose what to back up or you can select the individual folders, libraries, and the disk drives you want backed up. By default, your backups are created on an automatic schedule, but you can manually create a backup at any time. Once you set up Windows Backup, it keeps track of the files and folders that are new or modified and adds them to your backup.<br><br>  ''2. "Windows System Restore"'' System Restore is a recovery tool in Windows that allows you to reverse certain kinds of changes made to the operating system.<br><br>''3. "System Restore Point"'' A restore point is a saved "snapshot" of a computer's system and data at a specific time. Restore points are a component of the Windows System Restore utility, so that if future changes have caused a problem, it is restored to the way it was before the changes were made, without losing personal data files.<br><br>''4. "System Image"'' A system image is an exact copy of a drive. It includes Windows and your system settings, programs, and files. Choose the location where you want to save the system image. You can either select an external storage device or burn the system image to ~DVDs. An external hard drive is recommended, as a system image file can be several gigabytes (80GB) or more. When you restore your computer from a system image, all of your current programs, system settings, and files are replaced. A System Image is best made with a new computer when its size will be much smaller.<br><br>''5. "Data only Backup"'' If you intend to backup only your files, using  less storage space than Windows Restore demands, then Microsoft offers the free ~SyncToy or  ~SyncBack utility. You decide which files and folders to backup and when. An external solid state drive (SSL) is best for this, which, for security, is disconnected after backup.<br><br>''6. "System Recovery Disk"'' The manufacturer often provides an option to create these discs the first time you turn on your computer. When you click the ”Create System Recovery Discs” option, you end up with a set of discs that can restore your PC to its original purchased condition. However, you lose everything you’ve stored on that PC since you bought it including OS upgrades. [[The Recovery file can be stored on a USB drive|http://www.eightforums.com/tutorials/5132-recovery-drive-create-usb-flash-drive-windows-8-a.html]] and uses about 12GB. Distinguish between a System Recovery Disk and a ''[[System Repair Disk|http://blogs.technet.com/b/keithmayer/archive/2012/08/27/backup-amp-recovery-of-windows-8-windows8-itpro-tipoftheday.aspx]]''. The latter has tools which repair Windows without losing all your data files.<br><br>''7. Backup in Windows 8.'' Windows 8′s Backup feature is known as File History. It functions just like Apple’s Time Machine. Not many people used Windows 7′s backup features, so Microsoft tried to design an easier-to-use backup and restore system. Unlike Windows 7′s backup system, Windows 8′s File History can only back up files in user data locations like your libraries and desktop folder. If you want to back up an arbitrary folder elsewhere, you’ll have to add it to your libraries.|<br><br>[[Backup Tutorial|http://www.aclasspc.com.au/tutorials/59-pc-tutorials/132-how-to-backup-to-external-hard-drive-in-windows-7]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[System Restore|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/1838/using-backup-and-restore-in-windows-7/]]<br><br>[[Restore Points|http://www.informationweek.com/how-to-use-windows-7-restore-points/d/d-id/1098556]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Make System Image|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/4241/how-to-create-a-system-image-in-windows-7/]]<br><br>[[Windows 8.1 Image|http://www.cnet.com/uk/how-to/how-to-find-the-system-image-tool-in-windows-8-1/]]<br><br>[[Backup Advice|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/30173/what-files-should-you-backup-on-your-windows-pc/]]<br><br>[[SyncToy|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/download/details.aspx?id=15155]]<br><br>[[SyncBack|http://www.2brightsparks.com/freeware/freeware-hub.html]]<br><br>[[SyncToy Tutorial|http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/278866-synctoy-backup-user-data.html]]<br><br>[[Recovery or Repair|http://www.andyrathbone.com/2009/12/21/the-difference-betweensystem-recovery-discs-and-windows-7s-system-repair-disc/]]<br><br>[[Repair & Recovery|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/repair-recovery-help#repair-recovery-help=windows-8&v1h=win8tab1]]<br><br>[[Windows 8 Backup|http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2012/12/using-windows-8s-hidden-backup-to-clone-and-recover-your-whole-pc/]]<br><br>[[System Repair Disk|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/create-a-system-repair-disc]]|
}}}
===
!!!9. Performance Improvement Utilities
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;You may notice I say very little about PC cleaning utilities in the Worksheet. Windows has many adequate tools, troubleshooters and self repair properties to make them unnecessary except to the compulsive meddler. The one area that escapes automatic cleaning and gradually gathers performance degrading litter is the ''Registry''. This is also the part of your system which offers the greatest risk of careless corruption. Corretion of any mistakes would require system restore or reinstallation of Windows. Beware then particularly of ''Registry Editors and Cleaners.''<br>However, many paid-for antivirus utilities now include a useful report after doing a "Tune Up" scan at the time of the routine quick scan for malware.<br><br>See [[Running Slowly]]|[[Performance Myths|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/dont-be-fooled-by-these-10-pc-performance-myths/]]<br><br><br>[[Registry Cleaners|http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-registry-cleaner.htm]]|
}}}
!!!''In Summary'' 
The more recent your version of Windows, the more automatic is the recovery from error. ''The best way to improve performance is often merely to reboot the PC.'' The system then does it's own housekeeping. You can often save time by looking in [[Task Manager|BootUpCloseDown]]. All that remains then is to learn how to setup the PC for your own convenience as operator. This will give the perception of better PC performance because we are often the weak link.
-----

<br><br><br>
For a list of brief DEFINITIONS of the terms in this index see [[Jargonselected]]
<br>
The links below will take you to that part of the Worksheet where you will find detailed ''explanation and use of the term or Jargon word.''
<br>
!!!Topic Index
{{invisibletable{
|width:16em;[[Apple Mac|PCMacDifferences]]<br>[[Add-on|Browsers##Add-ons]]<br>[[ADSL|Networks##Making]]<br>[[Analogue|Networks##Making]]<br>[[Android|Tablets##Android]]<br>[[App|TabletApps]]<br>[[Associate|Default##Associate]]<br>[[Bandwidth|Improving Broadband Speed]]<br>[[Binary|Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[Bluetooth|Internet Radio##Bluetooth]]<br>[[Byte|Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[Client|Email##Clients]]<br><html><a href="Topic Slides/Clipboard.JPG" target="imgbox"><strong>Clipboard</strong></a></html><br>[[Cloud computing|Cloud]]<br>[[Command prompt|DOS##Command]]<br>[[Context menu|Basic Skills##Desktop]]<br>[[Cookie|Privacy##Privacy]]<br>[[Copy, Cut and Paste|Cut & Paste]]<br>[[CPU|UpgradeYourPC##Check]]<br>[[Database|Database and Spreadsheet]]|width:21em;[[Default|Default]]<br>[[Desktop]]<br>[[Dialogue box|Email##Copying]]<br><html><strong><a href="Topic Slides/Email0 Address.jpg" target="imgbox">Email Address</a></strong></html><br>[[Download|Downloading]]<br>[[Drag and drop|Cut & Paste]]<br>[[Drivers]]<br>[[Executable file|The Basics of Files, Email, Internet]] - "File, Folders, Drives"<br>[[Extension|The Basics of Files, Email, Internet]] - "File Extensions"<br>[[Favorites|BrowserSetup##Favorites]]<br>[[Firewall|Security##AntiVirus]]<br>[[Folder|Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[Format]]<br>[[GB GigaByte|Bits&Bytes]]<br><html><strong><a href="Topic Slides/Web3 Hyperlinks.JPG" target="imgbox">Hyperlink</a></strong></html><br>[[Icon|Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[IP address|Privacy##Personnal]]|width:16em;[[ISP|Jargon##Overview]] *<br>[[Lan|Networks##What]]<br>[[Macro|Tutorials]] - "More Advanced"<br>[[Malware|AntiVirusSoftware##AntiVirus]]<br>[[Modem|Networks##Making]]<br>[[Netbook|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO##Overview]]<br>[[Open source|Downloads]]<br>[[Operating system|HouseKeeping##Version]]<br>[[32-bit|HouseKeeping##Version]]<br>[[Pairing|Internet Radio##Bluetooth]]<br>[[Path|Getting Organised##Overview]]<br>[[PDF|Print and Display##PDF]]<br>[[Plug and play|Synergy1]]<br>[[Podcast|Networks##Further]]<br>[[Port|Synergy1]]<br>[[Print|Print and Display]]<br>[[RAM|UpgradingRAM]]<br>[[RUN|DOS]]|[[Registry|HouseKeeping##Performance]]<br>[[Restore Point|BackUpRestore##Backup]]<br>[[RightClick]]<br>[[Router|Networks##Making]]<br>[[Safe Mode|Task Manager##Diagnosing]]<br>[[Server|Cloud]]<br> [[Shortcut|FAQBasic##Making]]<br>[[Stream|Streaming##Summary]]<br>[[System Restore|BackUpRestore##Backup]]<br>[[TaskBar|Moving The Taskbar]]<br>[[Task Manager|Task Manager]]<br>[[Timing out|Search]]<br>[[Troubleshooting|Task Manager##Diagnosing]]<br>[[URL|Browsers##Definition]]<br>[[USB|Synergy1##Connecting]]<br>[[Username|Passwords##Changing]]<br>[[Virtual memory|Virtual##memory]]<br>[[Windows Explorer|Getting Organised##Overview]]<br>[[ZIP file|Getting Organised##Programs]]|
}}}
---------------------
 
[[Tips]]

<br><br>
<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tip </u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; Distinguish between Broadband Speed and WiFi Speed.</html> See [[Networks]]
<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:53em;The BBC recommends 2 Mbits/s for iPlayer to run smothly, although it will run well at 1.3 Mbits/s. Test your broadband speed (often referred to as ''Bandwith'') and compare it with others in your neighbourhood. For most in Bleasby, broadband speed is of the order of 4-6 Mbits/s. If your speed is significantly slower than most in your immediate neighbourhood, then you could try these:- <br>1. Try router reboot, and test again. Check expert review for your modem model.<br>2. Consider losses in length of telephone extension cable to the point where your router is plugged in. Test by temporally plugging router to the ''main BT socket''.<br>3. Use Ethernet connection to TV instead of Wifi, although this is untidy.<br>4. Use lower quality iPlayer setting (default) or download the program in iPlayer Desktop.<br>5. After checking with your immediate neighbours and you are certain the cause is not internal, ask for a landline check and then ask your ISP to improve your ADSL signal at the exchange. There is no need to agree to any engineering charges.<br><br>Although poor broadband speed is often associated with the physical landline connection from the exchange to your property and modem/router and would not improve with a different provider, persistent poor service may necessitate ''switching provider''. [[Ofcom offerers guidance.|http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/internet/broadband-switching/checklist-when-taking-out-new-phone-or-broadband-contract/]] Ofcom says it has made switching broadband provider much easier since the introduction of "migration authorisation codes" (macs), which providers have to give out.<br><br>''The original meaning of Bandwidth'' is the range of frequencies -- the difference between the highest-frequency signal component and the lowest-frequency signal component -- of an electronic signal used on a given transmission medium. Like the frequency of a signal, bandwidth is measured in hertz (cycles per second).|[[Broadband Speed|Networks##Making]]<br><br>[[Broadband Speed Tips|http://www.broadband.co.uk/help/speed-up-your-broadband/]]<br><br>[[Improving Speed|http://www.cswbroadband.org.uk/about-broadband/self-help-guides/how-to-improve-your-broadband-speed/]]<br><br>[[Cables at Amazon|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Duronic-Professional-Headed-Network-Cable/dp/B003CL71II/ref=sr_1_4?s=computers&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1380975364&amp;sr=1-4]]<br><br>[[Cabling4Less|http://www.cabling4less.co.uk/category.php?cat_id=158&amp;gclid=CPOA0-OQn7oCFRPItAodMQcASw]]<br><br>[[Expert Review Routers|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/wireless-routers]]<br><br>[[Nottinghamshire Broadband|http://www.cable.co.uk/local/broadband/nottinghamshire/nottingham/]]<br><br>[[MACs|http://ask.ofcom.org.uk/help/internet-service/MAC]]<br><br>[[Ultrafast Broadband|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/european-technology/could-ultrafast-broadband-over-copper-speed-the-rollout-of-gigabit-internet/?tag=nl.e101&s_cid=e101&ttag=e101&ftag=TRE684d531]]<br><br><br><br>[[Bandwidth|http://searchenterprisewan.techtarget.com/definition/bandwidth]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------

<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:30em;In ~DropBox,<br>Select the file ''"Worksheet.html - Shortcut"'' <br>(NOT "Worksheet.html")<br><br>Right-click on it and select ''COPY.''<br>Go to your ''DESKTOP'' and paste the shortcut there.<br><br>''Thereafter....''<br>using the shortcut on your Desktop, open the Worksheet and choose pages from the ''Main Menu on the left'' opening links in the normal way ''with a single click.''<br><br><br>''Detail on Using'' [[DropBox]] |
}}}

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{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Worldwide there are some 100,000 stations broadcasting free on the Internet. Marshalling this resource, in conjunction with bluetooth connected quality speakers, creates an entertaining low cost system with swift station selection.</strong><br><br><strong>Internet Radio Utilities.</strong>  Each Internet Radio station has a website with a "Play Now" control on it to initiate the stream, but stations also tranmit a URL which can be detected by a suitable utility. Some utilities are radio devoted while others provide additional facilities such as steam recording, selecting favourites, cataloging your computer stored media and playlists. The utilitiy can be a PC utility, or a mobile or tablet app.<br><br>The beauty of <strong>Bluetooth</strong> pairing to loudspeakers, besides avoiding wires, is its reliability and good signal quality. After pairing once, reconnection is automatic with that device thereafter.</html>|<html>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img src="Files/BluetoothSpeaker.jpg" alt=" " height="190" width="180" ></html>|
}}}
!Four ways to access Internet Radio
<br>
''1. By website,'' by searching for a station directly and entering its URL in the browser address bar..

|[[Radio Locator|http://www.radio-locator.com/cgi-bin/nation?ccode=uk&go.x=8&go.y=5&sid=]]|[[Mike's Radio|http://www.mikesradioworld.com/]]|[[ClassicFM|http://www.classicfm.com/radio/player/]]|

''2. Through a website which lists'' selected stations in invarious genres.

|[[Telegraph|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/10409420/The-best-internet-radio-stations.html]]|[[Radio Tower|http://www.radiotower.com/]]|[[Tunein Radio|http://tunein.com/radio/Music-g1/]]|[[Streema|http://streema.com/]]|[[Pervii Radio|http://www.radio.pervii.com/]]|[[Radio Player|http://www.radioplayer.co.uk/]]|[[BBC Radio Player|http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/]|[[BlinkBox|http://www.blinkboxmusic.com/choose/genre/all]]|[[Airwaves|http://www.mds975.co.uk/Content/airwaves.html]]|[[Radio Feeds|http://radiofeeds.co.uk/mp3.asp]]|

{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''3. PC Utility "Player" software'' that enables search for Internet Radio and often includes additional features such as recording, music cataloguing, playlists, and volume control. Listed here are some suggestions, together with an indication of their features, for streaming and download from regulated sources.|[[List of Players|http://softwaresolution.informer.com/Internet-Radio-Player/]]<br><br>[[List of Players|http://www.pendriveapps.com/software/free-streaming-audio-recorders/]]|
}}}
|centered|k
| ''Provider'' | ''Utility'' | ''Favourites'' | ''Playlists'' | ''Record'' | ''Catalogue'' | ''Volume Control'' |
|Audials| [[ Audials 10|http://audials.com/en/one/index.html]] | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Yes |
|Apple|[[ iTunes|http://www.apple.com/uk/itunes/download/]] | No | No | Yes | Yes | Yes |
|Tunein|[[ TuneIn App|http://apps.microsoft.com/windows/en-gb/app/tunein-radio/a2b86ed9-4db2-4ded-ae34-aa44530370ff]] | Yes | Yes | No | No | No |
|Microsoft|[[ WMP|http://www.windowsmedia.com/radioui/home.aspx]] | Yes | No | Yes | Yes | Yes |

''4. Tablet and Smartphone Apps''

These are available from Apple, Windows and ~GooglePlay App stores.

''5. By Podcast''

A podcast is a pre-recorded stream which can be downloaded and saved. To receive a series of programs as they are produced, subscribing ensures automatic download.

|centered|k
|[[BBC Podcasts|http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts]]|[[Podcast Directory|http://www.thebigproject.co.uk/podcasts/index.htm]]|

!Internet Radio Hardware
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Internet Radios'' come as dedicated devices but more often the facility is just one of the offered features such as DAB, FM Radio, Media Player,etc. Popular manufactures are Roberts, Sony and Pure.|[[Internet Radios|http://www.which.co.uk/technology/audio/guides/internet-radios-explained/what-is-an-internet-radio/]]<br><br>[[Reviews|http://www.whathifi.com/reviews/portable/internet-radio]]|
}}}
!Bluetooth setup
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Although ~BlueTooth versions 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0, are currently employed for transmitting audio and image files, over short (10m) distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 ~GHz),  future development is expected to include video. Bluetooth allows multiple (up to 7) devices to communicate with a transmitting device.<br><br>''Pairing'' is the process of linking a transmitting device (A) such as a mobile, tablet of PC to a receiving device (B) such as a Media Player or Speaker. The pairing process involves device B being made "discoverable" and device A searching and identifying the signal. Once contact is made, pairing occurs, sometimes with the need for a PIN number to be entered in both devices. Thereafter pairing occurs automatically when those devices come into range, both devices are powered up and device A is active.<br><br>[[Bluetooth Tutorial|https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/bluetooth-basics/all.pdf]]|[[Bluetooth|http://www.bluetooth.com/Pages/device-advice.aspx]]<br><br>[[Bluetooth Adapters|http://www.logitech.com/en-gb/product/wireless-speaker-adapter]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://www.techlicious.com/how-to/how-to-fix-bluetooth-pairing-problems/]]<br><br>[[Pairing|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mV49NGf0Y5c]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Pairing|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/how-to-set-up-bluetooth-in-windows-7-make-pc-discoverable-and-add-devices/]]<br><br>[[Bluetooth Speakers|http://reviews.cnet.co.uk/ipod-docks-and-speakers/best-bluetooth-speakers-top-deals-in-the-uk-50012555/]]<br><br>[[Bluetooth Speakers|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/reviews/10573846/The-18-best-Bluetooth-AirPlay-and-wireless-speakers.html]]|
}}}
!Sound and Volume
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;There are two controls in CONTROL PANEL that are worth identifying for quick access.<br><br>''Volume'' - Most players have a volume control but balancing both the PC and the player affects sound quality. Make a shortcut or pin to the start menu, by searching "ADJUST SYSTEM VOLUME" in the start.<br>''Sound'' - If you have multiple headset or speaker devices fed from a PC, occasional conflicts of "default device" can be sorted in the SOUND window available in Control Panel, which is conveniently pinned to the taskbar or start menu.<br><br>If activated, there is a Sound icon in the System Tray area of the Taskbar. Right clicked, this offers acess to both Sound devices and Volume control.<br><br>The PC sound facility is very automated and often manual  correction can be difficult. Use ~TroubleShooter or try a reboot.<br>''See'' CONTROL PANEL - ALL CONTROL PANEL ITEMS - TROUBLESHOOTING - HARDWARE & SOUND - PLAYING AUDIO.|[[No Sound|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/no-sound-help#no-sound=windows-8&v1h=win8tab2&v2h=win7tab1&v3h=winvistatab1&v4h=winxptab1]]|
}}}
----
<br><br><br>
!!Tools for Thinking
''Thinking tools are WORDS.'' You can't do much thinking without words. You can't ask the right questions without words. You have to learn the jargon. These are the KEYWORDS when you search Google or ask a question. Make a start with the "Short List for Beginners".
!!!1. Quick Links<br><br>
Here are some quick links to Jargon Lists:-
#[[Long List of Essential Computers Jargon.|Jargonselected]]  
#[[Short List of Essential Jargon for Beginners.|Jargonbeginners]]
#[[List of Illustrated Computer Terms.|http://nihseniorhealth.gov/toolkit/toolkitfiles/pdf/Glossary.pdf]]
#[[Some Mobile Phone Jargon explained.|http://www.uswitch.com/mobiles/guides/understanding_mobile_phone_jargon/]]
#[[Comprehensive Review of Social Media Jargon.|http://socialmedia4us.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/social-media-jargon-what-are-all-these-new-words-and-abbreviations/]] 
# ''[[Table of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and their products|Files/ISPServices.jpg]]''
!!!2. Overview<br><br>
Familiarity with the basic terms used in computing is essential to learning how to manage your PC. Understanding the meaning of these jargon words enables you to choose the correct keywords when you "Google" for a solution to a problem or pose a question in Computer Club.<br> 
For example, If you were asked, "How do you access your email?", the answer, "I click on the E", needs some attention. A clearer answer might be, "I access the __''Internet''__ using a __''browser''__ and view my emails on my __''ISP's''__  __''website ''__ as __''Webmail''__" or " I __''download''__ my emails from my ISP's __''server''__ using an __''email clien''t__."<br>
Another example of confusion arises in our reference to "[[Google|Topic%20Slides/Web10%20Google.jpg]]". We are familiar with the Google __''search engine''__ and the Google __''Chrome''__ __''browser''__ but the company providing this service is also an __''[[ISP|Files/ISPServices.jpg]]''__ (Internet Service Provider), a manufacturer, publisher, a software and __''operating system''__ developer, provider of advertising services, statistical and __''desktop''__ tools and, of course, the __''@gmail''__ email service. We often find confusion in such phrases as "Doing a Google search on __''Firefox''__" and "getting gmail in __''Thunderbird''__". The confusion goes when we can distinguish the service provided by Google, from the browser called Firefox and the Email Client called Thunderbird.<br><br>Yet further confusion is introduced from August 2015 when Alphabet Inc became the holding company for all Google companies. This is a company name change and does not rename the services such as Google Search  or Google Maps, etc. with which we are familiar.<br> 
See their (Alphabet Inc,) Wikipedia entry to appreciate Google's wide variety of services...... [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Google_products#Development_resources|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Google_products#Development_resources]]<br>
''Each of the underlined words above is a jargon word necessary for clear explanation and understanding a computer facility or process.''<br>
Learn as you go. Then look at "Topic Slides" in the ~DropBox Computer Club folder to see these jargon words used in context.
<br>
Nine new words for the Internet age - [[Slide Show|http://thes.thesaurus.com/slideshow/internet-neologisms?ldid=0]] from [[Thesaurus.com|http://thesaurus.com/]]
......or, for the geek, an Etymology of computer terms - [[Wikipedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_computer_term_etymologies]]
!!3. In Summary<br><br>
Use a list of jargon definitions to learn as you go. The fortnightly magazine [[ComputerActive|http://www.computeractive.co.uk/]] is excellent for explaining jargon and a complete list of these can be found on  the [[Computer Active Jargon Buster old site|http://tinyurl.com/owvpfts]]. NB The valuable archive of Computer Active articles has been withdrawn following a takeover. 

------

<br><br><br>
!Essential Beginner's Jargon Shortlist<br><br>
''Browser''
A browser is a UTILITY for viewing a WEBPAGE. Examples: Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome, Safari.<br>
''Byte''
A measure of data. One byte is eight bits, or enough to hold one character. 1,024 bytes make a kilobyte (KB).  Multiples times 1024 are Megabyte (MB), Gigabyte (GB), terabyte,(TB), etc.<br>
''Client''
On a computer network client computers are connected to and retrieve information from a server. Yours is a client computer and receives emails and webpages from an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) server.<br>
''Clipboard''
Part of a computer's memory. Text, images or other information can be copied to the clipboard and pasted elsewhere.<br> 
''Close and Open'' 
To OPEN is to activate or make visible and applies to WINDOWS and FILES
To CLOSE is to deactivate or stop a WINDOW or FILE running.<br>
''Context menu''
A menu that displays options relevant to the area in which it is displayed. In Windows, right-clicking often displays a context menu.<br> 
''Copy and paste''
Copying information from one part of a document and pasting it elsewhere, either in the same file, another file or even in another program. See "Cut and Paste"<br>
''Desktop''
The visible display area of Windows where icons of programs and shortcuts can be shown. The desktop is a visible folder containing these files and shortcuts.<br>
''Dialogue box''
This is a pop-up WINDOW containing instructions, an error warning, showing progress of activity or requesting input.<br>
''Download''
To transfer a file from a server on the internet to your computer, a client.<br> 
''Drag and drop''
To move an item on screen by clicking it, holding the left mouse button down while moving the mouse, then releasing the button where you want it to be. <br>
''Dropdown menu''
The menu of options that appear when clicked.<br>
''Extension''
The letters after the full stop in a computer file name. It describes the kind of file it is; the FILE TYPE.<br> 
''Folder''
Files on a computer's hard disk are arranged in a system of folders that group files together. You might make a folder called 'Letters' for correspondence, document files, for example.<br> 
''GB''
Gigabyte. A measure of storage capacity, often used for memory and hard disks. 1GB is equal to 1,024MB (Megabytes) and 1,024,000 bytes. <br>
''HTML''
~HyperText Markup Language, commonly referred to as HTML, is the standard markup language used to create web pages.<br>
''Icon''
A small image used by Windows to identify a file or program. Often used as a shortcut link to open a program from the DESKTOP or TASKBAR<br>
''Internet''
A network of computers including yours, through which files can be sent enabling email, the world wide web, messageing and telephone services<br>.
''Internet Explorer''
The BROWSER provided by Miscrosoft for viewing webpages.<br>
''Meme''
An element of a culture or system of behaviour passed from one individual to another by imitation or other non-genetic means.<br>
''Menu bar''
One of the horizontal bars in the header of a browser or utility.<br>
''Minimise & Maximise''
These terms apply to a WINDOW. It is MAXIMISED when it occupies the SCREEN fully.<br>
''Modem''
A device that allows two computers to communicate via a phone line. See Router.<br>
''Mouse pointer, curser''
The CURSER is the pulsating active point awaiting input in an application. The MOUSE POINTER is controled by the MOUSE and can be used to change the position of the CURSER.<br>
''Operating system''
Governs the way hardware and software components in a computer work together.<br> 
''Panel''
A subdivision of a WINDOW.<br>
''Path''
In file management, the names of the drive, folder and subfolders that indicate exactly where on a disk a file is stored, such as ''C:\My Documents\Maps\~MyFile.xls''. This example means the file "~MyFile.xls" is located in the folder called "Maps", which is inside the folder called "My Documents" on the "C: drive" of your hard disk. Notice, "\" is used in a PATH whereas "/" is used in a web addresss (~URLs).<br>
''Programme, Utility, Application, Client''
Different names for an item of software that processes data for the user<br>
''Right and left click''
LEFT CLICK is to execute as with the ENTER KEY. 
[[RIGHT CLICK|RightClick]] usually provides a pop-up "in-context" menu contaning options.<br>
''Router''
A device used to connect more than one computer, or other device, to the internet. See MODEM.<br>
''Server''
A computer on a network, such as the internet, that distributes information to other ~PCs.<br> 
''Shortcut''
A file that acts as a link to something else, such as a program file or disk drive.<br> 
''Start, Start menu''
The globe at one end of the TASKBAR.  When clicked it opens the START MENU.<br>
''Taskbar''
A storage bar on the side or bottom of the screen in which SHORTCUTS can be pinned.<br>
''URL''
Uniform Resource Locator. A technical term for the unique address of a web page.<br> 
''USB''
Universal Serial Bus.  Devices can be added or removed, at a USB port,  while your PC is switched on, using a USB cable.<br> 
''Window''
A resizable rectangular box in which a program can RUN on the screen.  The plural, "WINDOWS" refers to the Microsoft OPERATING SYSTEM called WINDOWS.<br>
''Windows Explorer'' 
The graphical interface to the Windows filing system. Using images to represent files and folders, it lets you manage or organise FILES by moving them between folders and deleting, copying or renaming them. On Windows 8 it is called File Explorer. (Distinguish from the BROWSER called Internet Explorer)<br>
!2.In Summary<br><br>&nbsp;
Use a list of jargon definitions to learn as you go. The fortnightly magazine ~ComputerActive is excellent for explaining jargon and a complete list of these can be found on  http://www.computeractive.co.uk/jargonbuster/a
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
&nbsp;
!Jargon Shortlist
''Add-on''
Generic term for a piece of software that adds extra features to another program or browser. 
''ADSL''
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A technology that converts a standard phone line into a broadband internet connection. 
''Analogue''
A signal whose value varies over time, as opposed to a digital signal which is either on or off. 
''Android'' 
An operating system for portable computers and mobile phones, based on the Linux system that is used on some ~PCs. 
''App''
A small program designed to run on a phone or handheld computer (short for application). Could be a game, utility or any other type of program. 
''Bandwidth''
A measure of how much information can be transferred through a connection at one time. 
''Binary''
A system for counting and storing information as a series of ones and zeros. 
''Bluetooth''
A technology that allows devices to [[Communication|communicate]] wirelessly over short distances. 
''Byte''
A measure of data. One byte is eight bits, or enough to hold one character. 1,024 bytes make a kilobyte (KB). 
''Client''
On a computer network client computers are connected to and retrieve information from a server. 
''Clipboard''
Part of a computer's memory. Text, images or other information can be copied to the clipboard and pasted elsewhere. 
''Cloud computing''
A generic term for software services and applications that are provided to the user via the internet, rather than being installed on a computer hard disk. Cloud applications are used in a web browser; examples include office applications (such as Zoho, Dropbox and ~SkyDrive) and backup services (such as Trend Micro Safesync, and BT Digital Vault). 
''Command prompt''
To see it click Start, Run, type cmd and press Enter. A black window appears into which you can type instructions. The command prompt is the "C:/", the root drive in [[DOS]]
''Context menu''
A menu that displays options relevant to the area in which it is displayed. In Windows right-clicking often displays a context menu. 
''Cookie''
A small text file stored on your computer by a website. Used to store browsing preferences, website log-in details and so on. 
''Copy and paste''
Copying information from one part of a document and pasting it elsewhere, either in the same file, another file or even in another program. See "Cut and Paste"
''Database''
A file used to store information. Databases can contain one or more tables of data, plus functions used to process it. 
''Default''
A standard setting used by a program or Windows itself unless you tell it otherwise. 
''Desktop''
The visible display area of Windows where icons of programs and shortcuts can be shown. The desktop is a folder containing these files and shortcuts.
''Dialogue box''
A window that pops up to display or request information. 
''Domain name''
Reflects the name and purpose of an organisation using the Internet. It is part of the web address (URL) or email address (@). 
''Download''
To transfer a file from a server on the internet to your computer, a client. 
''Drag and drop''
To move an item on screen by clicking it, holding the left mouse button down while moving the mouse, then releasing the button where you want it to be. 
''Driver''
A file that tells Windows how to work with a peripheral device. 
''Executable file''
A program file designed to run in Windows. Executable files have the file extension .exe. 
''Extension''
The letters after the full stop in a computer file name. These denote what kind of file it is. 
''Favorites''
The name given to websites bookmarked for later use in Internet Explorer. 
''Firewall''
A piece of software or hardware that prevents unauthorised access to a computer over a network, such as the internet by controlling port access. 
''Folder''
Files on a computer's hard disk are arranged in a system of folders that group items together. You might make a folder called 'Letters' for correspondence, for example. 
''Format''
To prepare a disk for use. 
''GB''
Gigabyte. A measure of storage capacity, often used for memory and hard disks. 1GB is equal to 1,024MB (Megabytes). 
''Hyperlink''
A clickable link that takes you to a new document or web page. 
''Icon''
A small image used by Windows to identify a file or program. Often has used as a shortcut link to open a program.   
''IP address''
Internet Protocol Address. A number used to identify a computer on a network. Rather like a phone number, an IP address can then be used to send information to the right place. 
''ISP''
Internet Service Provider. A company that provides users with an internet connection, for a fee. 
''Lan''
Local-area network. A computer network in one place, such as a home or office. 
''Macro''
An automated series of commands or options can be run at any time. Handy if you often need to perform the same list of actions. 
''Malware''
A generic term for software designed to perform harmful or surreptitious acts. 
''Meme''
An element of a culture or system of behaviour passed from one individual to another by imitation or other non-genetic means.
''Modem''
A device that allows two computers to communicate via a phone line. See Router.
''Netbook''
A type of laptop that has been designed to favour portability over power. Netbooks are smaller and many use solid-state memory rather than mechanical hard disks. 
''Network''
A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to [[communicate|Communication]] and share resources.
''Open source''
Software that is developed, released to and used by the public, free as an alternative to software from large companies. 
''Operating system''
Governs the way hardware and software components in a computer work together. 
''32-bit''
A measure of how much information a computer can process at once. Most older computers are 32-bit, more modern ones are 64-bit. 
''Pairing''
Connecting two devices via the wireless technology Bluetooth so they can share data. 
''Path''
In file management, the names of the drive, folder and subfolders that indicate exactly where on a disk a file is stored, such as 'C:/My Documents/Maps/~MyFile.xls'. This example means the file ~MyFile.xls is located in the folder called Maps, which is inside the folder called My Documents on the C: drive of your hard disk.  Notice, "/" is used in a PATH whereas "\" is used in a web address or URL.
''PDF''
Portable Document Format. A file format that allows pages of text and graphics to be viewed and printed correctly on any PC. It is ususally read only, difficult to edit without the correct utility.
''Plug and play''
A standard for Windows ~PCs that allows peripherals to be connected and used in a matter of moments. In theory, Windows will automatically detect the new device and install any needed drivers from its own database. 
''Podcast''
A digital audio file which can be downloaded from the internet. 
''Port''
A numbered channel through which a PC communicates with the internet. There are 65,535 and many applications have their own dedicated port through which to send and receive information. 
''Ram''
Random-access memory. The computer's working area, used for data storage while the PC is switched on. Its capacity is measured in megabytes (MB): the more memory your PC has, the more things it can process simultaneously and the faster it will seem. Any information in Ram will be lost when the power is switched off. 
''Registry''
A file integrated into Windows that stores information about all hardware and software installed on your PC. The Registry can be edited to tweak settings but incorrect changes can damage the PC. 
''Restore Point''
A Windows backup of system files and settings as they were at a particular point in time. 
''Right-click''
While most actions in Windows are performed by clicking the left mouse button, clicking the right mouse button displays a pop-up menu with special functions and options. 
''Ripping''
The process of copying audio or video content to a hard disk, typically from CD or DVD, but unlike copy & paste requires conversion software. Opposite to ''Burning''
''Router''
A device used to connect more than one computer, or other device, to the internet. 
''Safe Mode''
A way of starting Windows so that various programs and peripherals are prevented from working. This is useful to help diagnose the cause of problems if a computer is behaving oddly. 
''Server''
A computer on a network, such as the internet, that distributes information to other ~PCs. 
''Shortcut''
A file that acts as a link to something else, such as a program file or disk drive. 
''Stream''
Audio or video material that can be played as it is downloaded from the internet or transferred from another computer, without saving. Broadcasts over the internet are often streamed so that you don't have to download a whole file before you start listening or watching. Streaming media sometimes stalls if the source material is received slower than it is played back. 
''System Restore''
The software that creates and restores Restore Points – records of settings at a specific time to which Windows can revert if a problem occurs. 
''Task Manager''
The Windows Task Manager provides information about the processes and programs running on a computer, as well as the general status of the computer. It can also be used to terminate processes and programs. 
''Timing out''
Your browser sets a time limit on how long it will try to download a web page before determining that it cannot access the appropriate server. If web access is very slow, you are likely to be 'timed out'. 
''URL''
Uniform Resource Locator. A technical term for the unique address of a web page. 
''USB''
Universal Serial Bus. A standard that allows quick and easy connection of external peripherals such as storage devices to your PC. Devices can be added or removed, at a USB port,  while your PC is switched on. 
''Virtual memory''
A reserved area of hard disk space that your PC can use as 'virtual' memory, or Ram, whenever it is running short of the genuine article. Also called a swapfile, this allows you to have more programs open at once but will be slower than having an equivalent amount of real Ram. 
''Windows Explorer'' 
The graphical interface to the Windows filing system. Using images to represent files and folders, it lets you manage documents by moving them between folders and deleting, copying or renaming them. On Windows 8 it is called File Explorer. (Distinguish from the browser called Internet Explorer)
''ZIP file''
A file that can contain a number of compressed documents or files. 
&nbsp;
!2.In Summary
&nbsp;
Use a list of jargon definitions to learn as you go. The fortnightly magazine ~ComputerActive is excellent for explaining jargon.
&nbsp;
---------------------
&nbsp;
/***
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|Author|axs|
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|Source|http://axs.tiddlyspot.com/#LineBreakPlugin|
|Core Version|2.6|
|Description|Allows styling of spaces between paragraphs.|

!Description
This will replace 2 or more consecutive line breaks with one line break whose styling is controlled by the class {{{.multipleLinebreak}}}. Set the desired style by pressing the "edit style" button. The {{{margin-bottom}}} property will control how much space is between the two blocks of text separated by the line break. After changing the style, press "update style" for changes to take effect;

Note: This doesn't recognize consecutive {{{<br>}}} tags.

<html><span class="button" style="cursor:pointer;" onclick="LBP_editStyle();">edit style</span></html>
<html><textarea style="display:none" id="LBP_styleEditor" rows="10" cols="25"></textarea></html>
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<span id="LBP_updateStyleBtn" style="display:none;cursor:pointer" class="button" style="cursor:pointer;" onclick="LBP_updateStyle()">update style</span>
</html>

!Revisions
2011.05.26 v.0.2 style live edit/update capability
2011.05.26 v.0.1 first release

/%
!Style
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	font-size:1px;
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	margin-bottom:3px;
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function LBP_editStyle(){
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function LBP_hideEditor(){
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Supported by Tutorials at [[Internet4Classrooms|http://www.internet4classrooms.com/on-line.htm]]

''If you would like to extend your skills in Miscrosoft Utilities, then the Computer Group runs these 5-Session Tutorials on Fridays.''

!1. MS Word

1. Page setup, Formatting Text, Saving, Templates, Options
2. Inserting and editing text, bullets;  Inserting and editing images
3. Tables, Boarders and shading
4. Menus and Toolbars
5. Using Mail Merge or other student required facilities.

!2. MS Excel

1. Basic terminology; cells, Tabs, Worksheets
2. Absolute cell calculations, Formatting cell, Using formulae.
3. Entering Data, Creating Charts
4. Conditional Formatting, Macros, 
5. Mail Merge with MS Word; or other student required facilities.

!3. Powerpoint

1. Entering Text and Images, Formatting, resizing, page duplication,
2. Templates, Themes, Toolbars, Transitions, 
3.  Annimation, Slideshow, Action Buttons, Saving as PDF, image.
4. Using Charts from Excel. Handouts, Presenter Notes
5. The Presentation.

-----
 


[[Welcome to the Computer Club Worksheet|GettingStarted]]  
-----------------------
<<search>>
<<tiddler ToggleRightSidebar>>
 {{left{
&nbsp; [[BASICS|Basic Skills]]
&nbsp; [[BUYING NEW|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO]]
&nbsp; [[BROWSERS|Browsers]]
&nbsp; [[DOWNLOADS|Downloads]]
&nbsp; [[EMAIL|Email]]
&nbsp; [[FAMILY RESEARCH|Family Research]]
&nbsp; [[FAQ|Frequently Asked Questions]]
&nbsp; [[HOUSEKEEPING|HouseKeeping]]
&nbsp; [[JARGON|Jargon]]
&nbsp; [[MULTIMEDIA|Multimedia]] 
&nbsp; [[NETWORKS|Networks]]
&nbsp; [[ORGANIZE|Getting Organised]] 
&nbsp; [[PRINT DISPLAY|Print and Display]]
&nbsp; [[SEARCH|Search]]
&nbsp; [[SECURITY|Security]]
&nbsp; [[SETTING UP|Setting Up]]
&nbsp; [[SHOPPING|ShoppingOn-Line]]
&nbsp; [[SOCIAL MEDIA|Social Media]]
&nbsp; [[SYNERGY|Synergy]]
&nbsp; [[TOPIC SLIDES|Topic Slides]]
&nbsp; [[TUTORIALS|Tutorials]] 
&nbsp; [[WINDOWS 10|Windows10]] *
&nbsp; [[QUIZZES|Quizzes]]
&nbsp; [[INDEX]]
&nbsp; ''__[[FindSubPages]]__''<br>
&nbsp; ''__Help__''
&nbsp; [[Seeking Help|MeetingSystems##TeamViewer]]
&nbsp; [[Tips]]
&nbsp; [[TroubleShooting]]
&nbsp; [[Understanding|MathsEasierThanYouThink##Understanding]]
<br><br>
<<option txtUserName>>
}}}

 
[[Welcome to the Computer Club Worksheet|GettingStarted]]  
-----------------------
<<search>>
<<tiddler ToggleRightSidebar>>
[[BASICS|Basic Skills]]
[[* TUTORIALS|Tutorials]] 
[[DOWNLOADS|Downloads]]
[[* WINDOWS 8|Windows 8]]
[[MULTIMEDIA|Multimedia]] 
[[NETWORKS|Networks]]
[[ORGANIZE|Getting Organised]]
[[JARGON|Jargon]]
[[BUYING NEW|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO]]
[[HOUSEKEEPING|HouseKeeping]]
[[FAQ|Frequently Asked Questions]]
[[BROWSERS|Browsers]]
[[EMAIL|Email]]
[[* SECURITY|Security]]
[[SYNERGY|Synergy]]
[[SETTING UP|Setting Up]]
[[SHOPPING|ShoppingOn-Line]]
[[PRINT|Print and Display]]
[[* SEARCH|Search]]
[[FAMILY RESEARCH|Family Research]]
[[SOCIAL MEDIA|Social Media]]
[[TOPIC SLIDES|Topic Slides]]
[[QUIZZES|Quizzes]]
[[INDEX]]
[[FindSubPages]]
<br><br><br>
<<option txtUserName>>
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;1. To make a shortcut ''on the desktop'' from an item elsewhere, ''right click'' on the item and from the menu, select "Send to" and from the next menu, select "Desktop (create shortcut)". The shortcut appears on your ''Desktop''. You can rename the shortcut.<br>2. If you want to make a shortcut to an item ''in the same folder'', right click on the item and select "Create Shortcut". You can then move the shortcut to another location.<br>3. To make a short cut on the Desktop, perhaps ''to a website'', right click on an empty space and select NEW - SHORTCUT. In the wizard window, copy the URL from the browser address bar showing the website. Or if perhaps to a file, BROWSE to the file. Click NEXT and enter a NAME for the shortcut. Click FINISH. The word ITEM above refers to a program, a folder, a file or even another shortcut.|[[Make a Shortcut to Worksheet|Files/To read the Basic Computing Worksheet.pdf]]|
}}}
--------
 
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;We know too that many of us simply don't like maths and don't see the point of it. Many have no qualms about saying so. Being "no good at maths" carries little stigma, almost something to brag about. This tends not to be the case in other parts of the world.<br><br>Negative attitudes to maths start early in the UK – some would say between the ages of seven and nine, when many children's interest and attainment dip, in most cases never to return. They switch off and decide maths is something to be tolerated until the moment they can give it up – for ever. England, Wales and Northern Ireland have the lowest rate of young people continuing with maths beyond 16. (Scotland does a bit better, probably because of a wider curriculum.)<br><br>The process is then cyclical, with parents, and in some cases,  teachers, passing on their own lack of ''enthusiasm and confidence'' to the next generation.<br><br>This is tradgic!!<br><br>What then when "Vectors amd Matricies" are mentioned?<br> Understanding is so much easier than you think. Just a matter of denying that you can't.<br><br>All that is needed is to be able to:-<br>1. Add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers,<br>2. Solve the equation y=x+1 for y where x=2; <br>3. Factorise a quadratic expression such as   x&sup2; -x -12 <br>4. Realise that x^^n^^ is a generalisation meaning any one of the series  x^^0^^, x^^1^^, x^^2^^, x^^3^^.........x^^n^^<br>5. Realise that x~~12~~ is a notation meaning position in a row or column, i.e. first row, second column.<br>6. Accept that the bra expression "< a l " represents a row (a~~1~~  a~~2~~ a~~3~~ ....... a~~n~~) vector and "l a >" represents a ket or column vector. You will need to know the terms: bra, ket and complex conjugated, what a __matrix__ is, and what an __eigenvalue__ is!! This is illustrated by ''[[Dirac Notation.|http://www.users.csbsju.edu/~frioux/dirac/dirac.pdf]]''<br>7. Have __[[a basic understanding of Probability|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUYbHSNotjY]]__ and the Wave Function or distribution curve of a particle.<br><br><br>Getting a grasp of Quantum Mechanics offers a valuable ''example'' of __studying a new subject__ and at the same time refreshing one's __method of effective learning__, while investigating __the process of understanding.__|[[Summary of Maths Videos]]<br><br>[[The Importance of Maths|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LECig33-6s]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[How to Approach Maths|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdcmxWHsgb0]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Interactive Maths|http://www.intmath.com/help/interactive-math-applications.php]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Kahn Videos|https://www.khanacademy.org/math]]<br><br><br>[[Factorising an expression|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQ-NRsWhOGI]]<br><br>[[Nancy|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIwmZ9m0byI]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Integration|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RjLkuYtxCrc]]<br><br>[[The Matrix|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqWCwwyeE6k]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Eigenvalues|http://www.sosmath.com/matrix/eigen0/eigen0.html]]<br><br>[[Introduction to Probability|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8eSOmTPUbk]]<br><br>[[Wave Function? 1|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02eZMf17wFs]] &nbsp; [[and 2|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFGabP8ExbM]]<br><br>[[Randomness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGGb0nGTPLk]] &nbsp; [[Probability in QM|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WesAzpieCYU]]|
}}}
!!!Understanding
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''__"Being taught" versus "Learning"__''.<br><br>A teacher can merely motivate, guide, present information and test learning. ''__You have to learn.__''<br><br>The transfer of knowledge and skills from teachers to learners is no longer effective education. Learners need to be empower for an unknown future in a rapidly changing technological and global world. Education needs to empower learners to learn to learn.<br><br>Broadly, learning involves:<br>1. ''Knowledge''. Memorising, recalling and familiarity with information and concepts, <br>2. ''Skills.'' These are learnt from demonstrations, by Trial & Error and by practice.<br>Thus many demo videos in this Worksheet, and<br>3. ''Attitude.'' Learnt from a role model, peer pressure or in a boot camp.<br><br>Learning to learn includes managing time and information, learning individually and collaboratively, being aware of needs and processes, pursuing and preserving, using guidance, building on prior learning and life experiences, applying knowledge and skills in different contexts, being motivated and having confidence.<br><br><br> ''A teacher cannot teach you into understanding''. It is utterly useless to spend your time attending classes in the belief you will learn something unless, with determination and curiosity, you follow this ''work'' sequence of understanding a concept or a skill:<br>1. ''Storing in memory the name and meaning'' of the concept or skill - __[[Jargon]]__.<br>2. ''Investigating the relationship'' the concept has with other concepts. Learning depends on progressing from the known to the unknown. Therefore the concepts that a knowledge depends on (prior knowledge) must be learnt first.<br>3. Being aware of the ''similarities and differences'' between it and other concepts.<br>4. ''Sympathy.'' Being able to see, in one's imagination, the concept from all angles (familiarity) and answer questions about it. That is see it in the right context.<br>5. Having the __ability__ to ''explain the concept'' to someone else or to be able to ''do the skill'' in the area concerned.<br><br>''Prior knowledge is key.'' Be aware of failure to understand. Investigate each element of a new concept, fact or skill to ensure you understand the assumptions made. The acquisition of a skill often depends on prior knowledge of facts and concepts. So the learning of facts, skills and attitudes are often related.|<br><br>[[What is Understanding|http://www.trans4mind.com/personal_development/MindDev/understanding.htm]]<br><br><br>[[How does understanding occur?|http://www.indiana.edu/~idtheory/methods/m6c.html]]<br><br>[[Understanding QM|https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/why-is-quantum-mechanics-so-difficult.765713/]]<br><br>[[Effective Learning|http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/tp/effective-learning.htm]]<br><br>[[Learning Styles|http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/]]<br><br>[[Types of Learning|http://www.washington.edu/doit/types-learning]]<br><br>[[Bloom's Taxonomy|http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html]]<br><br><br>[[A Concept|http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/concept]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[A Fact|http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/fact]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Knowledge|http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/knowledge?s=t]]<br><br><br>[[Trial & Error Learning|http://teachertraineeaide.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/behaviourist-thoery-thorndikes-theory.html]]<br><br><br><br>[[Study Less Study Smart|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IlU-zDU6aQ0]]<br><br>[[Organizing Your Study|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_ElR-uPOhw]]<br><br><br><br>[[The New Brain Science of Learning|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahSYwchh-QM]]<br><br><br><br>[[See Examples of Prior Knowledge]]|
}}}
+++[Examples of Prior Knowledge, click here.=I|click for information]<br>
!!!''Example 1.''
Read the following sentence and ask yourself if you understand it.
''"The base of the hexadecimal number system is sixteen"''<br>
If you do understand the statement, answer these questions:<br>(a) What is a "number system"?<br>(b) What is the 11th digit in this number system?<br>(c) What is the definition of "base"?<br>(d) What relates the values 10, 16 and 10000?<br>
If you did not understand the statement, did you ask yourself questions (a) and (c)?
What remedial action did you take? Can you list some facts and concepts that you learnt? Could you explain what a number system is to another person?<br>What have you learnt about "understanding" from this example?<br>
!!!''Example 2.''
Watch this short skill video once and ask yourself if you could repeat this operation on your own computer running Windows 7.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Wz6DwMJOA
<br>If you think you could, then:<br>(a) On which icon was the mouse pointer first placed?<br>(b) List the subsequent steps to finding the System Restore dialogue box.<br>(c) What was the purpose of carrying out this sequence of steps?<br>(d) What can one do once the operation is completed?<br>
If you were not confident that you could repeat the operation on your own computer, what did you do?
List the other basic skills you think you needed to have to watch the video and to carry out the operation on your own computer.<br>
!!!''Example 3.''
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''Take an example'' in which prior knowledge is part of general knowledge.<br><br>How would you check that a person knew what a CUBE was?<br><br>You would ask them to select a cube from a variety of shapes.<br>You would invite them to look at it from all directions. Then you would ask them to list and describe its features. You would look for:-<br>1. It has six faces and eight corners<br>2. Adjacent faces were at right angles to each other.<br>3. Opposite faces were parallel.<br>4. There are 12 edges.<br>5. Each edge is the same length.<br>6. Each face is a square.<br><br>This done, you would be satisfied they UNDERSTOOD what a CUBE was.<br><br>The PRIOR KNOWLEDGE assumed was knowing the meaning of face, square, corner, right angle, opposite, parallel, edge and length. |<html> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/cube.jpg" style="height:180px; width: 230px" /></html>|
}}}
----
===
!!!Obstacles to Understanding
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''[[What are the obstacles to conceptual understanding?|http://www.indiana.edu/~idtheory/methods/m6c.html]]''<br><br>"It is helpful to think in terms of obstacles to initial acquisition of conceptual understanding and obstacles to retention of that understanding. Understanding is quite the opposite of memorization. It is acquisition that is difficult; retention is relatively easy. Since acquisition is mainly a matter of relating the new knowledge to the appropriate prior knowledge, ''there are three major obstacles. First'', the appropriate prior knowledge must indeed have been acquired already. ''Second'', the appropriate prior knowledge must be "activated", that is, it must be brought to mind (or looked up). ''And third'', the proper relationship between the new knowledge and the prior knowledge must be learned. The more links which are created with relevant prior knowledge, the greater the depth and/or breadth of understanding."|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Sholders of Giants|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_science]]|
}}}
!!!Physics and Maths Resources
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''[[This comprehensive and well indexed resource of physics and maths|http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html]]'' is a collection of tutorials with material organized in an extensive system of conceptual maps. From Electric Motors and Ohm's Law to Quantum Mechanics, Optics and Algebra, it's all there.<br><br>The three [[Giants of Classical Physics:|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_physics]]<br><br>[[Newton|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Newton]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Maxwell|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Clerk_Maxwell]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Einstein|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein]]<br><br>[[Giants of Classical Biology|http://giantsofscience.weebly.com/biology.html]]<br><br>[[Aristotle|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Mendel|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregor_Mendel]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Darwin|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Watson|https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/SC/Views/Exhibit/narrative/doublehelix.html]] & [[Crick|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Crick]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Anthropology|http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_3.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Plato|http://www.ancient.eu/plato/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Alternative Anthropology|https://grahamhancock.com/sitchinz1/]] <br><br>[[Mitochondrial Eve|http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2010/12/the-paradigm-is-dead-long-live-the-paradigm/#.WSHFw4WcHGc]] |[[Particle Physics|http://rooksheathscience.com/2015/04/12/particle-physics-masterclass-2015-3/]]<br><br>[[String Theory|http://zidbits.com/2011/03/a-laymans-explanation-for-string-theory/]]<br><br>[[The 20 Numbers|http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2013/05/29/the-fundamental-constants-behind-our-universe/]]<br><br> [[Maxwell's equations|http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/more_stuff/Maxwell_Eq.html]]<br><br><br><br>[[Evolution 2.0|https://cosmicfingerprints.com/stephen-meyer-debate/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Truth & Dogma|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8DxNBNsdUg&t=1586s]]|
}}}

----
<br><br><br><br><br>
<html><strong>The browser Video and Voice facilities</strong> listed below in the right-hand margin are, of course, not just for Troubleshooting but for<br>everyday contact and <a href="http://www.ldrmagazine.com/blog/2014/03/03/9-free-download-login-skype-alternatives/" target="_blank"><u>simpler to use than Skype</u></a>. Give them a try. Give me a call</html>
!Real-time  online educational meeting systems
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Oberservation</strong><br>I have noticed that there is a constant drift of older people out of active U3A, not because of their diminishing mental agility but because of reduced mobility. This results in a loss of social contact and all the other great benefits U3A provides. In a few years time a high proportion of these people will be computer and social media literate. The cost of the technology to make video phone calls over the Internet has fallen and the improvement in systems has made this very easy to set up. Now is the time to start.<br><br><strong>Objective</strong><br>To develop additional features which U3A could provide, I am keen to work with anyone interested in, and perhaps some experience of Skype, video conferencing, real-time  online educational meeting systems, which we might investigate, evaluate and use in U3A.<br><br><strong>Suggested Systems</strong><br>Currently two free systems that stand out are <strong>TeamViewer and BigBlueButton,</strong> while Skype will develop with Windows 10. I eliminate Google HangOut which is too intrusive unless you are happy to extend your profile worldwide. Tablet Apps are also available in the appropriate stores. TeamViewer is also used to remotely troubleshoot, with permission, members' computers. BigBlueButton has all the requirements but may be difficult to install. The availabiity of interactive whiteboard may be useful.<br><br><strong>Slack</strong> is a team communication facility that we might use in Computer Group and more widely in Southwell U3A. <br><br><strong>Volunteer to help with this project.</strong><br><br><strong>If these thoughts appeal to you please ring  Clive Bates on 01636 813571<br> or email Clive.Bates@btinternet.com</strong></html>|<br>[[5 Meeting Services|http://lifehacker.com/5878067/five-best-online-meeting-services]]<br><br>[[Conferencing Tools|http://www.idealware.org/few-good-online-conferencing-tools-1/]]<br><br>[[eLearning Software|https://elearningindustry.com/top-10-video-conferencing-systems-for-elearning-professionals]]<br><br>[[40 Web Meeting Tools|http://c4lpt.co.uk/directory-of-learning-performance-tools/web-meetingconferencing-virtual-classroom-tools/]]<br><br>[[BigBlueButton|http://bigbluebutton.org/]]<br><br>[[BigBlueButton Demo|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHTZvbL1NT4&feature=youtu.be]]<br><br>[[BigBlueButton User|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oh0bEk3YSwI]]<br><br>[[BigBlueButton Getting Started|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7E6PvbBvQ7c]]<br><br>[[BigBlueButton No Flash|http://bigbluebutton.org/2012/10/06/bigbluebutton-html5-client-video-1/]]<br><br>[[GoToMeeting|https://free.gotomeeting.com/]]<br><br>[[TeamViewer Features|http://meeting.teamviewer.com/en/index.aspx]]<br><br>[[TeamViewer Demo|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Fu2j5q6udY]]<br><br>[[TeamViewer Download|http://www.teamviewer.com/en/index.aspx]]<br><br>[[Slack Review|http://uk.pcmag.com/slack/40141/review/slack]]|
}}}
+++[System Requirements, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
<br>
1. Up to five online participants
2. Easy package to set up by online participants, preferably free and possibly browser based
3. Video and audio, Whiteboard, File transfer, Presenter desktop display
4. All participants see each other in Desktop windows.
5. Contact initiated by receipt and response to an email link or browser icon message.
===
<br><br>
+++[Topics for the Virtual Development Group to consider, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
!!!Tasks for the Virtual Development Group
1. Choose a meeting software which is free for multiple users, simple to use and will function on typical member and leader computers.
| SYSTEM | COST | USER LIMITS | EASE OF USE | PC TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS |
|GO To Meeting|||||
|Big Blue Button|||||
|~TeamViewer|||||
2. Consider in parallel a very simple browser video system for initial contact with group members.
| SYSTEM | COST | USER LIMITS | EASE OF USE | PC TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS |
|[[Firefox Hello|http://alternativeto.net/software/firefox-hello/]]|||||
|Google Hangout|||||
|Microsoft ooVoo|||||
|Microsoft ORTC|||||
|Telenor Digital appear.in|||||
3. The Virtual Development Group will need to thouroughly validate the system before it is launched for ~U3A group use.
| ITEM | QUESTION | REPORT |
|Cost|Is the cost to member negligible and will it work on a typical member computer?|
|Number of possible users |Are there any bandwith limitations for the Leader server?|
|Security|Are there any security and privacy issues to consider and is the system secure?|
|Simple Member Guide|Is the planned user guide comprehensive, simple and accurate|
|Functional-operational|Has the system been tested exhaustively by the Development Group?|
|Others| |
===
<br>
!!~TeamViewer Troubleshooting Sessions.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">TeamViewer is used to remotely troubleshoot members' computers. Always make sure you have adequate back-up of all valuables before agreeing to or asking for this procedure.<br><br>Remote access with TeamViewer is quite safe, because you are the one agreeing to access. This is unlike the situation after a spam email when someone is conned into giving access.<br><br><strong>To initiate a Troubleshooting session:</strong><br><br>1. Download and install TeamViewer. You can install either the free full version or the free "<a href="http://download.teamviewer.com/download/TeamViewerQS.exe" target="_blank"><u>Join Remote Control Session".</u></a><br>2. Email me with a brief outline of the problem to troubleshoot. and the time you will be ready to start, <strong>with at least one day's notice, unless emergency arrangements have been made by phone.</strong> I will confirm time or negotiate an alternative. <br>3. Email me again, just before the start time, with your ID and Password which appears in the left hand panel of the window when you run Teamviewer "Remote Control". Give this password only to a person you trust.<br>4. We can communicate during the session either by phone, the chat facility or, if you are equipped with earphones and microphone, over the Internet.<br>5. During the session your desktop has a black background, you can see the changes that are made and at the end of the session your desktop will return to normal. You can interrupt the session any time you wish. </html>|<br>[[Webcams|Synergy1##Webcam]]<br><br>[[appear.in Meeting|https://appear.in/]]<br><br>[[FireFox "Hello"|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/firefox-hello-video-and-voice-conversations-online]]<br><br>[[Microsoft ooVoo|http://www.oovoo.com/]]<br><br>[[Google Hangouts|https://support.google.com/chat/answer/161986?hl=en-GB]]<br><br>[[Edge Video Call|https://dev.windows.com/en-us/microsoft-edge/testdrive/demos/ortcdemo/]]<br><br>[[Edge Twilio (US only)|https://dev.windows.com/en-us/microsoft-edge/testdrive/demos/twilioortc/]]<br><br>[[Skype|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/tips/how-to-use-skype.htm]]<br><br>[[RemoteAccess]]|
}}}
-----
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;<html><p align="justify">As eyesight gradually fails and floaters confuse, displaying an image of a slide on your PC screen opens up a new world. A microsope with camera attached to the eyepiece also enables saving the images and videos, perhaps enhanced, for future reference. Hours spent with the microscope are an excellent way to let the garden grow wild whilst still taking a keen interest in its content.</html>|<html> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img alt="" height="196" src="Files/Apex Digital Practitioner.jpg" style="height:175px; width: 233px" width="257" /></html>|
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Digital Microscopes</strong><br>At a cost of little more than a foregone evening out, a serious microscope makes a worthwhile PC periferal device. I say "serious microscope" because it is best to avoid the plentiful toys available in the deceptive online market. Check the specification especially the <strong>weight</strong>; look for at least 3 Kg. Thereafter the cost is proportional to the number of eye pieces, objective lenses and quality of camera. Avoid the flimsy bottom end of the Celesteron range. The links lead to some suggested suppliers. For aftersales support, the names Apex and Brunel come to mind from personal experience. Many products are available through Amazon UK. An alternative possibility is to adapt a standard microscope with a camera which slides into the eyepiece shaft having the correct diameter. One product is the <a href="http://www.apexmicroscopes.co.uk/apexminigrab.html" target="_blank"><u>Minigrab camera.</u></a><br><br><strong>Setting Up</strong><br>The kit will come with a CD providing manuals, imaging software and drivers together with an easy setup wizard and a link to their support and copies of all the latest software. With the correct camera  drivers in place for your operating system, you are ready to go.<br><br><strong>Prepared Slides</strong><br>Many kits include a pack of slides and cover slips. Cell stain kits are also readily available and this can lead you into the skills of cell differentiation for better identification. To speed up the learning process, <a href="http://www.brunelmicroscopessecure.co.uk/acatalog/Brunel-Elite-Sets.html" target="_blank"><u>many laboratories</u></a> supply <a href="http://www.ukge.com/en-gb/Microscopy/Prepared-Slides__c-p-0-0-12-205.aspx" target="_blank"><u>sets of prepared slides</u></a> in various fields from <a href="http://bitesizebio.com/13422/go-for-gram-staining-bacteria-for-light-microscopy/" target="_blank"><u>bacterial</u></a> to <a href="http://www.biology-resources.com/paramecium-01.html" target="_blank"><u>pond life.</u></a><br><br><strong>Skills</strong><br>The skills to learn first after mastering the microscope are:- specimen mounting on slide, <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/doctorrao/bacterial-staining-methods" target="_blank"><u>staining techniques</u></a>,<a href="http://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/science/biology/introduction-microscopy/content-section-3" target="_blank"><u> the range of dyes</u></a> and then <a href="http://www.biologycorner.com/2010/09/14/how-to-measure-with-the-microscope/" target="_blank"><u>measurement of specimens</u></a>, Species recognition of plants & animals, video capture of live events. An easy point to start the study of single celled organisms is to prepare a slide to observe <a href="http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/articles/param1.html" target="_blank"><u> the Paramecium.</u></a> You will soon start to identify many <a href="http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/wimsmall/smal1.html" target="-blank"><u>other types of pond life.</u><a/><br><br></html><html><strong>Geology</strong><br>Another facinating area of study is rock slices under the microscope; facinating because of the variety of crystal shapes and colours which enable identification. Unfortunately the microscope fitted with polarised light filters and lenses makes the hobby an expensive one. <a href="http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/intelplay/qx3polarization.html" target="_blank"><u>Polar Exploration</u></a> on a <a href="http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artapr06/dw-polbudget.html" target="_blank"><u>budget is possible.</u></a></html>|<br>[[Apex|http://www.apexmicroscopes.co.uk/browse.html]]<br><br>[[Brunel|http://www.digital-microscopes.co.uk/]]<br><br>[[Celestron|http://www.celestron.com/browse-shop/microscopes/digital-microscopes]]<br><br>[[Choosing|http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artsep13/buying-a-microscope1.html]]<br><br>[[Tutorial|http://virtualurchin.stanford.edu/microtutorial.htm]]<br><br>[[YouTube Tutorial|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1tV3k68cAU]]<br><br>[[Oil Immersion|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7KlFSgdUGU]]<br><br>[[Staining Kits|http://www.brunelmicroscopessecure.co.uk/acatalog/preparation.html]]<br><br>[[Making Slides|http://www.microscope-detective.com/making-microscope-slides.html]]<br><br>[[Simple Exercises|http://virtualplant.ru.ac.za/Main/ANATOMY/Practical%207.htm]]<br><br>[[Staining Skill|http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Histology/What-is-Histology.php]]<br><br>[[The Tree of Life|http://universe-review.ca/F10-multicell.htm]]<br><br>[[Polarized Microscopy|http://www.microscopyu.com/articles/polarized/polarizedintro.html]]<br><br>[[Polarizing Microscopes|http://www.brunelmicroscopes.co.uk/polarisation.html]]|
}}}
-----
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;In CONTROL PANEL select MOUSE.<br>There are three changes possible to make to improve visibility of the mouse POINTER.<br>1. Make a large black pointer. On the POINTERS tab choose "Windows Inverted(extra large)".<br>2. Add to the variety of pointers available by downloading BIG RED POINTERS<br>3. On the POINTER OPTIONS tab tick "Show location when I press CTRL key".|[[Mouse Setup|http://qwertytutorials.com/software_tutorials/windows_xp/change_mouse_xp.php]]<br><br>[[Big Red Pointers|http://www.bmyers.com/public/1425.cfm]]|
}}}
------------------------
 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">The most common<a href="http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530115(v=vs.85).aspx" target="_blank"> <u>aspect ratio</u></a> of a desk or laptop screen is 16:9 - a wide screen. Because the vertical dimension of the screen determines how much scrolling you have to do to read down the page (given it is at maximum zoom), then <strong>moving the taskbar from the default bottom of screen position</strong> to one side, increases the viewable depth of the page.<br><br><strong> For XP and Vista</strong>- Right-click on your taskbar. If there is a check mark beside "Lock the Taskbar", click<strong> Lock the Taskbar</strong> to unlock it. Drag your taskbar to the left, right, or top of your screen. To drag the taskbar, click and hold the mouse button over the taskbar. Then, while holding down the mouse button, drag the taskbar to its new location. When the taskbar is in place, release the mouse button. Re-lock. For <strong>W7 and W8</strong>, right click on the task bar and select properties; choose location.<br><br>The preferred side for the taskbar is the <strong>left</strong> to minimize confusion with a right hand scroll bar, while with W8, the repositioning helps to separate the "Start" from the Windows symbol that gives access to the "App Tiles"<br><br><strong>To pin a utility shortcut</strong> to the taskbar, for quick access, right click the item in <strong>Programs, on the Desktop or in File Manager</strong> and select<strong> Pin to taskbar</strong>.</html>|<br>[[Tips Using Taskbar|http://lifehacker.com/5532578/the-power-users-guide-to-the-windows-7-taskbar]]|
}}}   
----
 
<br><br><br><br>
!''1. Overview'' 
<br>
''One of the benefits'' of Windows 7 & 8 is their ability to catalogue, play and display all your computer content of music, audiobooks, pictures and videos for instant access and, if you wish, stream these to an HD TV, loud speakers or other media players, tablets and smartphone.<br><br>''Utilities'' - Supplied with Windows are Windows Media Player(WMP) and [[Windows Media Centre (WMC)|http://www.techradar.com/news/computing/pc/take-windows-media-center-to-the-next-level-1038748]]. The latter is an extra to W8. Easily downloadable are [[Apple's iTunes|http://www.apple.com/uk/itunes/affiliates/download/]] and many other players. Unfortunately some of these have major shortcomings and it is worth considering downloading superior third party utilities.<br><br>''Library'' - Windows automatically collects together four major areas of multimedia files in your computer into the "Libraries" folder named ''My Documents, My Pictures, My Music and My Videos.'' You can add to this library any other folders in your computer, or on your local network, in which you have collected multimedia files. For example, if your collection of "Audio Books" is in a separate folder, this can be linked to the Library system as an extra library folder called, say, "My Audio Books", or added to, say, "My Documents" if that is your preference. Most cataloguing software such as WMP and iTunes search these libraries and catalogue your collection and present it in their own individual ways. This may not be to your liking and so the choice of utility determines the way with ease you can access your collection.
!2. ''Suggested Utilities''
<br>
''Pictures'' - Windows Photo Gallery and Picassa 3 are excellent but basic, having useful facilities such as enhancement, caption add, tagging, face recognition and properties. Although much improved in W8, WMC is cumbersome and the bundled "Photos" app is confusing. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[PhotoEnhancement]]<br><br>''Music'' - I find [[WMP|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/download-windows-media-player]] and [[WMC|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows/products/windows-media-center]] relatively uncontrollable and although iTunes has excellent analysis of your collection, all are eclipsed by the free [[AUDIALS ONE|http://audials.com/en/one/index.html]]. Audials One is an easy to use application that allows you to create playlists, listen to online radio, podcasts, search music and video files online as well as cataloguing your own collection. It filters out anything dodgy and offers only legal downloads.  Ignore the "Buy" window that appears each time you start it, by closing this window. That is the small price you pay for the free software. It is not, as sometimes described, "a mediocre media player", but the interface is a bit quirky. Combine this with a Bluetooth connection to loudspeakers or media player and you have a very controllable system for the three main uses of a music player: playing your own collection, Internet Radio and online ~MP3 playing. Realize that you don't need to fill your computer with downloaded music files. You can STREAM instead, but [[download the file|http://www.techsupportalert.com/how_to_work_with_audio_cd_cda_files.htm]] (How to) or [[rip it from the CD|http://www.fairstars.com/cd_ripper/index.html]] (Best ripper) with a freeware ripper, if you choose. Using PLAYLISTS means you can select your instant favourite and stream it with equal enjoyment and no worries about copyright or using up hard drive space. "Ripping" sounds unnecessarily severe but it just means convert to .mp3, etc. as you download. WMP version 12 is much improved but many of its best features require some study to find. [[VLC is easier to use|http://www.videolan.org/vlc/download-windows.en_GB.html]].<br><br>''Ripping'' - is the process of copying audio or video content to a hard disk, typically from CD or DVD, but unlike copy & paste requires conversion software. Ripping is the opposite to ''Burning'', which means to write content to a CD DVD using suitable software.<br><br>''Free Software'' - Nothing in life is free. The cost is either to watch adverts or to download extra free trial software. THIS IS USUALLY HARMLESS BUT IRRITATING. Be on your guard during every stage of the installation process to uncheck offers checked by default or for the word "Decline" in very faint print. On a download webpage also watch for cleverly placed download buttons  which cause you to download different software to that you are seeking. Choose FREEWARE software in preference as this will be free of nasties and install [[Adblock Plus.|Browsers.html#Blocking_Junk]]<br>''Warning.'' Never download free software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8) alone. Always use a strong virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware.<br><br>''[[Internet Radio]]'' - Instant access to Internet Radio and its station selection has improved remarkably over the last three years. The best utilities are Audials One, iTunes and Tunein Radio and of  course, [[BBC Radio Player.|http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/#stations]]<br><br>''Videos'' - To set [[VCL Media Player|http://vlc-media-player.en.softonic.com/]] or WMP as your default media player is to choose one of the two best. These offer easy access to your "My Videos" library folder. Your browser, be it Firefox, Explorer or other will also play video files easily and a bookmark to [[YouTube|http://www.youtube.com/]], TED, Kahn, Academic Talks, BBC iPlayer, [[TV Catchup|http://www.tvcatchup.com/]], [[British Film Institute|http://explore.bfi.org.uk/]] and [[BlinkBox|http://www.blinkbox.com/Movies]] should suffice. Also, [[iTunes U|http://support.apple.com/kb/PH1631?viewlocale=en_US]] gives access to masses of free educational content. None of the above has any copyright implications but if you download audio and video with,say, [[Wondershare Streaming Audio Recorder|http://www.wondershare.com/pro/streaming-audio-recorder.html]] copyright regulations should be studied.<br><br>''Streaming'' - WMP will [[stream|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/about-streaming]] video from your PC to your HDTV with a [[network connection|http://compnetworking.about.com/od/windowsxpnetworking/ht/conndisenable.htm]], but iTunes only with Apple's TV box. Internet radio, is streamed audio using the utilities mentioned above. Useful tablet apps for streaming are iMediaShare, Twonky, and Skifta. Streaming is heavy on a limited broadband account and free from copyright issues, however if you need to download from ~YouTube for personnal use, see [[here|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001002.htm]] or use the official Firefox addon. See [[Networks|Networks##Streaming]].<br><br>''Audio Books and Text to Speech.'' A subscription to [[Audible.co.uk|http://www.audible.co.uk/]], now owned by Amazon, is the easiest way to enjoy thousands of books audibly. With the takeover, Amazon has not developed its [[text to speech|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_synthesis]] [[plug-in for Kindle|http://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html?ie=UTF8&amp;docId=1000632481]] on PC, but for a modest donation the [[NVDA|http://www.nvaccess.org/about/nvda-features/]] screen reader software is available to operate the plug-in. [[IVONA|http://www.ivona.com/en/products/ivona-reader/]] is an alternative but merely reads the screen, as does the clumsy Window's built-in ~Ease-of-Access utility "Narrator"<br><br>''Amazon Echo.'' The Amazon Echo, aka Alexa Voice Service, is a very reliable voice activated multimedia device which works very much like Cortana or Seri but has far wider application. You are not "inviting a third party to openly eavesdrop on your every word", as some ctitics assert. The microphone opens only under user control.The Echo is available from [[Amazon UK|https://www.amazon.co.uk/Amazon-SK705DI-Echo-Black/dp/B01GAGVIE4]] for £149 with speakers incorporated or, as Amazon Dot, without for £49. The latter is easily paired to a Bluetooth speaker. It is a hands-free speaker you control with your voice. Echo connects to the Alexa Voice Service to play music from your own collection, Audiobooks, Amazon Music, Prime Music, Spotify and ~TuneIn.[[ Alexa provides information|http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/138846-amazon-echo-what-can-alexa-do-and-what-services-are-compatible]], news, sports scores, weather, smart device control and more. [[Review|http://www.trustedreviews.com/amazon-echo-review]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Review|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/audio-visual/hi-fi-and-audio/audio-systems/amazon-echo-1329791/review]]<br><br>''Internet of Things.''  With Alexa you are at the threshold of The Internet of Things. Alexa is compatible with [[a number of smart hubs|http://www.digitaltrends.com/home/everything-that-works-with-amazon-echo-smart-home/]], such as [[Logitech Harmony Hub|http://www.logitech.com/en-gb/product/harmony-hub]], [[Simple Control|https://www.simplecontrol.com/check-compatibility/]] and [[Samsung Smart Things|https://www.smartthings.com/uk/]], etc. Without careful research this can be an expensive hobby, but a wise early adopter starts with a smart plug with which any household appliance can take on smartness, at the same time bringing addictive satisfaction to the control freak in need of a morale boost.<br> [["The Internet of Things" (~IoT)|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things]] refers to the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing-like devices within the existing Internet infrastructure." This might include your fridge, your central heating, your smartphone, your shopping ''and your privacy''.<br><br>''Smart Hubs'' Although Alexa is itself a hub, if you’re looking to truly get as much power as possible out of your Echo, you’ll want to purchase a starter kit with ''[[a smart home hub|http://smarthome.reviewed.com/features/everything-that-works-with-amazon-echo-alexa]]''. These hubs connect all your compatible smart devices to the cloud and use third-party apps that allow for compatibility with many more devices than Alexa can connect with natively. Smart hubs fall broadly into four catagories: Media, Lighting & Heating, Security and General Domestic devices and use the Skills facility of Alexa. Once a decision on hub is made, the purchase of compatible devices becomes more rational.<br><br>See [[Smart Devices]]
!''3. Copyright''
<br>
 A spokesman for the UK's Performing Right Society announced in February 2013 that recording ''audio'' from Internet Radio is "...... fine for personnal use." The law has now been changed to make personnal copies from ~CDs permitted, but this has been contested in the UK courts following EU involvement. However breaking DRM restrictions is still illegal.<br>
|centered|k
| [[FAQ concerning Images|http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/guide/copyright-and-still-images-frequently-asked-questions]]<br><br>[[Update of UK Copyright Laws|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-29448058]] | &nbsp; | [[Advice concerning Audio|http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/guide/copyright-an-overview]]<br><br>[[Music from CD|http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3188779/Using-iTunes-UK-practically-ILLEGAL-Copying-music-CD-collection-violates-copyright-law.html]] | &nbsp;| [[About Licenses|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/]] |
!''4. Difference between Streaming and Downloading''

The basic idea is simple. Suppose you want to watch a large video file on your PC. You install a media player (a streaming-media-playing program) on your computer that plays the file while it downloads. So it downloads maybe the first 10 seconds of the file, stores or buffers it, then immediately starts to play it. As the media player starts playing the first part of the file, it's also downloading the next 10 seconds ready for when you come to that bit. The media player never actually stores more than a little bit of the entire file: once it's played part of the file, it deletes it to make way for the next bit. If the media player can download the file as fast as you're watching or listening to it, you'll see no interruptions; if there are delays in downloading for any reason, there will be occasional pauses while the player downloads and "buffers" the next bit of the file.
<br>[[Streaming Media|http://www.explainthatstuff.com/streamingmedia.html]]<br><br>
--------
<br><br><br><br>''Security strategies will vary between people depending on their perception of threat and their spending priorities.<br>The elements below are not intended to be prescriptive but you may find it useful to have a comparison even if<br>you choose alternative pruducts.'' &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Get Safe Online|http://www.getsafeonline.org/]]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''1. Antivirus Software.'' My view is that the days of free AV software have come to an end, although the free Microsoft Security Essentials is safe for low risk users. Safe software includes "real-time" protection against five threats: Virus, Other Malware, Identity Theft, Adware and Key-logging. Often two are missing from free AV software together with additional useful tools. Study the various lists of "Best AV Software" and choose a personal preference. I have chosen ~BullGuard which gives two year's protection for three ~PCs at £51 or £18..99 for 1 year, 1 PC . Additionally it contributes to Item 3 ''and PC tuneup.''<br>''2. Emergency Malware Utility.'' Readily available in your PC you need a deep scanning facility that you can call on should malware bypass other protection. I have chosen the free (not "Trial") version of ~MalwareBytes, which is compatible with my real-time AV utilitiy.<br>''3. Site Advisors and Blockers.'' ~BullGuard, as may others, includes a site advisor similar to W.O.T. and ~McAffe, which provides a traffic lights indication for safe or dodgy websites. ~AdBlock Plus provides protection against misleading, tedious and dodgy adverts, but has a deal with Google and Microsoft to allow their adds through!. [[Ghostery|https://www.ghostery.com/en-GB/]] stops tracking. The add-on [[Safe Preview|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/safe-preview/?src=ss]] gives comprehensive prewarning on secondary links, if you are a ~FireFox or Chrome user.<br>''4. Passwords.'' Use a strong password constructed according to the principles in the password generator recommended elsewhere. Use a different password for each account and record them in a hard copy notebook. I do allow my browser to remember these where they are encrypted.<br>''5. Privacy.'' I minimise as much as possible the data collected by Google and other sites, declining offers to Newsletters and to share my data with others. I am growing uneasy with image Google cloud storage services such as Picassa.<br>''6. Spam & Phishing.'' I never open links in spam emails but instead hover the links to judge the audacity, reporting these by forwarding the email to Action Fraud as advised, particularly if they are personnally addressed and concern an account to which I subscribe.<br>''7. Updates.'' Don't let the shortness of this title let you underestimate its importance. It is vital to update utilities and drivers regularly and automatically. ~MalwareBytes and AV software will often monitor this. <br>''8. Java.'' Java is safe if kept updated and monitored by AV software. Many utilities need it to function fully. Uninstall any old v6 software.<br>''9. Shopping.'' Unless you have paid-for AV software, don't shop online or use online banking. I check any SSL secure site using the ~LastPass Heartbleed Test.<br>''10. Backup & Repair.'' I back up data with MS ~SyncToy periodically onto a USB external drive otherwise detached from the PC. I create Restore Points frequently especially when installing major software and have a USB Restore Disk ready for a major problem. I have yet to create a Repair Disk which would offer a less violent solution to corruption.|<br>[[Malware|http://lifehacker.com/the-difference-between-antivirus-and-anti-malware-and-1176942277]]<br><br><br><br>[[Download Malwarebytes|https://www.malwarebytes.org/mwb-download/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Passwords Generator|http://passwordsgenerator.net/]]<br><br><br>[[Privacy]]<br><br><br>[[Action Fraud|http://www.actionfraud.police.uk/report_fraud]]<br><br><br>[[Why Update|http://www.superantispyware.com/blog/2013/10/why-bother-with-software-updates/]]<br><br>[[Why Java|https://www.java.com/en/download/faq/whatis_java.xml]]<br><br><br>[[Heartbleed Test|https://lastpass.com/heartbleed/]]<br><br>[[BackUpRestore]]|
}}}
I propose this strategy as the minimum for the average user. It is open for discussion. Pedants may wish to discuss its weaknesses.
----
/***
|Name|NestedSlidersPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#NestedSlidersPlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#NestedSlidersPluginInfo|
|Version|2.4.9|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Options|##Configuration|
|Description|show content in nest-able sliding/floating panels, without creating separate tiddlers for each panel's content|
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[NestedSlidersPluginInfo]]
!!!!!Configuration
<<<
<<option chkFloatingSlidersAnimate>> allow floating sliders to animate when opening/closing
>Note: This setting can cause 'clipping' problems in some versions of InternetExplorer.
>In addition, for floating slider animation to occur you must also allow animation in general (see [[AdvancedOptions]]).
<<<
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2008.11.15 - 2.4.9 in adjustNestedSlider(), don't make adjustments if panel is marked as 'undocked' (CSS class).  In onClickNestedSlider(), SHIFT-CLICK docks panel (see [[MoveablePanelPlugin]])
|please see [[NestedSlidersPluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2005.11.03 - 1.0.0 initial public release.  Thanks to RodneyGomes, GeoffSlocock, and PaulPetterson for suggestions and experiments.
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.NestedSlidersPlugin= {major: 2, minor: 4, revision: 9, date: new Date(2008,11,15)};

// options for deferred rendering of sliders that are not initially displayed
if (config.options.chkFloatingSlidersAnimate===undefined)
	config.options.chkFloatingSlidersAnimate=false; // avoid clipping problems in IE

// default styles for 'floating' class
setStylesheet(".floatingPanel { position:absolute; z-index:10; padding:0.5em; margin:0em; \
	background-color:#eee; color:#000; border:1px solid #000; text-align:left; }","floatingPanelStylesheet");

// if removeCookie() function is not defined by TW core, define it here.
if (window.removeCookie===undefined) {
	window.removeCookie=function(name) {
		document.cookie = name+'=; expires=Thu, 01-Jan-1970 00:00:01 UTC; path=/;'; 
	}
}

config.formatters.push( {
	name: "nestedSliders",
	match: "\\n?\\+{3}",
	terminator: "\\s*\\={3}\\n?",
	lookahead: "\\n?\\+{3}(\\+)?(\\([^\\)]*\\))?(\\!*)?(\\^(?:[^\\^\\*\\@\\[\\>]*\\^)?)?(\\*)?(\\@)?(?:\\{\\{([\\w]+[\\s\\w]*)\\{)?(\\[[^\\]]*\\])?(\\[[^\\]]*\\])?(?:\\}{3})?(\\#[^:]*\\:)?(\\>)?(\\.\\.\\.)?\\s*",
	handler: function(w)
		{
			lookaheadRegExp = new RegExp(this.lookahead,"mg");
			lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
			var lookaheadMatch = lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source)
			if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart)
			{
				var defopen=lookaheadMatch[1];
				var cookiename=lookaheadMatch[2];
				var header=lookaheadMatch[3];
				var panelwidth=lookaheadMatch[4];
				var transient=lookaheadMatch[5];
				var hover=lookaheadMatch[6];
				var buttonClass=lookaheadMatch[7];
				var label=lookaheadMatch[8];
				var openlabel=lookaheadMatch[9];
				var panelID=lookaheadMatch[10];
				var blockquote=lookaheadMatch[11];
				var deferred=lookaheadMatch[12];

				// location for rendering button and panel
				var place=w.output;

				// default to closed, no cookie, no accesskey, no alternate text/tip
				var show="none"; var cookie=""; var key="";
				var closedtext=">"; var closedtip="";
				var openedtext="<"; var openedtip="";

				// extra "+", default to open
				if (defopen) show="block";

				// cookie, use saved open/closed state
				if (cookiename) {
					cookie=cookiename.trim().slice(1,-1);
					cookie="chkSlider"+cookie;
					if (config.options[cookie]==undefined)
						{ config.options[cookie] = (show=="block") }
					show=config.options[cookie]?"block":"none";
				}

				// parse label/tooltip/accesskey: [label=X|tooltip]
				if (label) {
					var parts=label.trim().slice(1,-1).split("|");
					closedtext=parts.shift();
					if (closedtext.substr(closedtext.length-2,1)=="=")	
						{ key=closedtext.substr(closedtext.length-1,1); closedtext=closedtext.slice(0,-2); }
					openedtext=closedtext;
					if (parts.length) closedtip=openedtip=parts.join("|");
					else { closedtip="show "+closedtext; openedtip="hide "+closedtext; }
				}

				// parse alternate label/tooltip: [label|tooltip]
				if (openlabel) {
					var parts=openlabel.trim().slice(1,-1).split("|");
					openedtext=parts.shift();
					if (parts.length) openedtip=parts.join("|");
					else openedtip="hide "+openedtext;
				}

				var title=show=='block'?openedtext:closedtext;
				var tooltip=show=='block'?openedtip:closedtip;

				// create the button
				if (header) { // use "Hn" header format instead of button/link
					var lvl=(header.length>5)?5:header.length;
					var btn = createTiddlyElement(createTiddlyElement(place,"h"+lvl,null,null,null),"a",null,buttonClass,title);
					btn.onclick=onClickNestedSlider;
					btn.setAttribute("href","javascript:;");
					btn.setAttribute("title",tooltip);
				}
				else
					var btn = createTiddlyButton(place,title,tooltip,onClickNestedSlider,buttonClass);
				btn.innerHTML=title; // enables use of HTML entities in label

				// set extra button attributes
				btn.setAttribute("closedtext",closedtext);
				btn.setAttribute("closedtip",closedtip);
				btn.setAttribute("openedtext",openedtext);
				btn.setAttribute("openedtip",openedtip);
				btn.sliderCookie = cookie; // save the cookiename (if any) in the button object
				btn.defOpen=defopen!=null; // save default open/closed state (boolean)
				btn.keyparam=key; // save the access key letter ("" if none)
				if (key.length) {
					btn.setAttribute("accessKey",key); // init access key
					btn.onfocus=function(){this.setAttribute("accessKey",this.keyparam);}; // **reclaim** access key on focus
				}
				btn.setAttribute("hover",hover?"true":"false");
				btn.onmouseover=function(ev) {
					// optional 'open on hover' handling
					if (this.getAttribute("hover")=="true" && this.sliderPanel.style.display=='none') {
						document.onclick.call(document,ev); // close transients
						onClickNestedSlider(ev); // open this slider
					}
					// mouseover on button aligns floater position with button
					if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(this.parentNode,this,this.sliderPanel);
				}

				// create slider panel
				var panelClass=panelwidth?"floatingPanel":"sliderPanel";
				if (panelID) panelID=panelID.slice(1,-1); // trim off delimiters
				var panel=createTiddlyElement(place,"div",panelID,panelClass,null);
				panel.button = btn; // so the slider panel know which button it belongs to
				btn.sliderPanel=panel; // so the button knows which slider panel it belongs to
				panel.defaultPanelWidth=(panelwidth && panelwidth.length>2)?panelwidth.slice(1,-1):"";
				panel.setAttribute("transient",transient=="*"?"true":"false");
				panel.style.display = show;
				panel.style.width=panel.defaultPanelWidth;
				panel.onmouseover=function(event) // mouseover on panel aligns floater position with button
					{ if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(this.parentNode,this.button,this); }

				// render slider (or defer until shown) 
				w.nextMatch = lookaheadMatch.index + lookaheadMatch[0].length;
				if ((show=="block")||!deferred) {
					// render now if panel is supposed to be shown or NOT deferred rendering
					w.subWikify(blockquote?createTiddlyElement(panel,"blockquote"):panel,this.terminator);
					// align floater position with button
					if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(place,btn,panel);
				}
				else {
					var src = w.source.substr(w.nextMatch);
					var endpos=findMatchingDelimiter(src,"+++","===");
					panel.setAttribute("raw",src.substr(0,endpos));
					panel.setAttribute("blockquote",blockquote?"true":"false");
					panel.setAttribute("rendered","false");
					w.nextMatch += endpos+3;
					if (w.source.substr(w.nextMatch,1)=="\n") w.nextMatch++;
				}
			}
		}
	}
)

function findMatchingDelimiter(src,starttext,endtext) {
	var startpos = 0;
	var endpos = src.indexOf(endtext);
	// check for nested delimiters
	while (src.substring(startpos,endpos-1).indexOf(starttext)!=-1) {
		// count number of nested 'starts'
		var startcount=0;
		var temp = src.substring(startpos,endpos-1);
		var pos=temp.indexOf(starttext);
		while (pos!=-1)  { startcount++; pos=temp.indexOf(starttext,pos+starttext.length); }
		// set up to check for additional 'starts' after adjusting endpos
		startpos=endpos+endtext.length;
		// find endpos for corresponding number of matching 'ends'
		while (startcount && endpos!=-1) {
			endpos = src.indexOf(endtext,endpos+endtext.length);
			startcount--;
		}
	}
	return (endpos==-1)?src.length:endpos;
}
//}}}
//{{{
window.onClickNestedSlider=function(e)
{
	if (!e) var e = window.event;
	var theTarget = resolveTarget(e);
	while (theTarget && theTarget.sliderPanel==undefined) theTarget=theTarget.parentNode;
	if (!theTarget) return false;
	var theSlider = theTarget.sliderPanel;
	var isOpen = theSlider.style.display!="none";

	// if SHIFT-CLICK, dock panel first (see [[MoveablePanelPlugin]])
	if (e.shiftKey && config.macros.moveablePanel) config.macros.moveablePanel.dock(theSlider,e);

	// toggle label
	theTarget.innerHTML=isOpen?theTarget.getAttribute("closedText"):theTarget.getAttribute("openedText");
	// toggle tooltip
	theTarget.setAttribute("title",isOpen?theTarget.getAttribute("closedTip"):theTarget.getAttribute("openedTip"));

	// deferred rendering (if needed)
	if (theSlider.getAttribute("rendered")=="false") {
		var place=theSlider;
		if (theSlider.getAttribute("blockquote")=="true")
			place=createTiddlyElement(place,"blockquote");
		wikify(theSlider.getAttribute("raw"),place);
		theSlider.setAttribute("rendered","true");
	}

	// show/hide the slider
	if(config.options.chkAnimate && (!hasClass(theSlider,'floatingPanel') || config.options.chkFloatingSlidersAnimate))
		anim.startAnimating(new Slider(theSlider,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,"none"));
	else
		theSlider.style.display = isOpen ? "none" : "block";

	// reset to default width (might have been changed via plugin code)
	theSlider.style.width=theSlider.defaultPanelWidth;

	// align floater panel position with target button
	if (!isOpen && window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(theSlider.parentNode,theTarget,theSlider);

	// if showing panel, set focus to first 'focus-able' element in panel
	if (theSlider.style.display!="none") {
		var ctrls=theSlider.getElementsByTagName("*");
		for (var c=0; c<ctrls.length; c++) {
			var t=ctrls[c].tagName.toLowerCase();
			if ((t=="input" && ctrls[c].type!="hidden") || t=="textarea" || t=="select")
				{ try{ ctrls[c].focus(); } catch(err){;} break; }
		}
	}
	var cookie=theTarget.sliderCookie;
	if (cookie && cookie.length) {
		config.options[cookie]=!isOpen;
		if (config.options[cookie]!=theTarget.defOpen) window.saveOptionCookie(cookie);
		else window.removeCookie(cookie); // remove cookie if slider is in default display state
	}

	// prevent SHIFT-CLICK from being processed by browser (opens blank window... yuck!)
	// prevent clicks *within* a slider button from being processed by browser
	// but allow plain click to bubble up to page background (to close transients, if any)
	if (e.shiftKey || theTarget!=resolveTarget(e))
		{ e.cancelBubble=true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation(); }
	Popup.remove(); // close open popup (if any)
	return false;
}
//}}}
//{{{
// click in document background closes transient panels 
document.nestedSliders_savedOnClick=document.onclick;
document.onclick=function(ev) { if (!ev) var ev=window.event; var target=resolveTarget(ev);

	if (document.nestedSliders_savedOnClick)
		var retval=document.nestedSliders_savedOnClick.apply(this,arguments);
	// if click was inside a popup... leave transient panels alone
	var p=target; while (p) if (hasClass(p,"popup")) break; else p=p.parentNode;
	if (p) return retval;
	// if click was inside transient panel (or something contained by a transient panel), leave it alone
	var p=target; while (p) {
		if ((hasClass(p,"floatingPanel")||hasClass(p,"sliderPanel"))&&p.getAttribute("transient")=="true") break;
		p=p.parentNode;
	}
	if (p) return retval;
	// otherwise, find and close all transient panels...
	var all=document.all?document.all:document.getElementsByTagName("DIV");
	for (var i=0; i<all.length; i++) {
		 // if it is not a transient panel, or the click was on the button that opened this panel, don't close it.
		if (all[i].getAttribute("transient")!="true" || all[i].button==target) continue;
		// otherwise, if the panel is currently visible, close it by clicking it's button
		if (all[i].style.display!="none") window.onClickNestedSlider({target:all[i].button})
		if (!hasClass(all[i],"floatingPanel")&&!hasClass(all[i],"sliderPanel")) all[i].style.display="none";
	}
	return retval;
};
//}}}
//{{{
// adjust floating panel position based on button position
if (window.adjustSliderPos==undefined) window.adjustSliderPos=function(place,btn,panel) {
	if (hasClass(panel,"floatingPanel") && !hasClass(panel,"undocked")) {
		// see [[MoveablePanelPlugin]] for use of 'undocked'
		var rightEdge=document.body.offsetWidth-1;
		var panelWidth=panel.offsetWidth;
		var left=0;
		var top=btn.offsetHeight; 
		if (place.style.position=="relative" && findPosX(btn)+panelWidth>rightEdge) {
			left-=findPosX(btn)+panelWidth-rightEdge; // shift panel relative to button
			if (findPosX(btn)+left<0) left=-findPosX(btn); // stay within left edge
		}
		if (place.style.position!="relative") {
			var left=findPosX(btn);
			var top=findPosY(btn)+btn.offsetHeight;
			var p=place; while (p && !hasClass(p,'floatingPanel')) p=p.parentNode;
			if (p) { left-=findPosX(p); top-=findPosY(p); }
			if (left+panelWidth>rightEdge) left=rightEdge-panelWidth;
			if (left<0) left=0;
		}
		panel.style.left=left+"px"; panel.style.top=top+"px";
	}
}
//}}}
//{{{
// TW2.1 and earlier:
// hijack Slider stop handler so overflow is visible after animation has completed
Slider.prototype.coreStop = Slider.prototype.stop;
Slider.prototype.stop = function()
	{ this.coreStop.apply(this,arguments); this.element.style.overflow = "visible"; }

// TW2.2+
// hijack Morpher stop handler so sliderPanel/floatingPanel overflow is visible after animation has completed
if (version.major+.1*version.minor+.01*version.revision>=2.2) {
	Morpher.prototype.coreStop = Morpher.prototype.stop;
	Morpher.prototype.stop = function() {
		this.coreStop.apply(this,arguments);
		var e=this.element;
		if (hasClass(e,"sliderPanel")||hasClass(e,"floatingPanel")) {
			// adjust panel overflow and position after animation
			e.style.overflow = "visible";
			if (window.adjustSliderPos) window.adjustSliderPos(e.parentNode,e.button,e);
		}
	};
}
//}}}
<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>
!1. What is a Network<br>
''A Network is a way of [[connecting several computers and devices|http://www.functionx.com/networking/Lesson04.htm]] so they can share information and resources. A LAN, [[local area network|http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/network.html]], is so called when the computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building) as opposed to the Internet itself, only part of which is the www, which is a network of all computers connected by broadband. Your home computers, tablets, printers, smart TV,  mobile, when connected by cable or ~WiFi to your router or each other, form a __LAN__.'' &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Dictonary of Networking Terms|http://compnetworking.about.com/od/wirelessterms/]]
!2. Making a Network
''A router, more correctly, a router-modem'', serves two purposes. The MODEM part detects and adapts the [[ADSL|Jargonselected]] signal from the broadband phone line, or 3G mobile signal, to a frequency that can be distributed by the ROUTER acting as a HUB, to other devices and computers on your ''LAN''. You should be aware of this two fold function of the router-modem when buying, because sometimes routers have no modem and a modem can be supplied without a router. A smart phone can be used as a 3G Internet modem. This is called tethering. Mobile ~ISPs often restrict the amount of data download and coverage is a problem but the cost is coming down.<br>
''Wifi'' - the ROUTER distributes, by aerial, a wireless [[digital|http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/digital]] radio signal (Wifi) [[at a frequency of|http://uk.mouser.com/applications/rf-wireless-technology/]] 2.4 ~GHz throughout the house on one of 11 channels. Alternatively the Router can be connected by an ethernet cable to individual devices. Cable connection requires no security password. Distinguish between a Wifi connection (to the router) and "Internet Access". It is possible to have the former without the latter. A problem often easily solved by rebooting the router. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See also [[WiFi Not Working]]<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Analogue vs Digital|http://www.diffen.com/difference/Analog_vs_Digital]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[All about WiFi|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/wireless-network.htm]]&nbsp; &nbsp; [[More All about your WiFi|http://www.ubeeinteractive.com/sites/default/files/Understanding%20Technology%20Options%20%20for%20Deploying%20Wi-Fi%20White%20Paper.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[And WiFi Explained|http://www.explainthatstuff.com/wirelessinternet.html]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[All about Li-Fi|http://www.sciencealert.com/li-fi-tested-in-the-real-world-for-the-first-time-is-100-times-faster-than-wi-fi]]  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Watch Your Network|http://lifehacker.com/how-to-tap-your-network-and-see-everything-that-happens-1649292940]]
When using a router which radiates a Wifi signal, your house becomes a wireless hotspot, for all in the locality to use, unless it is [[SECURE|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001289.htm]], while you remain responsible for their actions. Secure it with the preferred WPA scheme and a password. To get a measure of your Wifi signal strength and its attenuation, in [[different rooms of the house|http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/news/ofcom-launches-wifi-checker/]], install the simple free utility [[InSSider|http://inssider.en.softonic.com/]]. Even at 1 m from your router the signal will be attenuated by -30dBm. Thereafter, distance and walls add to this. If you are using the same channel as your neighbour, by logging on to your router in a browser and find "radio channel" options and select "auto" or change to a less busy channel. The browser address for your router can be found by typing "ipconfig" in the start menu RUN box and press ENTER. Look for numbers such as 192.168.1.2 next to "Default Gateway". Enter this number preceeded by http:// in the browser address bar. Router username and password is ususally ADMIN and PASSWORD, otherwise find them in your router manual or on [[www.routerpasswords.com|http://www.routerpasswords.com/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[To set up a WiFi Router|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/set-up-wireless-router#set-up-wireless-router=windows-8]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[WiFi Standards|http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/wireless80211/a/aa80211standard.htm]]<br><br>''SSID - Standard Set ~IDentifier'' - is the technical name for the name of a Network<br><br>''Broadband Speed'' - Broadband speed [[varies|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/7573/c/]] with location, distance from your exchange, the quality of landline cable and the losses within your property, including your Wifi link. Pressure on [[local authorities|http://www.newark-sherwooddc.gov.uk/broadband/superfastbroadband/]] and the ~ISPs must be maintained to improve rural broadband speeds with the help of agents such as [[SamKnows|http://www.samknows.com/broadband/broadband_availability]]. There are [[many speed testing sites|http://www.pcpro.co.uk/features/381937/the-best-broadband-speed-tests]]. (Avoid adverts!) One site which shows speeds in your neighbourhood is [[Broadband Speed Test|http://www.broadband.co.uk/broadband-speed-test/]]. After checking, select "Results in your area".<br>There are two speed measurements, both expressed as ~MBits/s (Mega Bits per second - not Bytes), Download speed and Upload Speed. Although more obscure, such qualities of signal as Latency and Package Loss, play a part in the quality of your Broadband experience. An alternative speed test site is [[Ookla|http://www.speedtest.net/]]<br>Distinguish between your ~WiFi speed and quality, your Broadband (ADSL) speed and quality, and your Internet connection.<br>
+++[To improve your ~WiFi speed you could try these options:-=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
#Rebooting your router, and test again.
#Consider losses in the telephone extension cable to the point where your router is plugged in. Test by temporally plugging the router into the main BT socket.
#Renew with better microfilters.
#Reduce the distance and number of walls between your PC and your router.
#Use ethernet connection to PC instead of Wifi, although this is untidy. [[Ethernet cable|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Duronic-Professional-Headed-Network-Cable/dp/B003CL71II/ref=sr_1_4?s=computers&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1380975364&amp;sr=1-4]]
#Consider [[further options|http://www.wikihow.com/Maximize-the-Speed-of-Your-Internet-Connection]].
===
<br>
''Sharing'' -  Sharing is the giving of permission for one device to allow another to receive selected parts of its data - images, documents, music files, etc. The method of sharing, setting up the WORKGROUP or a HOMEGROUP,  varies with the version of Windows in both the sending and the receiving device. The more recent the version, the simpler sharing is; with W8, the simplest and most automated, once a __HomeGroup__ has been set up. To explain all these variations the best way to learn is to watch this [[excellent Microsoft video|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/networking-home-computers-running-different-versions-of-windows]] which deals with a network of ~PCs with different versions of Windows including XP and Vista. HomeGroup is appropriate for both [[W7|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/9524/learning-windows-7-create-a-homegroup-join-a-new-computer-to-it/]] and [[W8|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/homegroup-help#homegroup-start-to-finish=windows-8&amp;v1h=win8tab1&amp;v2h=win7tab1]] but see the setup tutorial link appropriate to your PC's operating system. A wireless printer can be linked to the homegroup or directly to the router using the WEP or WPA password. This process of linking is ususally done from the printer controls. 
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;''Linking Devices'' - Wifi is not the only way to link computers and devices on your LAN.<br><br>1. ''Bluetooth'' - [[Bluetooth|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/about-bluetooth]] is a simple wireless system for pairing up to 7 devices with a PC for [[streaming audio.|Internet Radio]]<br>2. ''Adapters'' - a wide variety of [[Bluetooth receiver adapters|http://www.logitech.com/en-gb/product/wireless-speaker-adapter]] are available to link to the HTMI ports of ~TVs and speaker audio inputs.<br>3. Bluetooth [[can also be used|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-24835410]] to control devices. See [[Synergy]]<br><br>''Microfilters.'' I once spent £80 on a new Modem Router to solve poor quality broadband, when £4 spent on a new microfilter would have solved the problem.<br>To ensure the quality of both the telephony and the ADSL ''every piece of telephony equipment must be fitted with an ADSL microfilter'' including telephones, fax machines and even Sky boxes. This does not mean that every piece of equipment must have an ADSL Microfilter, only that every telephone socket that has telephony equipment attached to it must have an ADSL Microfilter fitted first.<br>Check for the latest but the "Billion Professional ADSL/VDSL micro filter" is compatible with the latest BT SIN 346 (revision 2.9) standard and is suitable for use with ADSL, ~ADSL2, ADS and the "~ADSLNation ~XF-1e Professional ADSL 2+ Microfilter" are two good examples.|[[Bluetooth Pairing Problems|http://www.techlicious.com/how-to/how-to-fix-bluetooth-pairing-problems/]]<br><br><br>[[Bluetooth Tutorial|https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/bluetooth-basics/all.pdf]]<br><br>[[WiFi Summary Slide|Topic Slides/Networks WiFi2.JPG]]|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Extending a Network'' - Often necessary when the router ~WiFi signal is weak<br><br>''Powerline'' - [[Powerline networking|http://www.computeractive.co.uk/ca/pc-help/1907275/network-computers-mains-power/page/2]] uses your home’s mains wiring to connect ~PCs to your network. Powerline can be limited by old wiring and circuits separated by fuseboxes.<br>''Router extender'' - Sometimes the strength of a router signal is too weak to penetrate walls to rooms upstairs or to the garden. [[An extender|http://www.broadbandbuyer.co.uk/Shop/ShopSearch.asp?CategoryID=657]], placed in another room, picks up a weak signal, amplifies it and re-radiates it for use. Some LED ~WiFi bulbs can act as extenders, e.g. [[Sengled Boost|https://eu.sengled.com/en/products/connectivity/boost/index.html]].<br><br>''Tethering.'' A smartphone can be used as a modem to provide a ~WiFi hotspot for a PC or tablet which does not have 3G support.<br><br>''~WiFi Bridge'' A wireless bridge catches your home network's ~Wi-Fi signal and provides ports where you can plug in wired devices near it, without an adapter for each.<br><br>''DNS'' - Domain Name System. When you put a website address into your browser or send an email, it is DNS that turns it into an IP (Internet Protocol) address that your providers server can understand. Your router has an external IP address so it can be recognised and each device on your LAN has its own IP address.<br><br>''~SamKnows'' - ~SamKnows is an international company with a headquarters in London. It works in cooperation with Ofcom to monitor the quality and coverage of UK Broadband. For those consumers who volunteer to help, ~SamKnows provides a free Whitebox router which sends them data about your broadband download, upload speeds and latency and in return one receives a monthly report.<br><br>The Whitebox plugs into your home router and measures fixed-line broadband performance day and night. It's really easy to install and won't interfere with your use of the Internet. You get access to all of your measurement results.|See also [[WiFi Not Working]]<br><br>[[Audio Video Ports|Topic Slides/Files13 Audio Video ports.JPG]]<br><br>[[Home Theatre|http://hometheater.about.com/od/hometheaterbasics/a/Internet-Enable_Your_Home_Theater_System.htm]]<br><br>[[For the geek.|http://tech-lightenment.blogspot.co.uk/2011/10/connecting-devices-hub-repeater-switch.html]]<br><br><br> [[Smartphone Tethering|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/how-to/mobile-phone/3441165/how-use-your-smartphone-as-wi-fi-hotspot/]]<br><br><br>[[WiFi Bridge|http://lifehacker.com/368094/wire-your-living-room-over-wi-fi-with-a-bridge]]<br><br><br>[[DNS|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/dns.htm]]<br><br>[[What is your IP Address|http://whatismyipaddress.com/]]<br><br><br>[[SamKnows|https://www.samknows.com/]]|
}}}
!3. Streaming<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Streaming''<br>The motivation for developing your LAN is to view images and videos on a smart TV, distribute music to other devices in the house from a database on the PC and to listen to Internet Radio on devices other than your PC or tablet, such as a ''good pair of speakers.'' Streaming is the flowing of data from devices without downloading and saving the files in the device but enabling its reproduction. iMediaShare is an app for streaming between PC, tablet and TV.<br>''Streaming to TV''<br>A link for streaming video with audio to a TV with an HTMI port can be made either with an HTMI cable between the HTMI ports of the PC and the TV [[or wirelessly|http://www.howtogeek.com/177145/wireless-display-standards-explained-airplay-miracast-widi-chromecast-and-dlna/]], using an adapter such as VEEBEAM, Netgear's ~Push2TV or an Apple TV Box. A Veebeam adapter is connected to the HTMI port of the TV while the transmission is via a wireless signal from the dongle transmitter in the USB port of the PC to the adapter. In the case of the Apple TV Box, it is via your LAN. The PC desktop can be displayed in real time on the TV screen or video files played on the TV while the PC is used independently. It is usually necessary to download, in addition to the Veebeam software, a full codex pack, such as ~K-Lite, to enable a wide variety of different file typed to be used. ''Windows 10'' now has many ''[[casting|http://www.tenforums.com/tutorials/28189-microsoft-edge-cast-media-device-windows-10-a.html]]'' features for streaming images and audio to a smart TV.<br><br>Apple provides the slickest video and desktop streaming to TV. The iPad and iPhone and Apple TV box have a feature called ~AirPlay built in. Windows PC users can harness this system by streaming to the Apple TV box (v2 and later) using ~AirParrot software in the PC.<br>See also ~WiDi at [[para 12 on the  SYNERGY page|Synergy]]<br>[[AllSharePlay|http://www.samsung.com/us/2012-allshare-play/]] is a similar feature available on Samsung devices. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Apps for Streaming from Android|http://www.knowyourmobile.com/android-apps/18049/best-airplay-apps-android-gettin-dream-stream]]<br><br>As ~HDTVs become smarter, these features will become standard and streaming from tablets and PC and Mac laptops with suitable apps and software will make mirroring commonplace. The direct mirroring of a PC desktop without an adapter is yet to be universally possible unless the devices are from the same manufacturer. Competition does not breed standardisation. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Wireless Display Standards|http://www.howtogeek.com/177145/wireless-display-standards-explained-airplay-miracast-widi-chromecast-and-dlna/]]<br><br>''In Summary - PC to HDTV''<br>To date, for screen mirroring of the PC Desktop to HDTV, nothing beats a wired HTMI cable link for a reliable connection with no latency. ~WiDi requires a strict match of Intel chip, Intel ~WiFi Network adapter and suitable software in Windows 8.1.  Miracast type adapters, although making a wireless link between a wider variety of devices, suffer from latency, a lag, when used for presentation by displaying the Desktop on the TV screen, as does the Apple TV Box and Veebeam. Manufacturers have much more development to do before it is worth investing.<br><br>Simply streaming photos, videos and music to TV is less problematic although somewhat unpredictable without good file organisation in the PC. A server software such as ~MultiCast, ~AirPlay, ~AllPlay or, the excellent, ''[[Serviio|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/downloads/3328519/serviio-1412/]]'' is run in the PC and once pairing with the HDTV is suitably setup, display results and can be controled by the remote.<br><br>''~WiDi with Windows 10.'' There is now available an excellent ~WiDi Adaptor using Miracast technology which plugs into the HTMI and USB ports of an HDTV. [[Check the compatibility|http://ark.intel.com/]] of your PC's Intel processor. This eliminates the need for a cable connection, instead streaming through your LAN and with minimum latency.<br><br>''The Edge browser'' now in Windows 10 simplifies the streaming of all media to HDTV with the "Cast to Media" facility available in Edge settings and by right-click on the media file. This streaming takes place directly through your LAN to any DLNA standard device.|<br>[[Skifta|http://www.skifta.com/support/faq]]<br><br>[[iMediaShare|http://support.imediashare.tv/entries/21610968-How-to-Stream-Video-and-Music-from-Windows-7-to-iPad-without-Syncing]]<br><br>[[Veebeam|http://www.veebeam.com/products/veebeam-hd/]]<br><br>[[How it works|http://www.veebeam.com/products/how-it-works/]]<br><br>[[Veebeam Review|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/networking-and-wi-fi/media-streaming-devices/veebeam-hd-929024/review]]<br><br>[[Codex Guide|http://www.codecguide.com/faq.htm]]<br><br>[[Amazon|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Veebeam-HD-Wireless-link-1080p/dp/B004D6725I]]<br><br>[[AirPlay|http://www.apple.com/uk/airplay/]]<br><br>[[AirParrot|http://www.airsquirrels.com/airparrot/in-action/]]<br><br>[[Apple TV|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Apple-MD199B-A-TV/dp/B0040GIZT8/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1388165088&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=apple+tv+3]]<br><br>[[AirPlay or WiDi|http://www.overworkeditguy.com/2012/10/apple-airplay-intel-widi-reshaping.html]]<br><br>[[Which App|http://www.tomsguide.com/us/how-to-stream-to-tv,news-18335.html]]<br><br>[[Serviio|http://serviio.org/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Screen Mirroring|http://www.dell.com/support/article/us/en/19/SLN128740/en]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[WiDi Compatibility|http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/support/emerging-technologies/intel-wireless-technologies/intel-wireless-display-intel-widi.html]]<br><br>[[WiDi Adaptor|http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B00J9C2JDG?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_detailpage_o05_s00]]|
!4. Further Ideas
<br>Below are some keywords for further search and some ideas for your network.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''The Cloud''<br>You may like to investigate "[[The Cloud|Cloud]]". Consider the utilities, processing and storage facilities together with the privacy and security issues. If you are reading this through [[DropBox|https://www.dropbox.com/tour]], you are already using the cloud. [[What is The Cloud?|http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2372163,00.asp#top-header]]<br><br>''[[A smart TV|SmartTVs]]'' is a TV which has an Internet connection, HTMI and USB ports and uses ''[[DLNA protocol|Synergy6]]'' to share with a Windows PC. It may have an Internet browser and a variety of apps.<br>Your PC has folders called, My Pictures, My Music and My Videos. From these folders multimedia utilities such as iTunes, Windows Media Player and Centre, [[the free Audials 10|http://audials.com/en/one/index.html]], Picassa, Windows Photo Gallery, etc catalogue files into an ordered database, often with favorites and playlists which make the selection and reproduction of multimedia easy and enjoyable. The files in these folders can be streamed to the TV.<br><br>''[[Internet Radio]]'' - Worldwide there are some 100,000 stations broadcasting free on the Internet. Marshalling this resource avoids illegal downloading and cost and enables legal purchase at reasonable cost if you wish. Internet Radio can be accessed either on a dedicated portable device or on PC, using your browser or other software like [[TuneIn|http://www.appup.com/app-details/tunein-radio]], iTunes or Audials 10.<br><br>''Films on Demand'' -  Besides ~YouTube and BBC iPlayer, the sources of films to hire are prolific on a pay per view or subscription basis. ~YouTube is now provided by Google and presents videos especially recommended for you based on previous history. This can be embarrassing.<br><br>''A podcast'' is a type of [[digital media|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_media]] consisting of an episodic series of [[audio radio|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_audio]], [[video|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_video]], [[PDF|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDF]], or [[ePub|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EPub]] [[files|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_file]] subscribed to and [[downloaded|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Download]] through [[web syndication|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_syndication]] or streamed online to a computer or mobile device. In other words a podcast is a downloadable media file.  [[Audible.co.uk|http://www.audible.co.uk/]] is one of many sources of audio books available to play on PC, tablet, Kindle or other player at bedtime. Once downloaded, these resources may be used offline. Kiwix enables the download of whole websites. With it, the whole 18.2GB of the [[Wikipedia site|http://www.kiwix.org/wiki/Wikipedia_in_all_languages]] can be used off line. Handy for those holidaying without Internet coverage.<br><br>''Subscribing'' - By the way, "Subscribing" doesn't necessarily mean paying a subscription. The term includes the situation where you are merely asked to identify yourself as a user. Subscribing to a provider's ~YouTube "Channel" makes a convenient way of bookmarking a collection of similar videos, perhaps tutorials that you use regularly.<br><br>''The Internet Of Things.'' "The Internet of Things (~IoT) refers to the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing-like devices within the existing Internet infrastructure." This might include your fridge, your central heating, your smartphone, your shopping and your privacy. |[[Some Cloud Providers|http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2413556,00.asp?obref=obnetwork]]<br><br>[[DLNA protocol|http://www.techradar.com/news/digital-home/home-networking/dlna-what-it-is-and-what-you-need-to-know-1079015]]<br><br>[[DLNA Product Search|http://www.dlna.org/consumer-home/look-for-dlna/product-search]]<br><br>[[Apple iTunes|http://www.apple.com/uk/itunes/download/]]<br><br>[[BBC iPlayer TV|http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/]]<br><br>[[BBC iPlayer Desktop|http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/install]]<br><br>[[Picassa|http://picasa.en.softonic.com/]]<br><br>[[BBC iPlayer Radio|http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/]]<br><br>[[Internet Radio|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_radio]]<br><br>[[Internet Radios|http://www.which.co.uk/technology/audio/guides/internet-radios-explained/what-is-an-internet-radio/]]<br><br>[[YouTube|http://www.youtube.com/]]<br><br>[[Films and Videos|http://digital.films.com/PortalFAQs.aspx]]<br><br>[[BBC Podcasts|http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts]]<br><br>[[Audio Books|http://www.audible.co.uk/]]<br><br><br>[[Smart Devices]]<br><br><br><br>[[The Internet of Things|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things]]<br><br>[["1984"|http://www.waterstones.com/waterstonesweb/products/george+orwell/nineteen+eighty-four/6227690/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Benefits|http://blogs.clicksoftware.com/clickipedia/five-expected-benefits-from-the-internet-of-things-the-impact-on-service/]]|
}}}
!!''Domestic Security''
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;There is a wealth of devices available that are designed to enhance domestic surveillance and give warning of intrusion. Many of these work in conjunction with a PC, tablet or mobile. They are therefore devices connected to a Network and usually deliver their output at a distance from the user. There is a whole industry devoted to this subject but many devices are available now for DIY installation. The Worksheet page on this topic is designed to enable you to apply your general computing knowledge to setting up a system yourself.|<br><br>[[Security Systems]]|
}}}

--------
<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;''If you are viewing the Worksheet on line'', you will have arrived here from a link on the Southwell ~U3A Web Site.<br><br>For future access please:<br>''Save this page'' as a bookmark or favorite in the usual way.<br><br>''Alternatively,'' create a shortcut on your desktop.<br>__Windows__ - On a empty spot on your desktop, from the right-click mouse menu select NEW and then SHORTCUT. Copy the page address from the address bar of your browser into the "Location" line, click NEXT and type "WORKSHEET" into the NAME line. Click OK.<br>__Mac__  - Highlight web address in Safari and drag to desktop.<br><br>''Refresh'' the page occasionally to receive updates.<br><br>You can view this site on line by clicking [[this link.|http://tinyurl.com/km3qj2u]]<br>or copying http://tinyurl.com/km3qj2u to a browser |
}}}
----
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. A [[list of 35 other things|http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/35-cool-and-fun-things-to-try-with-your-pc-669492]] ''to do with a PC.''<br>2. [[Family Research|Family Research]]<br>3. [[Design|http://psd.tutsplus.com/articles/web/50-totally-free-lessons-in-graphic-design-theory/]]<br>4. [[Control Devices|Synergy]]<br>5.[[ Audio and video|Multimedia]]<br>6. [[Communicate|http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/elearning/communicationskills/index.asp]]<br>7. [[Synchronize|http://lifehacker.com/372175/free-ways-to-synchronize-folders-between-computers]] and [[automate|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/how-to-automate-tasks-in-windows-1107254]] computer operations<br>8. [[Photography|http://bestphotolessons.com/]]<br>9. Study subjects [[other than|http://www.bbc.co.uk/learning/onlinecourses/]] Basic Computing. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Resources for Lifelong Learners|http://www.diygenius.com/100-self-education-resources-for-lifelong-learners/]]<br>10. [[Investigate Raspberry Pi|RaspberryPi]]<br>11. BuildYourOwn PC<br>12. [[Programming]]|[[Paint Shop Tutorials|http://www.pspug.org/tut/tutbasic.shtml]]<br><br>[[PhotoShop Tutorials|http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/12/29/our-15-most-popular-photo-editing-tutorials-of-2012/]]<br><br>[[Windows Utilities|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Microsoft_Windows_components]]<br><br>[[Interior Design|http://www.sweethome3d.com/index.jsp]]<br><br>[[CIA Factbook|https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/]]<br><br>[[TED Talks|http://www.ted.com/talks]]|
}}}
------
 
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The purpose of this page</strong> is to enable Mac users to interpret the concepts in the Worksheet, written for PC users, for their operation system, the Mac OS. It is not intended to <a href="http://www.macworld.co.uk/feature/apple/20-mac-things-that-are-stupidly-complex-on-pc-3612797/" target"_blank"><u>exalt and compare</u></a> the virtues of either operating system although most links <a href="http://kgov.com/top-ten-things-that-macs-cant-do-that-pcs-can" target="_blank"><u>cannot resist this practice.</u></a><br><br><strong>The Desktop</strong><center> &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/LionOSX.jpg" style="height:300px; width: 455px" /></center></html>|width:40em;<br>[[Operating Systems|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/2/print]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Apple OS X|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X]]<br><br>[[Mac PC Differences|https://www.ischool.utexas.edu/technology/tutorials/start/pctomac/differences.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Can Do With Mac|http://www.addictivetips.com/windows-tips/12-things-out-of-the-box-macs-can-do-that-pcs-cant/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Can Do With Windows|http://www.addictivetips.com/windows-tips/12-things-out-of-the-box-windows-pc-can-do-that-mac-cant/]]<br><br>[[14 Differences for beginners|http://sanziro.com/2009/07/14-differences-between-windows-and-os-x-for-mac-beginners.html]]&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Cut & Paste on Mac|http://osxdaily.com/2011/07/29/cut-and-paste-mac-os-x-lion/]]<html><img alt=""  src="Files/Equivalence.jpg" style="height:270px; width: 400px" /></center></html><br><br>[[Mac PC Desktop and Files|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/12]]<br><br>[[The Dock|https://support.apple.com/en-gb/HT201730]]|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:7em; &nbsp; &nbsp;|width:30em;__[[For Windows users interested in Mac|ForWinUsers]]__<br>ForWinUsers|__[[For Mac users using this Worksheet|ForMacUsers]]__<br>ForMacUsers|
}}} 
 
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<br><br><br>
{{center{Your ''__Username / ID / or email address__'' and your ''__password__'' make a unique ''PAIR.''<br><br>Use a different ''password'' for each account.  
}}}
!Use a Strong Password
{{invisibletable{
|width:54em;''Use a Strong Password'' - Speaking for myself, we are all too lax in the use of strong passwords!  Knowing that passwords [[can be cracked|http://www.nmrc.org/pub/faq/hackfaq/hackfaq-04.html]] using a dictionary or a list of common words and that they are not always encrypted is a guide to making them safe and strong.<br><br>There is one clear message to hear in the matter of "passwords":<br> ''Don't use an easily remembered name or dictionary word when you choose a password.''<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How to create a strong password - [[Guide|http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2008/06/the-ultimate-guide-for-creating-strong-passwords/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Passwords Generator|http://passwordsgenerator.net/]]<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How secure is your password? - [[Test1|https://www.microsoft.com/es-xl/security/pc-security/password-checker.aspx]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How secure is your password?   [[Test2|http://www.passwordmeter.com/]]<br><br>|[[Strong Passwords|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/passwords-create.aspx]]<br><br><br><br>[[Your Passwords|Files/YourPasswords.jpg]]<br><br><br><br>[[View Saved Passwords|http://www.technicalnotes.org/how-to-view-your-password-saved-in-microsoft-edge-in-windows-10/]]|
}}} 
|width:58em;<br> &nbsp; &nbsp;''An ideal password'' looks something like: ''bReZ£4xMyKaG'' which scores 100% in Test2, but is too short to score "strong" in Test1.<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp;''It is effective because'' it contains alternate upper and lower case letters, symbols, numbers, no repeats and 12 characters.<br><br>||

It is logical to assume that the enemy will not break into your house to steal your password but attack through your computer. ''Therefore the best option is to make a very STRONG password and write it down in a well organised NOTEBOOK'', rather than activating browser SAVING of your passwords or even using a Password Management Tool, like the encrypted one inbuilt into Firefox. Use a different password in each account. Make a RECORD of Account, ID and password.<br><br>[[Password Management Tools|http://mashable.com/2010/10/08/password-management-tools/]]. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[LastPass|https://lastpass.com/how-it-works/]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Change Password Frequency|http://lifehacker.com/5966214/how-often-should-i-change-my-passwords]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Creating a Password..... Contains strong language!|Files/CreatingPassword.pdf]]
!Changing a Password e.g. Email Password
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br>''What is a Username?''<br>When you first set up an email ''account'' with a provider, you will be asked for or be given a ''username'' to associate with your ''password''. The terms "Username" and "ID" mean the same and depend on the provider's useage. If, say, your email address is jack.sprat@example.com, then your username could be "jack.sprat", jacksprat or the whole email address. This is often decided for you when you first register. Examples of an ID could be the same as those for a username, but sometimes an ID is an "Account number" or just a string of random numbers and characters. In both cases, the username and the ID each, together with a password, make a ''unique pair''. For a successful sign in to the account, this pair must match the pair held against your account by the provider.<br>The record in your ''three column password book'' is thus, the ''Account'', the ''Username or ID'' and the ''password''..  <br><br>''Note''<br>1. Your ''Username/ID/email address'' and your ''password'' make a unique ''PAIR'' for each account.<br>2. The pair in your email client, used to download your emails from your Webmail page, must be the same as the pair you set in your Webmail page where you access your emails online.<br>3. ~POP3 just downloads emails to your client, while the alternative, called IMAP, synchronises your client with your Webmail.<br><br>''To change your Email password''<br>1. Generate a ''strong'' password and note it either in your password book or in the Password Manager.<br>2. Using your ''old'' password, login to your account settings in your ''Webmail page'' and find "Change Password". Follow the instructions using the ''new'' Password you have noted together with its paired ID!.<br>3. Logout and in again to test that you can access your emails.<br> Any problem, use "Forgot my password" and start again.<br>4. ''Then go to'' your account settings in your ''client'', delete the old password and enter the new. making sure the username is correct.<br>5. Click "Send & Receive", or send yourself a test email to check it works.<br><br>''Forgotten Your Windows Admin Password''<br> You will need this password to pass the lock screen on a reboot if require or if you want to inspect your encrypted passwords stored in your computer. You will need the answers to your security questions that you gave Microsoft when you set up Windows. This is why it is so important to make a secure record of your account passwords and security answers.<br><br>''Viewing Your Encrypted Passwords''<br>When you set up a new account you are offered the opportunity to ''save your password''. When you agree, the password is saved against your Username Account quite safely in an encrypted form. You can view all your saved passwords by going to CONTROL PANEL - USER ACCOUNTS - CREDENTIAL MANAGER - WEB CREDENTIALS. To ''show'' a password you will need to enter your Windows Admin Password.|<br><br>[[Username|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/u/username.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[List of Servers|http://en.kioskea.net/faq/9166-smtp-imap-and-pop-server-settings-for-major-isps#bt-internet]]<br><br><br><br>[[Your Passwords|Files/YourPasswords.jpg]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Forgot Windows Password|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2988539/windows/if-you-forget-your-windows-admin-password-try-this.html]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Is it safe|https://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/forum/windows_other-security/is-it-safe-to-store-your-passwords-on-your/a60857e7-38f3-4e55-9bbc-46d2740d8afb]]|
!What to do when a loved one dies
{{invisibletable{
|width:54em;The Law Society recommends keeping a Personal Assets Log which should include a list of all your digital assets.<br><br>This should be a list of all your account details including the email address or phone number to which the account is linked. However the Law Society warns that an executor using a password or PIN to access an account after a death may be guilty of a criminal offence under the Computer Misuse Act which was passed in 1990. This is the same as an executor not being able to access a bank account of the deceased even if they have knowledge of the password. In some cases it is against the Terms and Conditions of an account to give a password to someone else.|[[US Accounts|http://techland.time.com/2013/07/16/how-to-access-a-deceased-loved-ones-online-accounts/]]<br><br>[[Preparation|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/how-to-access-a-deceased-relatives-digital-accounts/]]<br><br>[[Berevement Advice|https://bereavementadvice.org/topics/registering-a-death-and-informing-others/digital-legacy]]<br><br>[[Digital Legacy|https://www.lawsociety.org.uk/news/press-releases/leave-a-digital-legacy-after-your-death-urges-law-society/]]|
}}}
----------
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;This page summarises the factors that affect ''Performance''. This is a positive approach to improving persormance of a computer running well, rather than looking from the Troubleshooting point of view, covered in __[[Running Slowly]]__.|
}}}
!! Knowing your computer
# Hard Drive space - In File Explorer, right click on your C:/ drive, choose ''Properties'' and view free space. Free space can be used for exta virtual memory.
# ''Task Manager'' - Use the Performance tab of this valuable tool to view the current  memory, CPU, Disk and Wifi activity. Also [[see this link|http://www.howtogeek.com/169823/beginner-geek-what-every-windows-user-needs-to-know-about-using-the-windows-task-manager/]]
# Use __''Speccy''__ - to safely analyse the full detailed specification of your PC. For example, This will show if you have free slots to increase RAM. [[Speccy|http://www.piriform.com/speccy/download]]
!!Add Physical RAM
Go to [[www.Crucial.com|http://www.crucial.com/uk/systemscanner/]] and "Download the Scanner". After running, this will show how much RAM you have, if you can upgrade and ''which pair of chips to buy.'' Installation is simple and explained.

!! Virtual Memory
To add more working memory, add virtual memory. Go to Control Pannel - SYSTEM - ADVANCED SYSTEM SETTINGS - ADVANCED tab - SETTINGS - PERFORMANCE OPTIONS ''__ADVANCED Tab__'' - Choose "Virtual Memory Change" - "Custom" and enter for minimum = 1.5 X Physical RAM GB and Maximum = 4 x Physical RAM GB - SET - OK

!! Appearance vs Performance
Pretty graphics use up resources, so by cutting back on quality of appearance, more resources are available for performance. This is only necessary if physical and virtual RAM is scarce. Go to Control Pannel - SYSTEM - ADVANCED SYSTEM SETTINGS - ADVANCED tab - SETTINGS - PERFORMANCE OPTIONS ''__VISUAL EFFECTS Tab__'' - Choose "Adjust for Best Performance" - and retick items such as those concerning Icons, Edges, Thumbnails, preview.- OK

!! Programs Running in the Background 
You can use the Startup tab in the Task Manager to control which programs automatically start with your computer. Additionally you can view and stop __your utilities running in the background__ , consuming unnecessary resources, in Task Manager. Minimising unnecessary background programs is essential for efficient running. Some Browsers, such as Google Chrome, continue to run many versions in the background even when apparently closed. ''Google Chrome browser'' is a resource hungary browser and fights Firefox and Edge for dominance. My personal advice is uninstall it.

!! Broadband Speed
Ususally your Router and your ~WiFi are running efficiently and slowness is determined by your provider, but occasionally rebooting your router may help

!! Browser Temporary Files
Cache files are created by apps to store commonly used information so it doesn’t have to be generated or downloaded again. Unless you are very short of hard drive space, deletion does not improve performance but may slow down the browser. More importantly, having too many tabs open at once, especially using ~FireFox, will consume much memory and slow response. As its name implies, the Microsoft Edge browser for Windows 10 now has the edge.

!! Defragging Hard drive
You don’t need to manually defrag your hard drive with a modern operating system; it is done automatically. Defragging a SSD can reduce its performance. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[SSD Drives|http://www.howtogeek.com/194750/its-time-why-you-need-to-upgrade-to-an-ssd-right-now/]]

!! Up-to-date Versions.
Keep Operating Systems, Windows Updates, Browsers and all support utilities up-to-date for best performance. 

!! Performance Improvement Utilities
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;You may notice I say very little about PC cleaning utilities in the Worksheet. Windows has many adequate tools, troubleshooters and self repair properties to make them unnecessary except to the compulsive meddler. Furthermore their download, from third-party sites, is frequently accompanied by adware and malware making them more a liability than a benefit. The one area that escapes automatic cleaning and gradually gathers performance degrading litter is the ''Registry''. This is also the part of your system which offers the greatest risk of careless corruption. Without backup, corretion of any mistakes would require system restore or reinstallation of Windows. Beware then particularly of ''Registry Editors and Cleaners.''<br>However, many paid-for antivirus utilities now include a useful report after doing a __"Tune Up"__ scan at the time of the routine quick scan for malware.|[[Performance Myths|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/dont-be-fooled-by-these-10-pc-performance-myths/]]<br><br><br>[[Registry Cleaners|http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-registry-cleaner.htm]]|
}}}
<br><br>
------


<br><br><br><br>
!!Introduction
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;A modern digital camera has all the qualities of a computerised device. The thrust of this page is not the art and science of photography, per se, but to illustrate the subsequent editing and enhancement of images taken by camera. It is for two types of average snapper. ''The beginner will find para 6 useful for utilities while, for more features, the improver might jump to para 7. and then both pick some of the other links according to need.''<br><br>As a guide to the beginner to progress along the path to improvement:<br>(a) After trying some para. 6 tutorials,<br>(b) Watch some [[Pixlr Tutorials|http://pixlrtutorial.blogspot.co.uk/p/tutorials-navigation.html]], then practice these skills using the [[Pixlr online software|http://pixlr.com/editor/]], <br>(c) Practise the skills listed in the column headed "Frequently used tools to master" in the table in para. 8.||
}}}
!!1. The Camera
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Photography - Camera Setup, Composing the view, Snaps.</strong><br>Most cameras are of the order of 5 to 8 MPixels producing excellent images.The value for money deminishes when exceeding this quality. However cost often influences other features. A well setup camera, <strong>care with composition and awareness of the environment often eliminates the need for later enhancement.</strong> However we are often impatient snappers and the need for correction follows.<br><br>The web is rich in photograpy advice. Here are some links which will lead you to find others.<br><br><iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jk-8aDffjQA" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> &nbsp;<iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OCVPPc4ssgo" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></html>|<br>[[Types of Camera|http://easybasicphotography.com/Types-of-cameras.html]]<br><br>[[Which to buy|http://www.techradar.com/news/photography-video-capture/cameras/what-camera-should-i-buy-your-options-explained-986593]]<br><br>[[Tablets and Phones|http://www.howtogeek.com/186261/taking-photos-with-an-ipad-or-another-tablet-ridiculous-or-smart/]]<br><br>[[Basic Digital Photography|http://www.basic-digital-photography.com/12-tips-shooting-stunning-photos/]]<br><br>[[How to|http://www.digital-photo-secrets.com/tip/]]<br><br>[[Tips and Tutorials|http://digital-photography-school.com/digital-photography-tips-for-beginners/]]<br><br>[[Photography Tips|http://www.digital-photography-tips.net/support-files/digital-photography-free-guide.pdf]]<br><br>[[Expert Tips|http://www.alexottica.it/file%20PDF/digital%20photography%20expert%20techniques.pdf]]<br><br>[[Trail Cameras|http://www.wildviewcameras.co.uk/]]|
}}}
!!2. Downloading Files from Camera
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Files.</strong> Included in the software of the camera are utilities which output ''image files'', in the format of, and with the extension:- .JPG, .TIFF and RAW, for example. So the photo you see in your computer is an image file displayed on the screen. Different image <strong>file types</strong> have different properties and awareness of this is useful if you convert file types. High quality photos, richer in detail, have more data in them and so the file size will be larger.<br><strong>Downloading files.</strong> Third party utilities to download files from your camera are unnecessary. Don't use the software provided by the camera manufacturer. <strong>Use the facilities in the operating system.</strong> Preferably use the camera memory card. Cut (or Copy) & Paste files to your well organised file system using File Explorer. Alternatively use the Import facility in Windows Photo Gallery. An Eye-Fi memory card will automatically download files when your camera is in range of your home WiFi network. If a USB cable is used to link the camera to PC, the Camera can be treated as a removable drive like a memory card. Use the "Safely Remove Hardware" facility when disconnecting.<br><br><strong>Note</strong> EyeFi have withdrawn cloud support for their now useless SD cards. New cameras can have built-in WiFi transfer facility. SD Cards for older cameras are <a href="http://lifehacker.com/the-toshiba-flashair-makes-adding-wi-fi-to-your-camera-1754703258"><strong>available from other manufacturers.</strong></a><br><br><p><a href="http://www.copyrightservice.co.uk/protect/p16_photography_copyright" title="Photography Copyright"><strong>Photography Copyright</strong></a> fact sheet from the UK Copyright Service.</p></html>|<br>[[Image Files|http://www.rideau-info.com/photos/filetypes.html]]<br><br>[[File Types|Basic Skills##Files]]<br><br>[[Downloading from Camera|http://digitalunite.com/guides/digital-photography/how-download-pictures-camera-computer]]<br><br>[[Cut & Paste]]<br><br>[[Eye-Fi Cards|http://www.trustedreviews.com/eye-fi-pro-x2-review]]<br><br>[[Removing Devices|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/safely-remove-devices-from-your-computer]]<br><br><br>[[UK Copyright FAQ|http://copyrightuser.org/topics/faqs/#17]]|
}}}
!!3. Photocopying 
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Ways to create image files from hard copy non digital photographs</strong><br>1. With a paper scanner. Some scanners have a mask to hold 35mm film. Scanning above 600 dpi is wasteful.<br>2. Buy a device designed especially for this purpose. Quite expensive.<br>3. Use a digital camera, tablet or smartphone to photograph the original. Needs a steady hand or a tripod and care with lighting.<br>4. Use a company specialising in copying photographs, home videos,etc. A local one is Alive Studios in Edwinstowe, Nottinghanshire.</html>|<br>[[PrintCopier|https://files.support.epson.com/htmldocs/pr317p/pr317prf/howto_5.htm]]<br><br>[[Dedicated Scanners|http://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/buying-guide/film-scanners]]<br><br>[[Using a Mobile|http://www.cnet.com/uk/how-to/how-to-scan-and-archive-your-old-printed-photos/]]<br><br>[[Alive Studios|http://www.alivestudios.co.uk/company]]|
}}}
!!4. Resizing and Duplicates
Resizing images and Duplicates are dealt with on other pages.  See [[Resizing|Print and Display##Screen]] &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[Duplicates]]<br>
!!5. Cataloguing Utilities<br><br>
|centered|k
| ! Utility | ! Provider | ! Display | ! Additional features and Tools | ! Comment |
|Windows File Explorer |Microsoft|Select Large Icon View in Folder Options| None |Depends on well organised file system|
|Picasa 3 |Google |Folder Panel and Image display|Preset Enhancing tools|Linked to the Cloud for storage; watch privacy|
|Windows Photo Gallery |Microsoft|Folder Panel and Image Display|Simple Enhancing Tools|Tagging & Face Recognition|
|Photos |Apple |Fast uncluttered photo gallery|Some editing features|[[Review|http://recode.net/2015/04/14/review-photos-apples-replacement-for-iphoto/]]|
|Other Utilities | [[Cataloging Utilities|http://www.techsupportalert.com/best-free-digital-photo-organizer.htm]]| [[Photo Organizers|http://mashable.com/2012/06/21/photo-organization-tools/]] | [[Photo Organizer APPS|http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/be-a-photo-album-pro-on-the-go-6-photo-organizer-apps-weekly-smartphone-app-roundup-172736]] | |
<br>
!!6. Simple Editing Utilities<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:23em;<html><iframe width="280" height="160" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/pmIghDuAwM0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe></html>|width:30em;<html><p align="justify">There is a wide variety of utilities available. Your skill will grow with practice. It is often best to stick with one utility chosen according to your budget, so you grow in familiarity with the menus for speedily finding the tools. Good computer Photo Enhancement utilities such as Adobe Photoshop Elements and Coral Paint Shop are expensive. There are many free utilities, some open source and others online, including a growing numbers of <a href="http://www.picturecorrect.com/tips/top-7-photography-apps-for-smartphones-and-tablets/" target="_blank"><u>APPs for tablet and smartphone.</u></a></html>|[[Simple Enhancer Utilities|http://thenextweb.com/creativity/2014/02/24/9-browser-based-photo-editing-tools/1/]]<br><br>[[Best Free Utilities|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/best-free-photo-editing-software-10-top-image-editors-you-should-try-1135489]]<br><br>[[Beginner Utilities|https://www.gapyear.com/articles/121125/cormac-scanlans-guide-to-photo-editing-for-beginners]]<br><br>[[Alternatives to Photoshop|http://sixrevisions.com/graphics-design/10-excellent-open-source-and-free-alternatives-to-photoshop/]]<br><br>[[Editing on Tablet|http://connect.dpreview.com/post/2717432771/tablets-photography-dslr-apps-canon-nikon-wireless-tethering]]|
}}}
|centered|k
| ! Utility | ! Features | ! What it does | ! Link | ! Download | !Tutorials |
|Irfanview |Fast image viewer with Thumbnail Cataloging|Also easy resizing, cropping| [[Irfanview|http://www.irfanview.com/]] | [[Download|http://fileforum.betanews.com/detail/IrfanView-32bit/967963863/1]] | [[Tutorial|http://eport.soundpiper.com:8080/pictutor/irfanview.html]] |
|Windows Photo Gallery|Simple editing tools|Essentially a catalogng utility with extras| [[Editing|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-live/photo-gallery-edit-photos-faq]] |[[Windows Essentials|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-GB/windows-live/photo-gallery]]| [[Tutorial|http://www.7tutorials.com/how-edit-photos-windows-live-photo-gallery]] |
|Picasa 3 |Simple editing features|Essentially a sharing cataloging utility| [[Review|http://www.tomsguide.com/us/google-picasa,review-2619.html]] | [[Download|https://picasa.google.com/]] | [[Tutorial|http://www.wikihow.com/Use-Picasa]] |
|~PhotoPlus Starter|Simple user friendly editor|Straighten, remove, repair & adjust| [[Review|http://graphicssoft.about.com/od/freesoftware/fr/serif-photoplus-se.htm]] | [[Download|http://www.serif.com/free-photo-editing-software/]] | [[Tutorials|http://www.serif.com/appresources/HLX4/Tutorials/en-us/PhotoPlus_Tutorials/photo_sectionIntro.htm]] |
|Microsoft Paint|Text, lines, shapes, airbrush fill|Simple drawing & editing| [[Review|http://www.softpedia.com/reviews/windows/Paint-NET-48912.shtml]] | [[Download|http://microsoft_paint.en.downloadastro.com/]] | [[Tutorial|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/using-paint#1TC=windows-7]] |
<br>
!!7. Enhancement - Utilities and Tutorials<br><br> 
|centered|k
| ! Utility | ! Manufacturer | ! Description | ! Price Bracket | ! Range of Facilities | ! Website| &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;| ! Tutorials |
|Pixlr Online|Crunch| Beginner |  Free |Full featured, intuitive and user friendly| [[Pixlr|https://pixlr.com/]] |~|[[WikiHow|http://www.wikihow.com/Use-the-Pixlr-Online-Image-Editor]]|
|Paint.net|Paint.net| Beginner | Free |Simple but essential features, intuitive| [[Paint.net|http://www.getpaint.net/index.html]] |~|[[Paint.net Tutorial|http://www.getpaint.net/doc/latest/MainWindow.html]]|
|Photoshop Elements|Adobe | Advanced | £80 |Full Featured| [[Photoshop|http://www.adobe.com/uk/products/photoshop-elements.html]] |~|[[Photoshop Tutorials|https://www.youtube.com/user/ifskills/search?query=Adobe+Photoshop+Elements+O%27Reilly+tutorials]]|
|Paint Shop Pro |Coral | Advanced | £60 |Full Featured| [[Paint Shop|https://store.paintshoppro.com/1184/purl-ATG_PID_HPbanner_PSPproX7?hptrack=gb2so3]] |~|[[Coral Paint Shop Guide|http://dwnld.paintshoppro.com/help/en/pdf/CorelPaintShopPro.pdf]]|
|Gimp |Open Source| Advanced | Free |Full Featured| [[Gimp|http://www.gimp.org/]] |~|[[Gimp Enhancing Tutorial|http://docs.gimp.org/en/gimp-imaging-photos.html#gimp-using-photography-retouching]]|
|Lightroom|Adobe | Expert Level | £110 |Advanced Features| [[Lightroom|http://www.pcworld.co.uk/gbuk/adobe-software-gaming-books/software/creativity/photo-video-editing/740_7685_70696_103_xx/xx-criteria.html]] |~|[[Lightroom Tutorials|http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/tag/adobe-lightroom-tutorial/]]|
<br>
!!8. Tools and Skills
<br>
The features of sophisticated utilities such as Adobe Photoshop Elements and Coral Paint Shop is extensive, overpowering to the beginner. For this reason it is often more cost effective to find a simpler photo enhancer utility. These are some of the features and tools you would expect to find in a serious Enhancement Program rather than a Simple Editing Utility. ''To find a tutorial, just copy __the skill in the table below__ into Google search followed by __name of the editor__ you are using and the word __"Tutorial"__.''<br>
|centered|k
| !Adjusting Images | !Retouching & Restoring | !Frequently used tools to master are: |
|Rotating images<br>Cropping images<br>Straightening images<br>Correcting photographic perspective<br>Making basic photo corrections automatically<br>Brightening images<br>Darkening images<br>Removing purple fringe<br>Removing digital noise<br>Removing chromatic aberrations<br>Correcting lens distortions<br>Adjusting white balance<br>Adjusting brightness, contrast, and clarity<br>Adjusting hue and saturation<br>Adding or removing noise<br>Controlling depth of field<br>Blurring images<br>Sharpening images<br>Softening images<br>Resizing image|Removing red-eye<br>Applying cosmetic changes<br>Removing scratches<br>Removing flaws and objects<br>Using Magic Fill to erase image areas<br>Erasing image areas<br>Cutting out image areas<br>Retouching image areas by using brushes<br>Recoloring image areas for a realistic effect<br>Replacing colors, gradients, or patterns<br>Filling areas with colors, gradients, or patterns<br>Flipping and mirroring images<br>Adding borders<br>Scaling photos by using Smart Carver<br>Scaling and transforming photos using the Pick tool<br>Resizing the canvas<br><br><br><br><br>|''Cropping images<br>Brightening images<br>Darkening images<br>Adjusting brightness, contrast, and clarity<br>Adjust gamma using histogram<br>Adjusting hue and saturation<br>Controlling depth of field<br>Sharpening images<br>Resizing images<br>Removing red-eye<br>Using Magic Fill to erase image areas<br>Retouching image areas by using brushes''<br><br>''[[Using Layers|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq4X-nheZIE]]'' <br><br>''[[Working with Selections|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LRi6y_hHPsk]]''<br><br>''[[Understanding Gamma Correction|http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/gamma-correction.htm]]''<br><br>''[[Adjusting brightness, colour, clarity, etc|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_4EWqrLhwtQ]]''|
<br>
''Some ideas'' - ''[[Tower Bridge|http://caughtinpixels.com/stars-above-the-london-tower-bridge/]]'' &nbsp; &nbsp; ''[[The Sky|http://www.photoshopessentials.com/photo-editing/photoshop-sky/]]'' &nbsp; &nbsp; ''[[The Eyes|http://www.slrlounge.com/how-to-retouch-and-enhance-the-eyes-professional-portrait-retouch-series-part-vii/]]'' &nbsp; &nbsp; ''[[More Sky|http://www.insidegraphics.com/retouching/photoshop_filter_saturation.asp]]'' &nbsp; &nbsp; ''[[New from Old|http://www.atulperx.com/photoshop/photoshop-photo-effects-tutorials-10-tutorials-for-making-pictures-better-with-photoshop/]]''
!!9. Viewing images on screen and Printing images
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Viewing Images on Screen.</strong><br>The Windows Operating System makes viewing images on screen very simple and intuitive either with File Explorer, Windows Photo Viewer or a fast viewer such as Irfanview.<br><strong>Thumbnails.</strong><br>Thumbnails are small image files often used on the web and have a distinctive file name starting with "tn_", are as little as 5Kbytes in size and are created by a dedicated utility.<br><strong>Printing Images.</strong><br>Printing Images on paper is more exacting. An enhanced picture which appears splendid on screen can print out as rubbish. Knowing about file types, about resolution, paper quality and inks is needed for successful reproduction.<br><strong>Exif and GPS data.</strong><br>Exif data, GPS data and details of the camera used are revealed by Irfanview. See <strong>Exif link.</strong></html>|<br>[[Printing Images|http://www.triangleparkcreative.com/tips/design/images]]<br><br>[[Printing File size|http://www.urban75.org/photos/print.html]]<br><br>[[Printing File Types|http://graphicssoft.about.com/od/graphicformats/f/summary.htm]]<br><br>[[Thumbnails|http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/thumbnail]]<br><br><br><br>[[Exif| What is EXif]]|
}}}
!!10. Saving Enhanced Images
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">1. Don't save over the original - you might want to improve it later.<br>2. Save to a well organised folder system.<br>3. Use a personal code in the file name to remind yourself of the enhancement used. For example "myimageCrShCl.jpg" means it has been cropped, sharpened and clarified.<br>4. Delete second rate enhanced images before you forget, to avoid a massive accumulation of almost duplicates.</html>|<br>[[Saving a File]]|
}}}
----
<<plugins>>
<br><br>
!''Difference between receiving with POP and IMAP.''
<br>The main [[difference between IMAP and POP|https://ttb.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/661/~/what-is-the-difference-between-pop3-and-imap%3F]] is that IMAP (Internet Messaged Access Protocol) always syncs with the, for example, BT mail server or the TalkTalk server, so that any changes you make in ''your email program will also appear in your webmail Inbox.'', and in your tablet and mobile email using the same server.
So if you're going to regularly use webmail and an email client, [[BT recommend using IMAP, particularly if you travel a lot.|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/44934/c/346,6588,6591]]<br>With POP (Post Office Protocol), your email client account and mail server are not synced. This means that whatever changes you make to your email account in your email program will not be transferred to ''your webmail Inbox.'' So, if you are using IMAP and mark a mail as "read", it also gets marked as read in your webmail Inbox. This won't happen with POP, because in this case, emails are downloaded to your computer or device and any changes you make on your device won't be reflected on the mail server. There are many alternative settings in POP and IMAP which vary between providers and [[which complicate the difference|http://whatismyipaddress.com/imap]] in behaviour of the two systems. Understanding rests with the concepts of "downloading" and "syncing".

----
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Have you discovered MS Powerpoint yet?</strong> If you have, it's great fun isn't it? You can churn out tens of slides an hour full of text that explains your message, add pretty pictures and animations and if you really want a challenge, add sound and videos. You pop it on a memory stick and trot confidently to the rostrum without any need for rehearsal.<br><br><strong>And that summarises the downside of Powerpoint.</strong> It too easily becomes a replacement for the presenter, not a reinforcement. Instead of a visual aid for the speaker, the speaker becomes an audio aid for the slides. This strips the presentation of some of it’s most essential purpose. You are the teacher, the motivator. Not the publisher. Not the textbook. You make careful choices of what to use and what to avoid.  <br><br>Nevertheles we are saddled with the well known truth that <strong>a picture is worth a thousand words.</strong> Powerpoint can be used as a tool and not a master, but the temptation for presenter competition and inflexibility are always there. It does not lend itself to spontaneous discussions. It does not handle text well. If you limit text to three lines, each with six words to keep the text size up, you have to move through a lot of slides. The rapid movement does nothing to aid the presentation. Instead it detracts from the message.<br><br>It is not the only solution, but <strong>TELESTRATOR</strong> does constrain the Powerpoint enthusiast, provide flexibility and has some comprehensive features. <strong>Telestrator</strong> might be a better tool than PowerPoint if you are giving a presentation. A page of notes, images and videos can be flexibly acessed easily from a folder during the presentation. Additionally the presenter can write on the screen with a finger or stylus, adding arrows, circles, all of which can be instantly cleared. Videos can be paused and scrolled in small increments to identify a particular still. Telestrator plays well constructed minimal <strong>PP slides of text</strong>, still picture images and videos. <strong>These clearly named files</strong> can be stored in sequence in a folder and easily accessed, flexibly if necessary, during the presentation. There is a paid-for version of Telestrator called Point-HD Trainer available with educational discount, which is very feature rich but expensive. <br><br><strong>Your Presentation Folder</strong> might contain these types of files. Notice downloaded videos are bulky and with an Internet connection it is far better to stream from the source web site. Slides and images should be named to show sequence and content for easy selection in a flexible presentation. A list of video addresses can be held in any utility capable of storing hyperlink URL addresses, such as WordPad, EverNote, Wiki page, etc.<br><br><center> <img src="Files/Telestrator Folder Snip.jpg" alt="Folder Snip" height="190" width="650"></center></html>|width:15em;<br>[[Pros & Cons of PP|http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/powerpoint.htm]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Powerpoint Overview|https://www.boundless.com/communications/textbooks/boundless-communications-textbook/preparing-and-using-visual-aids-16/using-powerpoint-and-alternatives-successfully-85/an-overview-of-powerpoint-324-8392/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Communication|http://aventalearning.com/content168staging/2007LifeSkills/unit5/html/section_2_page_1.html]] <br><br>[[Giving a Talk|http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jrs/speaking.html]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Telestrator]]<br><br>[[Save PP Slide as image|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-EC7fMNHPns]]<br><br>[[Other Tools|http://www.iadcmeetings.mobi/assets/1/7/17.2_-_Bloomberg_-_The_iPad_Is_A_Dynamic_Visual_Aid.pdf]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[List of Videos|YouTube Video List]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Point-HD Demo|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzFvfKb2050&html5=1]]|
}}}
----
<br><br><br>
In this section, making a PDF file is considered along with the PROCESS OF PRINTING documents and the process of printing what is DISPLAYED on screen. [[PrintScreen]]<br>The connections and contrasts between these three will become apparent as you read on.
!Print
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>1. Printers</strong> It is a general rule that ink cartridges can cost more in three months than a cheap printer.<br><br><strong>2. Setting up a printer</strong>  - The best advice is to follow the "Quick Start Guide" provided with most printers. Personally I avoid installing the software provided because this is often invasive, is inferior to most bespoke utilities and often discourages or  prohibits the use of recycled ink cartridges. The SCANNING software can be downloaded either from the manufacturer's site or from the CD provided.<br><br>Install a printer while connected to the Internet. Windows has a built in "plug and play" feature and will install it with the necessary DRIVERS automatically. Alternatively, by ADDING your new printer as a new device in "<a href="https://kb.wisc.edu/cae/page.php?id=14453" target="_blank">Devices and Printers</a>" found in CONTROL PANEL, and you are connected to the Internet, the necessary DRIVERS will be downloaded automatically. Once installed your printer will appear in the DROP DOWN MENU, along with any other printing devices, in the window that appears when you select PRINT in all programs.<br><br><strong>''Wi-Fi'' Printers</strong> are now common and this benefit which avoids trailing a USB cable adds little cost. The network connection is made through the "Settings" menu of the printer and thereafter drivers are automatically installed, maybe with the assistance of the installation disk provided.<br><br><strong>Properties</strong> - Double click on the icon of your printer in <a href="http://www.techtalkz.com/windows-7/516042-devices-printers-windows-7-a.html" target="_blank">DEVICES AND PRINTERS</a> and you have access to check ink levels, document queue, printing preferences, etc<br><br><strong>3. The Print Process</strong> - "Printing in Windows for Dummie" provides a comprehensive collection of tutorials on many issues of printing.<br><strong>Preview -</strong> Sometimes it is useful to use <a href="http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/choosing-print-options" target="_blank">print preview </a> when you first want to see what will be printed, print part of a document or part of a page, either as hard copy or PDF.<br><br><strong>4. Paper and Ink</strong><br>If you make full use of PDF files, your paper and ink cost will be minimal. Savings in ink use can be made using "grayscale", "black only", "draft", choosing a font size to accommodate on fewer pages, using "Print Preview" to see what will be printed and using recyclable cartridges.</html>|<br>[[Expert Reviews|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/inkjet-printers]]<br><br>[[Setup wired|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/install-printer#install-printer=windows-8]]<br><br>[[WiFi Printer|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/install-a-printer-on-a-home-network]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[3D Printing|http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/10/test/solid-results]]<br><br>[[Braille|http://business.anglia.ac.uk/page.php/Braille-and-tactile-graphics-71/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Tutorials|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-print-documents-in-windows-7.html]]<br><br>[[Print Envelopes|http://www.wikihow.com/Print-on-an-Envelope-Using-Microsoft-Word]]<br><br>[[Print Labels|http://www.wikihow.com/Create-Labels-in-Microsoft-Word#Microsoft_Word_2007_PC]]<br><br><br>[[Ink Best Buy|http://www.money.co.uk/article/1003652-how-to-get-the-cheapest-printer-ink-cartridges.htm]]|
}}}
!PDF
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>5. PDF files</strong> - PDF stands for PORTABLE DOCUMENT  FILE.  This file type is smaller in terms of KBytes than a document file and so is suited as an email attachment. It has the qualities of a graphic rather than a text file. It is difficult to edit and so is more secure than an MS Word document or image file. PDF files are read in the Adobe Reader utility or in a browser if set with the correct file association. Foxit Reader is a good alternative to Adobe.<br><br><strong>6. Making PDF files</strong> - CutePDF is one of a number of a free utilities which will PRINT a PDF file. When installed it appears in the <a href="Files/PrintDropDownMenu.jpg" target="_blank">drop-down menu </a> of the PRINT command. Creating a PDF file which preserves live hyperlinks requires a more expensive utility. If you have MS Office, a convenient alternative is to create a POWER POINT slide and print it as a PDF file. The PDF resulting will have useable hyperlinks. An MS Word document can be saved as PDF, as can a SCANNED page, but the latter will be void of hyperlinks.<br><br><strong>7. Properties of PDF Files</strong> PDF files take up little KByte space.They cannot easily be edited but sections can be highlighted and copied as an image.<br>"Editing" PDF files requires conversion to text or Word doc and leaves a record.<br>Some PDF files support live hyperlinks. Reader utilities index the pages enabling easy GO TO PAGE viewing.<br>They are searchable using Ctrl + F or Adobe's own search tool.<br>They are a convenient means of recording purchase receipts, copying web pages, reading extensive reference manuals and snapshoting bank statements, etc.<br>The paid-for Pro version of Adobe Reader has many additional features.<br><br><strong>   Hyperlinks in PDF files </strong>Hyperlinks can be retained when making PDF files by:<br>- Using "Save as - PDF" in MS PowerPoint 2010<br>- Using "Save as - PDF" in MS Word 2010<br>- Using the Easy PDF Creator<br>- Using a utility such as NovaPDF which installs into the PRINT MENU.<br>- Using the expensive Pro version of Adobe Reader.<br>- Install a browser add-on to print from webpages.<br><br>This feature is usually charged for and is found only in the Pro versions of these "free" utilities.<br><br><strong>8. Reading PDF files.</strong> PDF files can be read in Adobe Reader, or <strong>Foxit Reader</strong> or other third party readers, in a browser or in a <strong>FlipPDF Reader.</strong> By setting the Default, the preferred reader is chosen automatically.<br>Adobe Reader has the disadvantage of being expensive if you require extra facilities and also pesters with repeated security updates as it is frequently targeted. Foxit Reader is free with many facilities and offers more viewing options. However the most recent free edition of Adobe Reader (2015) is much improved.<br>Read Newsline online as a booklet in a Flip Reader. Download the attachment to a known folder and then import the file into Flip Reader.<br>The Microsoft App called <a href="http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-8/reader-app-faq" target="_blank"><strong><u>Reader</u></strong></a> is an excellent alternative PDF Reader. It can be downloaded free from the Microsoft Store. Reader offers one page, two page brochure and continuous view with zoom, search, copy and live links.</html>|<br>[[Why Use PDF|http://www.investintech.com/resources/articles/pdfadvantages/]]<br><br>[[Foxit Reader|https://www.foxitsoftware.com/products/pdf-reader/]]<br><br><br>[[CutePDF|http://www.cutepdf.com/products/cutepdf/writer.asp]]<br><br>[[Some PDF Tools|http://www.glorylogic.com/pdf-shaper.html]]<br><br><br>[[About Adobe PDF|http://www.adobe.com/uk/products/acrobat/adobepdf.html]]<br><br>[[PDF Properties|http://www.legalscans.com/whypdf.html]]<br><br>[[Adobe Pro Version|http://www.adobe.com/uk/products/acrobatpro.html]]<br><br>[[Editing PDF files|http://www.wikihow.com/Edit-a-PDF-File]]<br><br>[[Jump to Page|http://acrobatusers.com/tutorials/can-i-hyperlink-specific-page-pdf-file]]<br><br>[[Word Conversion|http://www.utd.uscourts.gov/judges/Hyperlinks_Conversion.htm]]<br><br>[[NovaPDF|http://www.novapdf.com/novapdf-standard-desktop.html]]<br><br>[[Easy PDF Creator|http://www.pdfdesk.com/winpdf.html]]<br><br>[[FireFox Addon|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/print-edit/]]<br><br>[[Default]]<br><br>[[Foxit Reader|https://www.foxitsoftware.com/products/pdf-reader/]]<br><br><br>[[FlipPDF Reader|http://www.flippdf.com/pdf-page-flip-reader/]]|
}}}  
!Screen
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>9. The Computer Screen''</strong><br>Your screen displays a FOLDER called "THE DESKTOP" containing files as ICONS. These icons are shortcuts to utilities. They can be resized by selecting  "View" from the context menu.<br><br><strong>10. Print Screen</strong> - Pressing the "Prt Sc" key on your keyboard, places an image of the full screen in the <strong>Clipboard</strong>. This image can be cropped when PASTED into Irfanview editor. To CROP an image in Irfanview, draw the required rectangle with the mouse pointer and select "Crop Selection" from the EDIT menu.<br><strong>Snipping Tool</strong> - This very useful tool can be found in PROGRAMS - WINDOWS ACCESSORIES and pinned to the Taskbar. It will take a rectangular or free-form section of the screen or chosen window and place the image in the Clipboard.<br>Also in Windows 10, <strong>Record Screen as a Video</strong> can be enabled with WinKey + G.<br><br><strong>11. Resizing Images</strong><br>Learn the difference between <a href="Topic%20Slides/Change%20Image%20Size.jpg" target="_blank"><strong>Zoom, Crop and Resize.</strong></a><br>The image editor and viewer <strong>Irfanview</strong> offers the easiest <a href="Topic%20Slides/ChangeImageSize2.JPG" target="_blank">resizing tool</a> in its IMAGE menu.<br> Choosing "half size" will reduce the Kbyte size significantly without loss of quality. Save as a file with a new distinguishable name if you wish to retain the original. Repeat if necessary.<br>What appears on the screen will not necessarily be printed faithfully on paper. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_theory" target="_blank">	Colorimetry</a> is a complex science. Importantly, an image resized to a lite file size which appears acceptible on screen, no longer has the resolution to print satisfactorily on paper. Your email attachment may disappoint. Use the Cloud, such as Dropbox, to share.<br><br><strong>12. Cleaning the Screen</strong> It is always advisable to check the manufacturer's cleaning recommendations. Laptop and tablet touch screens are often glass covered with conductive film while TV screens are often a delicate plastic. With that said, your materials are: filtered or distilled water, a clean lint free or micro-fibre cloth and 50% isopropyl alcohol. You will notice the list does not include tap water, vinegar and handkerchief. Other points to consider are: switch the device off, have the light behind you, lightly remove superficial dust first, don't rub hard, use scratchy paper or spray directly onto the screen (electrical connections are often at the bottom of the screen) and avoid fingernail contact with the surface.<br><br>Isopropyl alcohol need be used only infrequently to remove the worst oily pollution. Gently stroking with a clean water damp lint free 30cm cloth is the best and safest cleaning technique for both TV or Computer screens.</html>|<br><br>[[Desktop Shortcuts|http://howto.cnet.com/8301-11310_39-10453719-285/make-your-desktop-shortcuts-work-for-you-not-against-you/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Print Screen|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/take-screen-capture-print-screen#take-screen-capture-print-screen=windows-8]]<br><br>[[Snipping Tool|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/use-snipping-tool-to-capture-screen-shots]]<br><br><br>See also<br> [[PhotoEnhancement]]<br><br>[[Resizing|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000998.htm]]<br><br>[[Paint|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/resize-a-picture-using-paint]]<br><br>[[Resizing|http://www.scantips.com/lights/resize.html]]<br><br>[[Resizing|https://www.inkling.com/read/photoshop-cs6-missing-manual-lesa-snider-1st/chapter-6/resizing-images]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Cleaning tips|http://www.intelfreepress.com/news/4-top-touchscreen-cleaning-tips/6782/]]|
}}}

----
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Print Screen</strong> - Pressing the "Prt Sc" key on your keyboard, places an image of the full screen in the <strong>Clipboard</strong>. This image can be cropped in <strong>Irfanview image editor</strong>. To CROP an image in Irfanview, draw the required rectangle with the mouse pointer and select "Crop Selection" from the EDIT menu.<br><br><strong>Snipping Tool</strong> - This very useful tool can be found in PROGRAMS - WINDOWS ACCESSORIES and pinned to the Taskbar. It will take a rectangular or free-form section of the screen or chosen window and place the image in the Clipboard ready for saving.<br><br>These tools provide a convenient way of sending by email an image of an "Error Message" or sharing a snip of a website page.</html>|<br><br><br><br><br>[[Snipping Tool|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/use-snipping-tool-capture-screen-shots#1TC=windows-8]]|
}}}
!Print Screen
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;There are four ways to take an image of the Windows screen using different key combinations:-<br><br>''1. Prt SC key only'' takes a copy of the screen which is stored in the CLIPBOARD memory. To save this image, open, say Irfanview, and in the Edit menu select PASTE and then save the image with a suitable name to a folder or to the Desktop.<br>''2. Alt +  Prt Scr''  captures to the clipboard a copy of only the active window in focus at the time.<br>''3. Win + Prt Sc'' saves an image of the full screen to the folder ''My PC/Pictures/Screenshots.'' This feature is available in Windows 8<br>''4. Ctrl + Prt Sc'' See below.<br><br>With a tablet and some PC keyboards, the Fn key may have to be used in combination with the above,|[[Print Screen Windows 8|http://winaero.com/blog/how-to-take-a-screenshot-in-windows-8-1-three-ways-without-using-third-party-tools/]]|
}}}
!Snipping Tool
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''To find the Snipping Tool.''  Go to - START - SEARCH <Snipping Tool>, then right click - PIN TO TASK BAR for future use.<br><br>The Snipping Tool is a valuable and versatile utility. For help with use, study the links and watch the video. A simple rectangular snip can be made by default by dragging the mouse pointer over the desired section. Investigate other features such as free shapes available in "New" and "Options"<br><br>When attempting to capture an image of a menu, it often disappears when the snipping tool is clicked. Using ''Ctrl + Prt Sc'' captures an image of an opened menu on the screen.|[[Snipping Tool|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/use-snipping-tool-capture-screen-shots#1TC=windows-8]]<br><br>[[Snipping Tool Video|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PUGbyXb8XQ]]<br><br>[[Snipping Tool|http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/tutorials/how-to-use-the-windows-snipping-tool/]]<br><br><br>[[Menus|http://blogs.technet.com/b/migreene/archive/2007/05/12/how-to-use-the-snipping-tool-to-capture-context-menus.aspx]]|
}}}
!Annotating Images
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;One feature when capturing an image with Prt Sc or the Snipping tool is the omission of the mouse pointer. ''Microsoft Paint'' (free with Windows) provides a wide variety of shapes, arrows and tools to enhance and illustrate images. The Snipping Tool has, in its TOOLS MENU, a selection of pens, highlighters and an eraser. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[PhotoEnhancement]]|[[Using Paint|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/using-paint#1TC=windows-7]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Image Editors|http://mashable.com/2013/07/22/free-image-editors/]]<br><br>[[Using Irfanview|http://www.sticksite.com/irfanview/]]|
}}}
------
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;See paras. 8 and 10 on the [[Email|Email]] page of the Worksheet.|[[Email Page|Email]]|
}}}
-----

<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''Below is a collection of topics from other pages concerning personnal privacy. The cynic might say there is a fine dividing line between malware, spyware, Google search and gMail. Ultimately it comes down to the TRUST you place on what your private data is used for by those to whom YOU GIVE IT.''<br><br>Transparency is fine, if you've nothing to hide, but this TED talk raises some interesting issues - [["Why Privacy Matters"|http://www.ted.com/talks/glenn_greenwald_why_privacy_matters?language=en]]|[[gMail Privacy|http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/2340003/google-admits-its-reading-your-emails-because-advertising]]<br><br>[[Right to be Forgotten|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28640218]]|
}}}
!11. Personal Profile &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - from [[Search]] page.
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">What information is collected?  How not to be <a href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/06/how-turn-do-not-track-your-browser" target="_blank">TRACKED</a>.<br><strong>1. IP Address</strong>: Your personal computer IP address can be traced back to you identifying not only your ISP but also <a href="http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Does_an_IP_address_tell_you_where_a_computer_is?#slide=1" target="_blank"><u>your approximate location.</u></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="http://theconversation.com/explainer-what-is-geoblocking-13057" target="_blank"><strong>Geo Blocking</strong></a><br><strong>2. Date & Time: </strong> The exact date and time you were searching for a certain keyword will be logged. The name of the browser you use is normally also stored in search engine logs.<br><strong>3. Query Terms: </strong> The terms and keywords you searched with will be stored.<br><strong>4. Cookie ID: </strong>A unique code is embedded into the cookie and assigned to a particular computer by the search engine. It allows a search engine to learn if requests came from a particular computer while that identifiable cookie is still stored in your browser.<br><br>Using the last two items, the search engine provider can target adverts most likely to appeal to your interests. <a href="https://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs18-cyb.htm" target="_blank">	Don't let this put you off surfing!</a>&nbsp; &nbsp:&nbsp; &nbsp:<a href="http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/08/19/google_says_it_bypasses_british_law/" target="_blank">Or this</a><br>To stop Google using your profile picture and name in adverts, go to <a href="http://www.snipca.com/10351">www.snipca.com/10351</a> and <strong>untick</strong> the box against "Based on my activity, Google may....." &nbsp; &nbsp; See also para 9 "Blocking Ads" on ''Browsers'' page.</html>[[Five alternative Search Engines to Google|http://www.howtogeek.com/113513/5-alternative-search-engines-that-respect-your-privacy/]]<br> If you are concerned about privacy...... &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Consider "Startpage"|https://www.startpage.com/]] or just [[Google Disconnect|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/gdc/]]|<br>[[Ghostery|https://www.ghostery.com/en-GB/]]<br><br>[[What is my IP Address|http://whatismyipaddress.com/]]<br><br>[[What are cookies|http://www.whatarecookies.com/]]<br><br>[[How to Remove|http://www.lab99.com/how-to-remove-advertisements-from-websites]]<br><br>[[Google|https://support.google.com/ads/answer/2662850?hl=en-GB]]<br><br>[[Managing Cookies|http://help.ft.com/tools-services/how-to-manage-cookies/#axzz2eDUxod2k]]<br><br>[[ICO Advice|http://www.ico.org.uk/for_the_public/topic_specific_guides/online/cookies]]<br><br>[[EU Cookie Law|http://www.cookielaw.org/]]|
}}}   
!12. Privacy &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - from [[Browsers]] page.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Cookies'' - New laws have addressed concerns about privacy and personnal data. The default setting you will find in ~TOOLS-OPTIONS-PRIVACY is sufficient.<br><br>''History'' - Google has already noted your search keywords, so the history of your surfing is merely there for your convenience. You can however stop advert tracking.<br><br>''~InPrivate browsing'' - this option in a dedicated browser merely avoids history being saved on your computer. It does not eliminate Google keyword collection.<br><br>''The seriously paranoid surfer'' might consider browsing with the ''Epic Browser''. This browser ensures, by default, that everything you do remains private by blocking all trackers, third-party cookies and ads, redirecting your searches through a proxy server using an encrypted connection when you visit a website and automatically clears all browsing history data at the end of the session. However this is temporarily written to your hard drive and it could be argued by the pedantic that if there is something worse than no security it is false security, believing you are safe when you are not, because it wouldn’t be difficult for a nosy person to uncover this again using any cheap undelete software. - See more [[in this article.|http://www.privacydusk.com/windows-privacy/epic-privacy-browser-review-shows-data-leaks/]]<br><br>''View Permissions you have granted''. When you install a mobile app or PC utility you give permission for the software to access your data. Using Google Maps would be usless without giving access to your location, but some features may go beyond the intrusion necessary to make them work poperly. Be aware of the permissions you have granted.<br>''~FireFox'' - Type "about:permissions" into the address bar and press Enter.<br>''Chrome'' - All or nothing. Go to SETTINGS - EXTENSIONS and see the PERMISSIONS tab.<br>''Internet Explorer'' - [[Manage Cookies|http://gbradhopkins.com/pc/tutorial/view-and-delete-cookies-in-internet-explorer]] in Internet Options<br>''Android'' - Go to SETTINGS - APPS - App Info<br>''Apple iOS'' - No control <br>''Google Account'' - Go to [[Google Permissions Page|https://security.google.com/settings/security/permissions?pli=1]] where you can revoke permissions.<br>''Microsoft Account'' - Go to [[Microsoft Account Permissions|https://account.live.com/Permissions]]<br><br>''~MyPermissiions Cleaner'' is a utility which will scan all your major services looking for all services that can access your information. It is worth installing only if you make excessive use of social media and have been careless with installations.<br><br>''Royal Mail'' is introducing a practice of sending unsolicitated hardcopy junk mail to addresses gleaned from data found in online accounts. You may be giving permission for this by default or as a condition of use, when you agree to the account giving (selling) your data to third parties or "partners".<br><br>''If you suspect'' your email address has been compromised and your password stolen, use the trusted, reputable and secure site called "Haveibeenpwned?" to check. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; See also [[Passwords]]|[[About Cookies|http://www.aboutcookies.org/default.aspx]]<br><br>[[Deleting Cookies|http://www.pcworld.com/article/242939/how_to_delete_cookies.html]]<br><br>[[Webwise|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/about-cookies]]<br><br>[[Google Tracking|http://howto.cnet.com/8301-11310_39-57368016-285/how-to-prevent-google-from-tracking-you/]]<br><br>[[Cookie Profiling|http://www.allaboutcookies.org/cookies/cookie-profiling.html]]<br><br><br><br>[[Epic Review|http://uk.pcmag.com/epic-privacy-browser/178/review/epic-privacy-browser]]<br><br>[[Epic Download|https://www.epicbrowser.com/]]<br><br>[[Privacy Myths|http://lifehacker.com/five-computer-security-myths-debunked-by-experts-1602290081]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[gMail Privacy|http://lifehacker.com/how-to-limit-gmails-personalized-ads-1564245951]]<br><br><br>[[MyPermissions Cleaner|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/downloads/3329320/mypermissions-cleaner-for-internet-explorer-051/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Have I Been Pwned?|https://haveibeenpwned.com/]]|
}}} 
+++[<strong>&nbsp; What does Google know about you?</strong>, click here. =I|click for information or press Alt-I]
<br>
These links will provide the answer:<br>
https://www.google.com/ads/preferences/ - The adverts you prefer to watch
https://maps.google.com/locationhistory - Where you've been
https://history.google.com - Your search history
https://security.google.com/settings/security/activity - The devices you've used
https://security.google.com/settings/security/permissions - The Apps that use your info
https://www.google.com/takeout - Export your data
===
<br>
+++[<strong>&nbsp; If you suspect unusual Internet activity</strong> when your computer is idle , click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br>''Unusual Internet Activity''<br><br>If you suspect your Internet is running slowly or that there is internet activity when your computer is idle, the cause could be:<br>1. Normal routine update of programs, Apps, drivers, news streams, cloud systems and web pages.<br>For these you will have at some time cautiously given permission to connect to the Internet.<br>2. Malicious code feeding back data from webcam, key-logging utilities and rootkit remote control.<br>Assuming your AV software has not intercepted malware, run the ~MalwareBytes utility which you always have ready installed in your PC.<br><br>''Malware Symptoms''<br><br>While these types of malware differ greatly in how they spread and infect computers, they all can produce similar symptoms. Computers that are infected with malware can exhibit any of the following symptoms:<br>Increased CPU usage<br>Slow computer or web browser speeds<br>Problems connecting to networks<br>Freezing or crashing<br>Modified or deleted files<br>Appearance of strange files, programs, or desktop icons<br>Programs running, turning off, or reconfiguring themselves <br>(malware will often reconfigure or turn off antivirus and firewall programs)<br>Strange computer behaviour<br>Emails/messages being sent automatically and without user’s knowledge (a friend receives a strange email from you that you did not send) <br><br>''Internet activity can be monitored by:''<br><br>1. Viewing the ~TaskManager, Performance tab choosing "Internet" or "Ethernet",<br>2. Downloading and using the safe real-time Internet monitoring utility Glassware, <br>3. Recording a period of activity with the Windows "netstat command"and analysing it with tools in "~SysInternal Tools".  See link.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[List of Malware Types|https://www.veracode.com/blog/2012/10/common-malware-types-cybersecurity-101]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Glassware Download|https://www.glasswire.com/download/]]<br><br>[[Netstat Command|http://www.howtogeek.com/98601/easily-monitor-your-computers-internet-connection-activity/]]<br><br>[[SysInternal Tools|http://www.howtogeek.com/school/sysinternals-pro/lesson10/all/#]]|
}}}
===  
!13. Security &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - from [[Browsers]] page.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;It is a balance of convenience against risk of intrusion whether or not to allow the browser to save passwords. If you are ultra careful not to surf onto dodgy sites or click on suspicious email or browser links, then it is safe to go for convenience. Otherwise don't. The free Bitdefender Safeplay offers a very secure browser.<br>However, default browser security settings, an up-to-date browser version, Windows Update and an active [[malware software|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/resources/malware-whatis.aspx]] will give you peace of mind when surfing.<br><br>''ALWAYS'' hover your mouse over a link on a web page to ensure that the actual URL is the same as the typed URL or is reasonable, especially if it is ''not a TRUSTED site''. Be particularly cautious of TIFF image files. ''Install [[Web of Trust|http://www.mywot.com/]] (WOT)'' - Traffic Light indicator of safe sites.|[[Firefox|http://netsquirrel.com/articles/ff_saved_passwords.html]]<br><br>[[Internet Explorer|http://www.howtogeek.com/68231/how-secure-are-your-saved-internet-explorer-passwords/]]<br><br>[[Chrome|http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9241508/Chrome_s_password_security_insanity_can_be_cured]]<br><br>[[Opera|http://www.threattracksecurity.com/it-blog/browser-password-storage-an-overview/]]<br><br>[[BitDefender Safepay|http://www.bitdefender.co.uk/solutions/safepay.html]]|
}}}
! Security advice &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - from [[Security]] page.
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Some specific security advice, but note that email clients enable you to view the content of an email without [[OPENING it|http://www.howtogeek.com/135546/htg-explains-why-you-cant-get-infected-just-by-opening-an-email-and-when-you-can/]]. However, take great care with attachments. There are three overriding precautions to take:<br><br> 1. Use strong passwords,<br>2. Always hover your mouse over a link before opening it, view the URL and consider the destination,<br>3. Use real-time AV and malware protection comensurate with the risks you are taking ''and keep it up to date'',<br>4. And the fourth is, check for [[ https://|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]] vulnerability on a web site on which you are using your credit/debit card.<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Department of Homeland Security|http://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  [[Microsoft|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/default.aspx]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[MI5|https://www.mi5.gov.uk/home/the-threats/cyber.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[How Secure is "https://"?|http://security.stackexchange.com/questions/5/does-an-established-ssl-connection-mean-a-line-is-really-secure]]<br><br>''Don't'', for example, use your Mother's maiden name if required to provide answers to security questions to recover a forgotten username or password when that information is available on the Internet, perhaps in a Family History website.|[[Security Advice|http://www.knowthenet.org.uk/knowledge-centre]]<br><br>[[Heartbleed|http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/how-to-protect-yourself-from-the-heartbleed-bug/]]<br><br>[[Heartbleed Test|https://lastpass.com/heartbleed/]]<br><br>[[Get Safe Online|http://www.getsafeonline.org/]]<br><br>[[Detailed Advice|https://www.getsafeonline.org/nca/]]<br><br>[[National Crime Agency|http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/crime-threats/cyber-crime]]|
}}}
|centered|k
| [[Secutity in a Public Place|https://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-yourself/using-public-computers/]] | &nbsp; - &nbsp; | [[Security Knowhow Articles|http://knowhow.com/information-article-listing.dhtml?categoryReference=109&sortOn=lastModified&country=uk]] |
-------
<br><br><br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; ''Writing code provides instant gratification by making an event happen exactly as planned..........unlike in the real world.''
{{invisibletable{
|width:52em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Why Code</strong><br>Why are we promoting coding in schools? Teaching coding is about much more than helping children understand the technology they are using, important though that is. It gives them skills for life. At a basic level, it improves problem-solving and thinking skills, and having digital skills will improve their chances of being employed in the future. It also has the potential to bring about a fundamental shift in the way we view technology, turning us from passive consumers into active producers. There is a massive difference between consuming content and being able to create it. It is important to have control and understanding of the tools you are using.<br><br>For adults, coding provides exercise in logical thought, problem solving, creative enjoyment, generally keeping the brain alert while aging. <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/29051567" target="_blank"><strong><u>It enables one to assess, have insight into the quality, limitations and utility of applications we use made by others.</u></strong></a><br><br><strong>How to get started</strong><br>You need a goal, a purpose which will motivate learning. Perhaps the desire to share your knowledge, experience or creative skill would benefit from a Website. Perhaps there is a widget, an app, desktop tool you need to increase the efficiency of your work and nowhere can you find anything suitable searching the Internet. Perhaps, as a hobby, you want to program for its own sake, for intellectual enjoyment, to satisfy a desire to create something of your own. Read the links to see some opportunities.<strong> One suggestion is to start</strong> with Wiki. This will lead you to some HTML and then to Javascrpt.<br><br><strong>Languages to consider</strong><br><strong>HTML - </strong>is the <a href="http://webdesign.about.com/od/htmlxhtmltutorials/p/what-are-markup-languages.htm" target="_blank"><b>markup</b></a> language you need to create web pages; the pages read in a browser. Other skills you would need to build a website are: <br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Obtaining a web address or <a href="http://www.thesitewizard.com/archive/registerdomain.shtml" target="_blank">"<u>domain</u>"</a>, <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Finding a host to put your site on the Internet, e.g. <a href="http://www.heartinternet.co.uk/" target="_blank"><u>HeartInternet</u></a>. <br>Web pages are created with an HTML editor. These can be either WYSIWYG or enable you to see a page split into code alongside a view of the finished work. Microsoft Expression Web 4 is an example. Alternatively you can build a website with no HTML knowledge by buying a site template and filling in your words and images - this is cheating!<br><strong>Wiki - </strong>is a personal notebook, website, blog or Content Management System, stored as a single html-file. It is very expandable with a multitude of plugins (under the same license) and adaptations and can be read on all major systems and browsers, desktop and mobile. The programming language is called "TiddlyWiki" and is <a href="http://www.giffmex.org/twfortherestofus.html" target="_blank"><u>very easy to learn.</u></a>  It is the language used to create this Worksheet.<br>The site <a href="http://www.cyborganize.org/clarity/software/how-to-use-tiddlywiki-as-your-t1-wiki/" target="_blank"><u>Cyberorganise</u></a> is the experience of one user and contains a useful summary of TiddlyWiki usage but ignore the comment about FireFox5 and reference to "T1". TiddlyWiki is developed by a tallented team of programmers lead by Jeremy Rushton who is easy to find by searching, as are the Forums.<br><strong>Javascript- </strong>JavaScript is an "interpreted" client-side scripting language that allows a web designer the ability to insert code into their web page. JavaScript is commonly placed into an HTML, or a similar file and run directly from the web page to perform dynamic tasks such as printing the time and date, creating a calendar, or other tasks that are not possible through plain HTML. It is the most popular programing language. There are plentiful examples of code blocks to copy to incorporate in your work without having to understand the more complex and subtle creations of the expert. <br>In contrast, <strong>Java code </strong>needs to be "compiled" while <strong>JavaScript code</strong> is all in text. <strong>Java code</strong> creates applications that run in a <a href="#Virtual" ><u>virtual machine</u></a> or browser while <strong>JavaScript code</strong> is run on a browser only. <strong>''Java''</strong> is also the name of the software provided by Oracle which enables apps written in Jave to run.<br><br>''Other Languages'' often used by programmers are listed in <a href="http://mashable.com/2014/01/21/learn-programming-languages/#JwtGPyuYuaqr" target="_blank"><u>this link.</u></a><br><br>Strictly, HTML and Wiki are Markup and not Programming languages. &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/prog.html" target="_blank"><u> The difference</u></a><br><br>You may care to experiment with other operating systems, such as Linux in its <a href="http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2009/06/top-5-best-linux-os-distributions/" target="_blank"><u>various flavours</u></a></html>|<br><br>[[In Primary School|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-29145904]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[How to begin Computer Programming|http://www.wikihow.com/Begin-Computer-Programming]]<br><br>[[Learn to Code|http://www.webdesigndegreecenter.org/learn-to-code/]]<br><br>[[Which First|http://lifehacker.com/which-programming-language-should-i-learn-first-1477153665]]<br><br>[[Code Tutorials|http://code.org/learn]]<br><br>[[HTML|http://html.net/tutorials/html/lesson1.php]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[HTML|http://www.codertools.com/html_guide/introducing_html.aspx]]<br><br>[[HTML Example|Files/ExampleHTML.jpg]]<br><br>[[TiddlyWiki|http://tiddlertoddler.tiddlyspot.com/]]<br><br>[[One TW Guide|http://tiddlywiki.org/]]<br><br>[[Android Studio|http://www.i-programmer.info/programming/android/5887-android-adventures-getting-started-with-android-studio.html]]<br><br>[[Java and javascript|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/java-and-javascript]]<br><br>[[Javascript|http://javascript.about.com/od/reference/p/javascript.htm]]<br><br>[[Javascript Example|http://javascript.about.com/od/hintsandtips/a/First-JavaScript-Example.htm]]<br><br>[[Javascript Tutorial|http://htmldog.com/guides/javascript/beginner/]]<br><br>[[Java Tutorial|http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/index-138747.html]]<br><br>[[Oracle Supplies Java|http://www.java.com/en/download/faq/whatis_java.xml]]<br><br>[[For App Development|http://blog.startapp.com/top-5-programming-languages/]]|
}}}

----
 
<br>
!Pros and Cons Webmail vs Email Client
<br><br>''[[Email Clients & Servers|Topic Slides/Email2 Clients & Servers.jpg]]''<br><br>
|centered|k
| !''Feature'' | !''Webmail'' | !''Email Client'' |
|Accessibility|Needs Internet connection|Useable offline|
|Access & mobility|From anywhere, any device|Only on given broadband account|
|Spam Filter|By ISP|Additional filters in Client|
|Internet Connectivity|Dependent|Only for updateing|
|Multiple Accounts|Limited to one ISP|Can be set up for multimple accounts|
|Backup|In the Cloud|Also in your computer|
|Cost of Storage|Possibly|None|
|Features|Limited by ISP|More features in most clients|
|Distraction|Temptation to browse|Focused on Emails|
|Installation|None|Software installation needed|
|Syncing|Available between other devices|Can use [[IMAP or DropBox|http://lifehacker.com/5805828/how-to-sync-your-desktop-email-client-outlook-or-thunderbird-across-multiple-computers]]|
|Using Computer space|None used|Backup takes up space|
|Learning to use software|Minimal|More may be needed|
|Automatic Update|Immediate|Frequency depends on client settings|
|Contextual Advertising|Puts contextual advertising next to the emails you read|None|
<br>
--------------------
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:6em;|width:50em;!Time is what stops everything happening at once.<br>Space is what stops everything happening to me.<br><br>Everything is possible if you do it fast enough not to be detected.<br> Magic is simply technology working smoothly.|
}}}
!!Introduction
{{invisibletable{
|width:51em;''There are three fundamental theories on which modern physics is built: the theory of relativity, statistical thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics. Each one has forced upon us the need to consider the possibility that the character of the physical world, as we perceive it and understand it on a day to day basis, may be far different from that we take for granted.''<br><br><html>To convey the extent of this subject, this is <a href="http://physics.mq.edu.au/~jcresser/Phys301.html" target="_blank"><u>a course of university lectures</u></a> on Quantum Mechanics. The one entitled <a href="http://physics.mq.edu.au/~jcresser/Phys301/Chapters/Chapter1.pdf" target="_blank"><strong>"<u>Introduction</u>"</strong></a> is worth a read and gives a good overview of the subject.</html><br><br>''Classical Mechanics'' catch-up links are on the right with a tangential link to Consciousness and Perception.<br><br>''Quantum Mechanics'' has led to many discoveries and been been put to many uses including Lasers, the [[Atomic Clock and GPS|http://gizmodo.com/how-your-smartphones-gps-uses-quantum-mechanics-to-loca-1682574240]], Cryptography, [[Computing|http://www.dwavesys.com/quantum-computing]], Biological Compasses, Improved Microscopes and Telescopes and the study of [[Photosynthesis|http://phys.org/news/2014-01-quantum-mechanics-efficiency-photosynthesis.html]] and [[smell|http://www.physics.org/featuredetail.asp?id=83]].&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Quantum Internet|http://phys.org/news/2012-04-quantum-internet-physicists-elementary-network.html]]<br><br><html><center><img alt=""  src="Topic Slides/QuantumTech.JPG" style="height:300px; width:400px"/><br><p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pM_GN2zJPgQ" target="_blank">Shedding new light on Schrödinger's cat</a><br>This lecture in broken English requires some patience, but the reward is an update on the latest research.</p></center><br><br>The essential difference between 19th Century Classical Mechanics and 20th Century physics is the coming to terms with <strong>uncertainty.</strong> The acceptance of uncertainty and probability, chaos theory, other universes, infinity, zero point and consciousness represents our progress in understanding the science and spirituality of  humanity's place in the real world around us - the 21st Century.</html>|[[Summary of Videos on Quantum page]]<br><br>[[Consciousness|Communication##The]]<br><br>[[Classical mechanics|http://www.livescience.com/47814-classical-mechanics.html]]<br><br>[[Theory of Relativity|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttZCKAMpcAo]] &nbsp; [[SpaceTime|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MO_Q_f1WgQI]]<br><br>[[4 Laws of Thermodynamics|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ox6o8y46eQ]]<br><br>[[Statistical Thermodynamics|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fud8XZgdgdU]]<br><br>[[Entropy 1|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gS_C7dM25pc]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Entropy 2|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=870y6GUKbwc]]<br><br>[[Timeline of Physics]]<br><br><br>[[Quantum Biology|http://richannel.org/jim-al-khalili--quantum-life-how-physics-can-revolutionise-biology]]<br><br><br>''[[Quantum Theory for Dummies|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JP9KP-fwFhk]]'' is a superb 20 minute summary<br>of the concepts elaborated below, while if you have 50 minutes to spare, [[this Brian Greene video|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2liLIyCIZ5c]] covers the whole picture with great clarity.<br><br>[[Easy Explanation of Quanta|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bz2tE52KXpM]]<br><br><br>[[Evolution of Atomic Theory|https://www.preceden.com/timelines/164909-timeline-of-the-evolution-of-the-atomic-theory]]<br><br>[[Many Worlds|http://io9.com/if-this-theory-is-correct-we-may-live-in-a-web-of-alte-896376482]] &nbsp; [[Parallel Worlds|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxRfDtaot5U]]<br><br>[[Are We Real?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyH2D4-tzfM]]<br><br>[[The Quantum Leap|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBrsWPCp_rs]]<br><br>[[Quantum Fields|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNVQfWC_evg&t=2202s]] The Real Building Blocks<br><br>[[Zero Point full series of videos|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpJ3yO4-Xpo&list=PLWlK1ZorBxmy8K5M6zDALL0EGiYS51Z1d]]<br><br>[[Evolution 2.0|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ekrO_9KhL5o]]|
}}}
!!!Quantum Mechanics
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Although Quantum Mechanics and Classical Mechanics</strong> are both part of our reality, the intuitive logic we apply to our classical world cannot be applied when trying to understand the "Quantum World".<br><br>The reason the subject Quantum Mechanics is included on this Worksheet is that the exceedingly fast <strong>Quantum Computer</strong>, now under development, will supercede our classical digital computers and research into neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence will impinge on future computing and our lives in general. <br><br>In the Classical world, believe it or not, we do some very complicated mathematics in our understanding of, say, throwing a cricket ball or the motion of a train (two dimensions) or a plane (three dimensions) from London to Glasgow. Although we may not be aware of the underlying mathematics of Newton's three Laws of Motion, the trigonometry and the Calculus, human beings have evolved to make accurate assessments and have an understanding of these events. We can intuitively know what is reasonable or impossible. A fielder on the boundary throws a cricket ball and hits the stumps. This skill is honed by practice and becomes intuitive. We applaud but are not surprised, yet the event involves the application of many laws of classical physics, all of which the thrower may be completely unaware. We have grown up in a reality which accepts this as normal, understandable and predictable.<br><br><strong>We have not evolved to have a similar intuitive understanding of the Quantum world</strong> because only recently in our experience have we become aware of the existence of this quantum world, mankind hasn't evolved with it culturally. Scientific experiment has led us to discover the existance of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustin-Jean_Fresnel" target="_blank"><u>Fresnel</u></a> interference patterns through Young's Double-Slit experiment and the concept of <strong>the probability</strong> of <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdqC2bVLesQ&list=PLd4qF6QzoiUeaLxpd7Q_s4SzK_ALjjBju&index=1" target="_blank"><u>something being in a particular location or state.</u></a> <strong>To make sense of it we have to train our minds to a new intuitive understanding,</strong> led by the work of Einstein, Bohr, Schrodinger, Bell, et al. We can grasp new concepts such as <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hHwgSfJtByk" target="_blank"><u>Entanglement</u></a>, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZsXu5QdZtc" target="_blank"><u>Superposition</u></a>, Decoherence, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KujEMGZGUTI" target="_blank"><u>Collapse</u></a>, Cloning, extra dimensions, "MultiUniverses"/<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNwKPfOKipk" target="_blank">"<u>Many Worlds</u>"</a>and <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aowYf44gDRY" target="_blank"><u><strong>dead cats</strong></u></a>, but we can only truly <u>understand</u> them by learning the mathematics behind them. This involves brushing up our knowledge of complex and imaginary numbers, vectors, matrices and <a href=" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_k6fSFwOVk" target="_blank"><u>uncertainty.</u></a><br><br>In summary, there are two ways to tackle understanding Quantum Mechanics:- <strong>A Conceptual Approach</strong> and a <strong>Mathematical Approach.</strong> One way to make a serious but reasonable inroad by maths is to absorb the first of the <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBh7Xqbh5JQ&list=PLXjMbDWXtx8XZcCDg1IP7NajYWW1wYkIM" target=_blank"><strong>DrPhysicsA</strong></a> Channel of YouTube videos on Vectors & Matricies at the link "Video Maths Approach" and then follow the excellent, gentle and thorough <strong>series of video QM lectures</strong> given by Leonard Susskind of Stanford University.<br><br><strong>Definition of Terms.</strong> It  is best to understand the connection between the concepts of quantum Mechanics rather than to define them individually. So the definitions of phenomena such as: <a href="http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teaching/HPS_0410/chapters/quantum_theory_waves/index.html#Superposit" target="_blank"><u>Superposition</u></a>, <a href="http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/cosmo/lectures/lec08.html" target="_blank"><u>Quanta</u></a>, <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGulRS2IyF8" target="_blank"><u>Entanglement</u></a>, Coherence, etc. can be found in the excellent and useful link with this title on the right.<br><br><strong>Decoherence</strong> Decoherence does not generate actual wave function collapse. It only provides an explanation for the observation of wave function collapse, as the quantum nature of the system "leaks" into the environment. Really, you're kidding, is that so?! &nbsp; <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_decoherence" target="_blank"><u>Read more?</u></a><br><br><strong>The Wave Function.</strong> There are those that agree with Einstein that the wavefunction represents our ignorance — what philosophers call psi-epistemic models. And there are those (such as the Copenhagen interpretation:- until an observer opens the box and looks, the cat is <strong>both</strong> alive and dead) who view the wavefunction as a <strong>real entity</strong> — psi-ontic models. The ultimate challenge, although no one knows how to do it yet, and what would be really exciting would be to devise a test for whether there is in fact any objective reality out there at all.<br><br>In fact, every time I hit my head with a hammer, I become more and more convinced there is no reality at all.</html>|<br>[[Quantum Computer|http://physics.about.com/od/quantumphysics/f/quantumcomp.htm]]<br><br>[[What is a Qubit?|http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/qubit]]<br><br>[[Neuroscience|Communication##The]]<br><br>[[Overview QM|http://dwb.unl.edu/Teacher/NSF/C04/C04Links/www.fwkc.com/encyclopedia/low/articles/q/q021000030f.html#qqqqqqqqqqqq021000030aaaaaaaaaaaa]]<br><br>[[Wiki Overview QM|http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Quantum_mechanics]]<br><br><br>[[The Wave Function|http://www.nature.com/news/quantum-physics-what-is-really-real-1.17585]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Vector Space|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UqDb2BcxZk]]<br><br>[[Double Slit Experiment|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-slit_experiment]]<br><br>[[Interference|http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/21st_century_science/lectures/lec13.html]]<br><br>[[Probability|http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/experiments/two-slit_experiment/]]<br><br>[[Imaginary Numbers|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxF5VQSA4Hw]]<br><br>[[Complex Numbers|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vk78-7bUbzo]]<br><br>[[Conceptual Approach|http://www.univ-reims.fr/site/evenement/girep-icpe-mptl-2010-reims-international-conference/gallery_files/site/1/90/4401/22908/29321/29509.pdf]]<br><br>[[Video Maths Approach|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBh7Xqbh5JQ]]<br><br>[[Videos Quantum Mechanics|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzhlfbWBuQ8&list=PL84C10A9CB1D13841]]<br><br>[[Copenhagen Interpretation|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um0AvHrPp_w]]<br><br>''[[Definition of Terms|http://www.physicsoftheuniverse.com/topics_quantum_superposition.html]]''<br><br><br><br>[[Some simple explanations|https://www.youtube.com/user/LookingGlassUniverse/videos]]<br><br>[[Photon Entanglement|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z34ugMy1QaA&list=PLbT8q_Cig_wu-CcBJEcCppzcg6wxjzkdV&index=2]]<br><br><br>[[Is anything Real?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L45Q1_psDqk]]|
+++[Entanglement - Spooky Action at a Distance, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]<br>
''Illustrative explanation of Entanglement - Spooky Action at Distance.''

Pioneering physicist Albert Einstein described the phenomenon of Entanglement, as "spooky action at a distance". According to Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity, instantaneous action at a distance was seen to violate the relativistic upper limit on speed of propagation of information.

"Consider the following analogy from Bohm's Wholeness and the Implicate Order. Imagine a fishbowl with fish slowly swimming round and round, occasionally darting here and there, changing direction unpredictably. Imagine two TV cameras filming the activity of the fish from different points of view. Imagine that in another room a person is sitting watching two TV sets receiving the transmissions from the two cameras. This person at first might think that he is watching two different fishbowls and fish movements, except that he would notice an amazing correlation in the movements of the two sets of fish. Every time one of the fish in one TV screen unpredictably changes direction by darting to the left or right, a fish in the other screen changes directions also. After watching this activity for awhile, this person should be able to infer that the separate images are different perspectives of one reality. According to Bohm, this is what the long road of scientific endeavor, culminating in the experiments of quantum physics, has revealed to us: Our normal world of separate objects is but separate images of one underlying reality. We set up our three-dimensional experiments and then wonder how particles separated by light-years can be correlated, but from the standpoint of hyperspace the particles are right "next" to each other, so to speak; the two apparently separated particles are the same particle, just as the two apparently separated fish are the same fish. "
Source -   [[Science and the Human Prospect|http://www2.hawaii.edu/~pine/book1qts/chapter8qts.html]]
----
===
}}}
!!!Quantum Computing
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Get Started, Try One Yourself </strong>The cloud-enabled <strong>IBM Quantum Experience</strong> will allow users to run algorithms and experiments on IBM’s quantum processor, work with the individual qubits, and explore tutorials and simulations around what might be possible with quantum computing, in your browser.</html>|[[The Quantum Computer|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/quantum-computer.htm]]<br><br>[[How it works|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hlssbyc49o]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[More How|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZoT82NDpcvQ&t=315s]]<br><br>[[Quantum Experience|https://quantumexperience.ng.bluemix.net/qx/tutorial?sectionId=c59b3710b928891a1420190148a72cce&pageIndex=0]]|
}}}
!!!Vectors and Matricies
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Vectors.</strong> If you study vectors, there is a small difference to note in the use of the term "vector". In classical mechanics, vector is an object representing graphically, say, a force, as an arrowed line with length and direction (a &nbsp;b) in two dimensions or as (a &nbsp;b &nbsp;c) in three dimensions. In quantum mechanics a "vector" is more abstract and the expression (a &nbsp;b) might represent the vector "on or off", "up or down", "<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cd2Ua9dKEl8" target="_blank"><u>direction of spin</u>"</a>, i.e. a state and not a line with direction. A collection of these objects is a <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UqDb2BcxZk" target="_blank">"<u>vector space</u>"</a> which leads to the maths of a Qubit, found in a Quantum Computer.</html>|<br>[[Vector|http://chortle.ccsu.edu/vectorlessons/vch00/vch00_15.html#vector]]<br><br>[[Matrix Arithmetic|http://chortle.ccsu.edu/vectorlessons/vmch13/vmch13_1.html]]<br><br>[[Quantum Matrix|http://www.mathpages.com/home/kmath638/kmath638.htm]]|
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''Matrix Operations.'' The ~DrPhysicsA video lecture (in the link named Vectors & Matricies above) introduces matrix arithmetic. If you can get to understand <a l a> = 1, then you have the necessary maths to understand Quantum Mechanics!! If you [[cannot stomach the mathematics|MathsEasierThanYouThink]] then be content with the Conceptual approach and that the mathematics is confirmed by experiment and has led physicists to many new discoveries.&nbsp; &nbsp; MathsEasierThanYouThink|”I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics." - [[Richard Feynman|http://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Richard_P._Feynman]], Nobel Prize in Physics (1965) |
}}}
!!!The Philosophy
{{invisibletable{
|width:48em;<html><p align="justify">There are still many unanswered question in the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. Even those mathematicians who truly understand the mathematics, put different interpretations on it. It is left to the physicists to conduct experiments to show which interpretation is correct. The mathematicians and physicists working in partnership progress towards the horizon of understanding and make new discoveries, some of them urgent for mankind's survival.<br><br>It was the geocentric universe of Aristotle, with man at the centre, that held up the understanding of classical physics until the breakthroughs of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo. Maybe if we stop trying to explain quantum menchanics in terms of space and time we will make another breakthrough in our understanding of reality.<br><br>There are some mathematicians suggesting that although both classical events and quantum events are both computable and because there are some noncomputable truths that only the human mind can understand, that there is a theory yet to be formulated that will fill the missing link between the classical and the quantum explanations of reality. It is the view of Roger Penrose of Oxford and Stuart Hameroff of University of Arizona, an anesthesiologist, and others that this linking theory will be found in the study of Consciousness (a sequence of events at quantum collapse) and the workings of microtubles in brain cells. They forecast that man will never create an Artificial Intelligence more powerful than the human brain and that the apparent counter-intuitiveness of Schrodinger's cat, superposition and collapse will be resolved, unifying our view through the macroscope, the microscope and the nanoscope. </html>|<br>[[Zero Point Energy|http://www.setterfield.org/ZPE_and_relativity/ZPE_and_Relativity.html]] &nbsp; [[Zero Point Science|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1Tddl_1Avs]]<br><br>[[Zero Point Delay|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eNU3MLqyzPk]] &nbsp; [[Zero Point Travel|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CkVNv7PbeH8]]<br><br>[[Wonder in Science|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzWeTpT43-U]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Knowledge Filtration|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcjMCHVr65E&t=25s]]<br><br>[[Professor Terry Rudolph|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKGZDhQoR9E]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Impact Events|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1BkMqtWMns]]<br><br>[[Ancient Technologies|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yj7Z6KrYK3w]] &nbsp; [[Ice Ages|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDejwCGdUV8]] &nbsp; [[3 Cities|http://morgana249.blogspot.co.uk/2014/07/3-civilizations-that-make-historians.html]]<br><br>[[Ancient Knowledge|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yj7Z6KrYK3w]] &nbsp; [[Civilisations|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1BkMqtWMns&t=111s]] &nbsp; [[TedX|https://grahamhancock.com/is-the-house-of-history-built-on-foundations-of-sand/]]<br><br>[[Sir Roger Penrose|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WXTX0IUaOg&list=PLbr_VE8ZFNI-XdORRaWuHy1rI3mWTPiZ4]] &nbsp; [[Truth & Dogma|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8DxNBNsdUg&t=1586s]]<br><br>[[Stuart Hameroff|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEpUIcOodnM]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Consciousness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPlBGdZLwTE]]<br><br>[[The Brain|http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/a/a_12/a_12_m/a_12_m_con/a_12_m_con.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Theory: an Update|http://www.quantumbionet.org/admin/files/Massimo%20Pregnolato%20-%20Rita%20Pizzi%202011.pdf]]<br><br>See also [[Communication Technology|Communication##The]]|
}}}

--------
<br><br><br><br><br>
''Decide on your answer and then check it in "[[Answers One]]"'' 
<br>
# Which browser are you using?
#What version is it?
#How do you read your emails? 
#If you use an email client, which one is it?  
#Which is larger, the WWW or the Internet?
#How do you prevent virus infection of your computer? 
#When was your PC last scanned for malware?  
#What is the difference between malware and viruses?  
#How can a phishing email be recognised?  
#What is a domain?   
#How do you view the URL in a hyperlink?  
#What is the domain used by British Telecom for Personal Customers?  
#Where will you see the URL of a web page? 
#Would you expect to see [[https://|Quiz One]] or [[http://|Quiz One]] when making a card payment?    
#What four types of character should you use in a strong password?     
#When did you last change your password on a secure site you use?   
#What precautions should you take when downloading software?   
#Which uses more hard drive space, streaming or saving an mp3 file?    
#Where do you find the option to view/hide a file extension?   
#What are the three factors to check when saving a file? 
-----

<br><br><br><br><br>
''Decide on your answer and then check it in "[[Answers Three]]"''
<br>
#Where can you find the Snipping Tool?
#In addition to spreading viruses, what other danger does a memory stick have?
#What three actions can improve your computer running and bootup speed?
#Which way of receiving email provides most spam filtering?
#What word describes "not physically existing but made to appear so by software."?
#What word describes a graphical representation of a user's alter ego?
#What is sometimes referred to as a "sandbox"?
#How would you print "é" ( e accute) in MS Word?
#What facility is used in Windows 7, and later, for easy file sharing?
#What three factors uniquely identify a file?
#How can you ensure that you don't download copyrighted files?
#How do you avoid installing unsolicited utilities in bundled software?
#How many possible combinations of "0" and "1" are there in a byte?
#Other than by downloading it, in what other way could you listen to an audio file?
#What facility does the key combination Win+P give?
#What information does the website "Haveibeenpwned" provide?
#What is the name of the simple Microsoft utility used for "data only" backup?
#What is the Excel formula to sum the rows 2 to 5 in the G column of a spreadsheet?
#Which of Arial and Times New Roman is a sans serif font?
#Why might you not be able to open an email attachment?
-----

<br><br><br><br>
''Decide on your answer and then check it in "[[Answers Two]]"'' 
<br>
# What action would you take if your Internet speed seems slow?
# What is the difference between the Web and the Internet?
# What does "https://" tell you?
# What browser do you use to read web pages and what version is it?
# How do you set a browser to open a new page in a new tab?
# Where does one look for files downloaded through a browser?
# What is "active content"?
# What are "Add-ons" and where can they be found?
# What is a default browser?
# How would you search for a particular word in a long web page?
# In addition to the web, what other services does the Internet provide?
# What do the terms FTP, ~VoIP and SMTP mean?
# What is the difference between POP and IMAP?
# What are the different ways you can view and action emails?
# List three examples of good email ettiquete.
# How do you change your email password?
# What is the difference between "streaming" and "saving" a video?
# Name two utilities with which you can listen to Internet Radio?
# What is the difference between Microsoft WMP and WMC?
# Where can you subscribe to a ~YouTube channel?
----
<br>
!''It's a rainy Sunday afternoon, you've had plenty of exercise and there's nothing on TV.........''
<br>
!!&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Worksheet Quizzes
{{invisibletable{
|width:10em;[img[Files/image006.jpg]]|<br><br><br>''[[Quiz One]]''<br><br>[[Quiz Two]]<br><br>[[Quiz Three]]|width:30em;<br><br><br>''Decide on your answers and then check them in:''<br><br><br><br> &nbsp; <html><span style="color:red"><strong><u>(New)</u></strong></span></html>|width:10em;<br><br><br> ''[[Answers One]]''<br><br>[[Answers Two]]<br><br>[[Answers Three]]|
}}}
!!&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Then test your skill of logical deduction.'' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Print yourself a hard copy of the PDF file.
{{invisibletable{
|width:10em;|width:55em;[[Puzzler.com|http://www.puzzler.com/puzzles-a-z/logic-problem]] &nbsp; [[Sample Logic Problem|http://www.puzzler.com/FileDepository%5CPuzzles%5CSamples%5CLogicProblem.pdf]] &nbsp; [[Puzzlers Paradise|http://www.puzzlersparadise.com/page1034.html]] &nbsp; [[Martin Gardner|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-29688355]] &nbsp; [[Smart Kit|http://www.smart-kit.com/s1074/monday-morning-warm-up/]]<br><br>“The barber is a man in town who shaves all those, and only those, men in town who do not shave themselves.”  Who shaves the barber? - Bertrand Russell|
}}}
!!&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Puzzles & Games''
{{invisibletable{
|width:5em;|width:55em;[[Use it or lose it!|http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/488869/Puzzles-and-crosswords-could-be-best-way-to-beat-dementia]] &nbsp; [[The Sage Test|http://wexnermedical.osu.edu/patient-care/healthcare-services/brain-spine-neuro/memory-disorders/sage]] &nbsp; [[Express Games|http://games.express.co.uk/]] &nbsp; [[Puzzles and Teasers|http://www.intelligencetest.com/puzzles/index.htm]] &nbsp; [[Psychometry|http://www.psychometric-success.com/downloads/download-practice-tests.htm]] &nbsp; [[Myths|http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/curiosity/topics/myths-about-intelligence.htm]]<br><br>&nbsp; [[Brain Games|http://www.aarp.org/health/brain-health/brain_games/]] &nbsp; [[Doctor Dementia|Files/Doctor Dementia.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Brain Training Project|http://www.protectstudy.org.uk/]]|
}}}
!!&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Personal Time Management & Communication''
{{invisibletable{
|width:5em;|width:75em;[[Tutorial|http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/fcs7/fcs7101/fcs7101.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Guide|http://www.time-management-guide.com/]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Basic Management Skills|http://www.tutorialspoint.com/management_concepts/basic_management_skills.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Learning to Learn|https://www.msu.edu/course/cep/813/web/learningtolearnsoftware.htm]]&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Effective Learning|http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/tp/effective-learning.htm]] &nbsp; [[Lifeskills for Grandchildren|https://www.barclayslifeskills.com/]] <br><br>[[Life Skills|http://www.exforsys.com/career-center/life-skills.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Communication|http://aventalearning.com/content168staging/2007LifeSkills/unit5/html/section_2_page_1.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Communication Skills|http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/elearning/communicationskills/index.asp]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The Brain's GPS|http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130804144401.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Giving a Talk|http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jrs/speaking.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Saving Time|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-30005279]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Mindfulness|http://www.pocketmindfulness.com/6-mindfulness-exercises-you-can-try-today/]]<br><br>[[Being Misunderstood|https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/evolution-the-self/201409/9-reasons-its-so-easy-be-misunderstood]]|
}}}
!!&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Sleep''
{{invisibletable{
|width:75em;[[Blue Light|http://chriskresser.com/how-artificial-light-is-wrecking-your-sleep-and-what-to-do-about-it]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;[[f.lux|https://justgetflux.com/]]|
}}}
!!&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Projects''
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Here are some projects you may care to join and to report on the outcome of your investigations:<br><br>1. Download Inssider or any ~WiFi Analyser App, preferably onto a tablet. Log on to your LAN and identify the ~WiFi signal coming from your Router. Check the signal strength in different locations. You will notice the strength varies. With the the tablet stationary, discover what it is causing the variations and how much attenuation there is with different heights of your router, different angles of the antenna, etc., whether your microwave is running or off and the location of yourself in the room, or none of these.<br><br>2. Investigate various simple video communication systems that run in a browser and simply require sending a link to a friend which when opened puts you both in contact. You will need to make sure your webcam, microphone and speakers are set up and working.<br><br>3.|<br>[[Inssider|http://www.techspot.com/downloads/5936-inssider.html]]|
}}}

----
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Ransomware is currently @@color: red; ''one of the most dangerous''@@ and expensive incidents of malware and infects your computer fatally through an attachment on a phishing email or from an advert link on a website. See the entry on the [["Email" page of this Worksheet at para.12.|Email]]|
}}}
------
 
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:45em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The Raspberry Pi</strong> is a credit-card sized computer that plugs into your TV and a keyboard. It’s a capable little PC which can be used for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, word-processing and games. It also plays high-definition video.<br><br>The Pi is single-board computer developed in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation with the <a href="http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/10/28/opinion_is_raspberry_pi_really_the_saviour_of_uk_it/" target="_blank">intention of promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools</a> and motivating a new generation to learn programming. <br><br><strong>Operating Systems</strong> - <a href="http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2009/06/top-5-best-linux-os-distributions/" target="_blank">Linux OS</a><br><br><strong> Programming Languages</strong> - The Raspberry Pi Foundation recommends Python as a language for learners. Any language which will compile for ARMv6 can be used with the Raspberry Pi, so you are not limited to using Python. C, C++, Java, Scratch, and Ruby all come installed by default on the Raspberry Pi.<br><br><a href="http://www.techradar.com/news/computing/pc/raspberry-pi-tutorial-how-to-do-more-1095946" target="_blank">Getting Started</a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/top-ten-programming-languages-ported-to-the-raspbe.html" target=_blank">Top Ten Languages used</a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/mar/12/bbc-micro-bit-raspberry-pi" target="_blank">BBC Micro Bit</a></html>|[[FAQ|http://www.raspberrypi.org/faqs#generalArm11]]<br><br>[[Operating Systems|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/operating-systems/raspberry-pi-operating-systems-5-reviewed-and-rated-1147941]]<br><br>[[In Schools|http://pi.cs.man.ac.uk/]]<br><br>[[Supplier|http://uk.rs-online.com/web/generalDisplay.html?id=raspberrypi]]<br><br> [[How it Works|https://www.codeclub.org.uk/raspberry-pi]]<br><br>[[Why Pi|http://www.bigambition.co.uk/news/your-tech-future/raspberry-pi/]]<br><br>[[Programming]]<br><br>[[Other Computer Uses]]|
}}}
[img[Files/Pi.jpg]] 

----
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;When you click the attached file icon on an email, the computer automatically OPENS the attachment, if:-<br>1. You have the ''appropriate program'' in your computer to read that file type, and<br>2. That program has the correct ''file associations'' for the attachment file type.<br>If you right click the attachment icon, you are given the options to view or save the attachment. See para 9. If you are unable to open the attachment, save it to a known folder. When the file is saved, right click on it and select OPEN WITH. The menu lists the programs available to open the file. For future convenience you may like to set the DEFAULT program associated with this file type. If no program is available to open the file, GOOGLE with keywords "FILE <file extension> OPEN WITH", learn about the file type and install the appropriate utility.<br><br>''Security.'' Never open an attachment file which has an ''.exe'' extension. See [[EmailSecurity]]<br><br>You may need to ''convert to another file type'' that one of you applcations can read.|[[Show File Extension -1|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UkTR2C8eE6s]]<br><br>[[File Association - 2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voInaUGlFhk]]<br><br>[[Attachments Tutorial|http://www.dynamicwebs.com.au/tutorials/attachments.htm#opening]]<br><br>[[Set Default Program|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qsPgSZI24s]]<br><br>[[Default]]<br><br><br>[[Dangerous File Types|http://www.file-extensions.org/filetype/extension/name/dangerous-malicious-files]]<br><br>[[Zamzar File Converter|http://www.zamzar.com/#]]|
}}}
-----

{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Tablets behave slightly differently in some ways to laptops. Their simplicity comes from the use of independent APPS. To deal with files and browsers, they often need some help. To read .html web files in ''iPad'', download a file reader app called "~GoodReader", and bookmark this page.. <br>''Apple'' - To view in iPad try [[TWMobile|http://download.cnet.com/TWMobile/3000-2124_4-75263007.html]]. One of the limitations of the iPad is its inability to read ~WiKi HTML files where relative linked image files are not in the same folder and Apple's reluctance to include a ~FireFox browser App in the Apple Store. The worksheet is continually being revised to improve its appearance in iPad, particularly to enable "Topic Slides". Please discuss any broken links.<br><br>There is a series of tutorials on ~YouTube of value to new iPad users. These would supplement the brief User Guide on the iPad itself.<br><br>''Android'' users can easily read the Worksheet using the "Android Browser" or "Firefox for Android" app.|[[iPad Tutorials|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMht9_F3580]]<br><br>[[50 iPad Tips|http://www.techradar.com/news/mobile-computing/tablets/50-really-useful-ipad-tips-and-tricks-688556]]<br><br>[[iPad Quick Guide|http://www.hhdev.psu.edu/iss/training/documents/ipad-quick-reference-2.pdf]]<br><br>[[GoodReader Guide|http://www.goodiware.com/gr-man.html]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------

!Recent Page Additions
<br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Programming]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[SavingAttachments]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Internet Radio]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The Cloud|Cloud]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[EssentialStudy]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[BackUpRestore]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Privacy]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Windows8.1]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[BrowserSetup]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Alzheimer Quiz|The Alzheimer Puzzle]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Crash]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Task Manager]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[YouTube]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Bits&Bytes]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[PrintScreen]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[USBMemorySticks]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Microscopy]] <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[UpgradingRAM]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Webmail|Pros and Cons Webmail]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Virtual]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  [[HomeGroup]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Databases|Database and Spreadsheet]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Downloading]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  [[Streaming]] <br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Default]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Control Panel]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Drivers]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[DOS]]  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Basic Skills]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[INDEX]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Desktop]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Telestrator]]<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Presentation]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Communication]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[MeetingSystems]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[TEDTalks]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Windows 10 Features|Windows10]]<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Photo Editing|PhotoEnhancement]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[PCMacDifferences]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[RemoteAccess]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Windows 10 Upgrade|Windows10Upgrade]]<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[QuantumMechanics]]
<br><br>

&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''See FindSubPages for a full list of pages not available from the Main Menu.''
<br>
-----
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''The utilities designed for Meeting Systems and Remote Access are very similar.<br>It is just a matter of emphasis.''<br><br>[[Meeting Systems|MeetingSystems]] are designed for communication between two or more individuals with facilities such as chat, whiteboard, screen and file sharing available - conference calling.<br>''Remote Access'' majors on remote control for troubleshooting and the convenience of operating two devices with one mouse and keyboard.<br><br>All systems require password access or a code exchange between devices to authorise access.||
}}}
!!!Remote Control Systems
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. ''In-built systems'' - These are part of the operating system and usually not cross-platform, <br>e.g.  [[Windows|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/connect-using-remote-desktop-connection#connect-using-remote-desktop-connection=windows-7]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Apple|http://www.apple.com/remotedesktop/]]<br>2. ''[[TeamViewer|https://www.teamviewer.com/en/index.aspx]]'' is a dual purpose system, See [[MeetingSystems]].<br>This is the easiest system to set up  with a user in trouble.<br>3. ''[[Virtual Network Computing|https://www.realvnc.com/purchase/activate/]] (VNC)'' - is a lite free cross-platform product which is very easy to use and does not have to be installed on your computer. Apple Mac computers have this software built into the OS.|[[Choice of System|http://www.howtogeek.com/170740/the-best-tools-to-easily-perform-remote-tech-support/]]<br><br><br><br>[[VNC Guide|http://www.realvnc.com/products/vnc/documentation/5.2/guides/user/ad1029379.html]]|
}}}
!!!IP Address
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. To access a local computer or device you will need to tell your PC the Local Area Network (LAN) ~IPv4 address of the other computer or device. It will look something like "192.168.0.10", and is referred to as ~IPv4.<br><br>2. To access a remote computer not on your network,  it is easier to use a system in which an authorisation code is exchanged (such as Teamviewer) rather than use the [[external and internal IP address|http://it.toolbox.com/wiki/index.php/External_IP_Address]] of the remote network and computer.<br><br>3. The person requesting remote access provides their ~IPv4 address to the host user. If necessary this can be confirmed locally [[from Dropbox|http://lifehacker.com/5737187/use-dropbox-to-find-the-ip-address-of-your-remote-computers]], [[by Ping|http://smallbusiness.chron.com/remote-ip-address-56452.html]], [[from email|http://smallbusiness.chron.com/someones-ip-address-windows-live-email-48577.html]]. |[[Your IP Address|Topic Slides/Networks YourIPAddress.jpg]]<br><br>[[Finding your IP address|https://kb.iu.edu/d/aapa]]<br><br>[[Router IP Address|http://portforward.com/networking/routers_ip_address.htm]]<br><br>[[Remote IP address|http://www.findmyip.org/]]<br><br>[[IP Address Security|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2105405/your-ip-address-who-can-see-it-and-what-you-can-do-about-it.html]]|
}}}
----
<br><br>
!!Overview
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The Right Click In-context Menu</strong> These menus, as the full name implies, vary in content depending where the mouse pointer is placed. They are probably the most important and convenient source of user control. The variety of menus you will discover is endless because each point selected in a window by your mouse gives a different menu.<br><strong></html>| |
}}}
!!2.Using the Right Click menu
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">To use a right click menu, first <strong>Highlight</strong> if the location is a file, link or adddress, then right click the mouse. If the location is an empty space, highlighting is unnecessary. <strong>Combined with the shift-key</strong> additional items are added to the menus.<br><br><strong>Windows 10</strong> It is useful to note that "Right-Click" on the START icon, with and without the shift-key, provides quick and useful access to many frequently needed tools.</html>|<br>[[Using the Menus|http://vlaurie.com/right-click/right-click-context-menu.html]]|
}}}
!!3. Facility provided by Right Click menus
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">Right click menus open up an extensive opportunity of control and convenience. They enable you to customise browsers facilities and alter program window views. They provide quick shortcuts to programs, cut & paste, open & close commands, hidden detail and make new folders and new shortcuts.</html>|[[Desktop]]<br><br>[[FAQBasic]]<br><br>[[BrowserSetup|BrowserSetup##7. Favorites]]|
}}}
!!4. Editing Right Click menus
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">The content of in-context menus is adequate for most users. However they can be amended. Items can be removed to improve clarity and reduce clutter. Too many items added can increase clutter. There are two ways to edit:<br><strong>a. Registry -</strong> Editing the registry must always be done with care. Always create a restore point before editing.<br><strong>b. Third Party Utilities -</strong> The utilities edit the registry for you, usually in a safe manner if care is taken in selecting the utility. Always study the expert reviews of a utility before installing it.</html>|<br>[[Menu Additions|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/10-best-shortcuts-add-right-click-menu/]]<br><br>[[Registry Edit|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/windows-vista/add-any-application-to-the-desktop-right-click-menu-in-vista/]]<br><br>[[Edit Utilities|http://www.maketecheasier.com/5-free-tools-to-manage-the-context-menu-in-windows/]]|
}}}
-----
<br><br><br>
<html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tip </u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; Use <strong>TASK MANAGER</strong> regularly to familirise yourself with how your PC behaves at different times, e.g. at bootup or running slowly..</html>
<br>
!!Troubleshooting and Solutions<br><br>
''RAM'' provides the working area for programs you use and if insufficient, programs fight for space and the PC runs slowly, sometimes freezes or [[crashes|Crash]]. No PC will work well with less than 2GB of RAM and more is a benefit. Vista is notorious for using an excessive amount of RAM leaving little for programs. Go to [[www.Crucial.com|http://www.crucial.com/uk/systemscanner/]] and "Download the Scanner". After running, this will show how much RAM you have, if you can upgrade and ''which pair of chips to buy.'' Installation is simple and explained.<br>
''Too many programs running in the background'' which start automatically when you reboot your PC cause slow running. This is the primary cause.<br>. 
''Start up Programs.'' Sometimes when software is installed, no option is offered to prohibit its automatic start up on booting up your PC. You have to decide whether or not you need a particular program, running in the background, which is using up PC resources. In the OPTIONS or PREFERENCES menu of most programs there is an entry controlling automatic start up. ''Alternatively every PC has a "Startup" file you can edit.''  In W8 this is found in ''[[Task Manager]]'' and in earlier versions of windows, in Windows Defender. Navigate to START - RUN - (Enter the keyword "msconfig") - OK,  and the startup programs are listed in the "Startup" tab. In Windows 8, this list is in Task Manager. You will be able to recognise many common programs by name to stop them running automatically, Some are also listed in the Noticications area of the Task Bar, while with the more obscure, seek help by Google search, entering the name with the additional key word "STARTUP". In general, it is best to view the list of programs running in the background and then go to that program's PREFERENCES and adjust the startup instruction. Many of the programs in the list will be essential Windows operating system utilities. Concentrate on the programs you use or have installed and the many unnecessary unused utilities, and trial programs, installed on a new computer by the manufactuter.<br><br>''For a quick check'' open TASKMANAGER and go to the "Processes" tab. Click on the header of the "MEMORY" column and this will bring to the top those utilities which use the most memory. Here you will find ~DropBox, Explorer, ~FireFox and some system files. If there is a utility that you recognise, ''is not a system utility'' and don't realy need to be running all the time which is using more than 10MB of memory, consider removing it from the start up list.<br><br>''Typical high memory users'' are ~DropBox, many tabs open in ~FireFox browser and many windows open at once. ''These are all high resource users.'' Closing utilities and browser tabs when not in use, temporally removing utilities from the start up list and reducing the quality of Windows appearance will improve performance.
''Google Chrome browser'' is a resource hungary browser and fights Firefox and Edge for dominance. My personal advice is uninstall it.
<br>
''[[Process Piglet|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbsqhSX58w0]]'' is a useful utility which monitors programs that hog memory and provides an alert to identify the cause of slow running. Download it safely [[here|http://www.softpedia.com/get/System/System-Info/Process-Piglet.shtml]].<br>''Task Manager'' itself provides a useful insight into performance and is accessed by a right-click on the ''Taskbar''.<br>
''Diagnosis.'' Windows contains many automatic diagnostic tools. Links to these often appear when an error occurs. More recent versions of Windows offer better access to troubleshooting tools many of which automatically correct settings and solve the problem. Select "Troubleshooting" in Control Panel.<br> 
''Virtual Memory.'' If your PC still runs slowly, [[crashes|Crash]] or pages report "Not Responding" because you habitually have many programs running at once, may or may not have upgraded your RAM and minimized Startup programs, then increasing Virtual Memory may be a solution. Read this [[tutorial link|http://www.mstoic.com/how-to-increase-virtual-memory/]] and go to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM - ADVANCED SYSTEM SETTINGS - PERFORMANCE SETTINGS - ADVANCED - VIRTUAL MEMORY - CHANGE, choose CUSTOM and increase "initial size" and "maximum" virtual memory ''BOTH identically'' to the recommended size. ''NB.'' If you upgrade from Windows 8 to 8.1, you will need to repeat this customisation.<br> 
Additionally, Google search is an excellent source of solutions. Precise use of the correct keywords is essential. Use the words that appear on error messages and choose Windows Miscrosoft Support , Techradar, ~PCWorld, wiseGEEK or ~ComputerActive sites for ideas and advice. Sometimes the "Forums" offer solutions to common problems.
----
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Important stuff. See TagglyTaggingStyles and HorizontalMainMenuStyles

[[Styles TagglyTagging]]
[[Styles HorizontalMainMenu]]

Just colours, fonts, tweaks etc. See MessageTopRight and SideBarWhiteAndGrey

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Clint's fix for weird IE behaviour
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<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''Save As''<br>When you save a file there are ''THREE essential items'' to check:-<br><br>1. The destination folder - __so you know where to find it later.__<br>2. The file name - so it can be recognized.<br>3. The file type - so that it can be read by an associated program.<br><br> Be particularly vigilant when saving [[Email]] attachments. &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[SavingAttachments]]<br><br>''Save''<br>The "Save" command differs from the "Save As" command in that it saves the file back into the same folder from which it was opened.<br><br>''Other commands'' you may like to compare are "Export", "Move To" and "Paste".|[[Three Essential Items|Files/SaveAs.JPG]]|
}}}
!!!Opening a file in a program
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''Open''<br>Go to the FILE menu of the program and in the drop down- menu, select OPEN<br>When you open a file there are ''THREE essential items'' to do in the "Open Diagolue" window:-<br><br>1. Navigate to the folder where the file is located.<br>2. Select the correct file type - usually in a drop-down menu at the bottom of the window and usually already selcted by default.<br>3. Select the file you want by highlighting it by placing the cursor on it and left clicking.<br>Then click "OK" or "Open" at the bottom of the window, to close the window.<br><br>Other commands you may like to compare are "Import", "Move From" and "Copy".|[[Three Essential Items|Files/OpenFile.JPG]]|
}}}
<br>
----

<br><br>
!Saving Email Attachments
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;''It is important to realise'' that, when you ''OPEN'' an attachment to an email, it opens by default in a ''temporary folder''. There are two consequences to this:<br>1. A DOC file or an XLS spreadsheet file will be in ''Read Only'' mode and therefore cannot be edited until saved to your computer file system of folders. Use the "SAVE AS" command.<br>2. ''When SAVING'' any file, with "SAVE AS", you must be particularly vigilant to follow the ''rule of three''. Check the file type, check the file name, but above all, check the ''FOLDER'' to which you wish to save it. See ~FAQs 9 and 11.<br><br>Distinguish between the commands: "SAVE" and "SAVE AS". &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[FAQ 9|Saving a File]]|[[Save As|Files/SaveAs.jpg]]<br><br>[[FAQ 9|Saving a File]]<br><br>[[FAQ 11|Reading Attachments]]|
}}}
-----
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>With emailing, surfing the world wide web is probably our other most frequent Internet activity.</strong> <br><br>In most browsers, <strong>the address bar </strong>behaves as a means of SEARCHING for a particular webpage either by inserting a known URL or simply entering a KEYWORD. It can act as a SEARCH ENGINE when you are searching for your first web search engine on a new computer. This is the ultimate Worksheet page. <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/courses/internet-basics/lessons/searching-the-internet" target="_blank"><strong>Once you have mastered searching</strong></a>, there is nothing you cannot discover about your computer. You will however need the JARGON page to choose effective KEYWORDS.</html>Using SEARCH in ''Windows Explorer'' is [[explained at para. 15 below.|here##(File)]]<br><br>Making a ''word search'' in any text, PDF document or web page is easily done with CTRL + F.<br><br>''Timing out.'' Your browser sets a time limit on how long it will try to download a web page before determining that it cannot access the appropriate server. If web access is very slow, you are likely to be 'timed out'. Timing out can also occur when an erroneous command is given in a program and the command cannot be executed.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Timing Out|http://support.microsoft.com/kb/181050]]|
}}}
!''Web Search''

!1. Definition - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>A Search Engine is a webpage utility</strong> that allows one to ask for <strong><u>search result content</strong></u> meeting specific criteria (typically those containing a given keyword or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrase">phrase</a>) and retrieves a list of items that match those criteria.  <a href="Topic%20Slides/Web10%20Google.jpg" target="_blank">Google</a> is not the only search engine as a look at the LIST of others will show. Different engines use different <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_crawler" target="_blank">databases</a> and so give different results.</html>|
}}}
!2. Search Engines - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">Scroll down the list of Search Engines and discover Bing, Dogpile, WebMD, Scirus..... Some specialise in science, maths, books, music, medicine, etc.. Some are missing from the list, such as <a href="http://www.wolframalpha.com/" target="_blank">WolframAlpha</a>, a facinating engine that collects together associated facts, <a href=http://aip.completeplanet.com/aip-engines/browse?thisPage=%2Fbrowse%2Fbrowse.jsp&successPage=%2Fbrowse%2Fbrowse.jsp&errorFlag=&errorMsg=&event=loadPageEvent&directPage=&directSection=4&treeQueryExpr=&treeQueryType=phrase&treeQueryTarget=tree" target="_blank">CompletePlanet,</a> which accesses the <a href="http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/10-search-engines-explore-deep-invisible-web/" target="_blank">"Deep Web"</a>,  while <a href="https://duckduckgo.com/" target="_blank">DuckDuckGo</a>  provides an anonymous search, is light on ads and has many good features.</html>[[Top 10 Search Engines|https://www.reliablesoft.net/top-10-search-engines-in-the-world/]] &nbsp;&nbsp; [[Five alternatives to Google|http://www.howtogeek.com/113513/5-alternative-search-engines-that-respect-your-privacy/]], if you are concerned about privacy.|[[Search Engine List|http://www.thesearchenginelist.com/]]<br><br>[[British Search Engine|https://www.mojeek.co.uk]]<br><br>[[Wikipedia|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_search_engines]]<br><br>[[Bing|http://www.bing.com/]] &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Start Page|https://www.startpage.com/]]|
}}}   
!3. Quick access - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">You will need quick access to your preferred search tool. Here are some options:<br><br>1. Make the search engine your HOME PAGE by setting it in the browser OPTIONS,<br>2. Place a SHORTCUT on the LHS of the BOOKMARK TOOLBAR,<br>To access the bookmark toolbar on most browsers, <a href="Topic%20Slides/Web11%20Firefox_Explorer_Right_Click.jpg" target="_blank">RIGHT CLICK</a> the grey area below the address bar and select from the menu.<br>3. Use a TOOLBAR add-on to your browser. .</html>|[[Home Page|http://www.pcworld.com/article/241716/how_to_change_your_web_browser_home_page.html]]|
}}}  
!4. Effective Search 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"> <strong>Keywords </strong>- Careful <a href="Topic%20Slides/Web7%20Searching.jpg" target="_blank">	KEYWORD</a> selection determines sucessful results. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://www.bl.uk/aboutus/searchtips.html" target="_blank"><strong>British Libary Search Tips</strong></a><br><br><strong>Help the search engine.</strong> Remember, if you ask the question - "HOW SETUP MOUSE" that "mouse" has many meanings. Help the engine to present relevant results by including an appropriate adjective - white, blind, mickey, tame or computer.<br><br><strong>Boolean Search</strong> - This uses <a href="http://www.ithacalibrary.com/sp/subjects/boolean" target="_blank">AND OR NOT</a> to refine search results.<br><br><strong>Fine -tune Google searches.</strong><br>1. Enclosing a phrase in quotation marks makes Google search for that exact phrase.<br>2. Preceed a word with a minus sign eliminates that word from the search results.<br>3. Make the first keyword one of Define, List, Meaning of, How spell, How make, to guide Google to understand the gist of your search.<br>4. By using special characters and operators, such as " ", –, ~, .., *, OR,  you can fine-tune your search query and increase the accuracy of its results.<br><br><strong>The Deep Web</strong> - In a word, it's whopping. Bright Planet estimates the invisible, or deep, web as being hundreds of times, perhaps thousands of times, bigger than the searchable, or surface, Web. Considering that Google alone covers around 8 billion pages, that's just mind boggling.<br><br><strong>Distinguish between Deep and Dark Web.</strong> The Deep Web is the large "unsearchable" part of the web. It is not sinister, just hidden.  It can often be found by searching using the search facility provided by a site found itself with Google. This vast wealth of data has just not been indexed by conventional search engines; it is not necessarily intentionally secretive. The Dark Web is a hidden part, that part intentionally hidden using protocols and unregistered domains. Tor is an encrypted technology that helps people maintain anonymity online while accessing this part of the web. It lends itself to criminals, and is more likely to be used for criminal activity, because legal activity can afford to be more transparent.<br><br><strong>Search the keywords: </strong> "do a barrel roll" and "tilt" in Google.&nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="http://www.google.com/insidesearch/tipstricks/basics.html" target="_blank">Google Tips</a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/google/10346736/Google-search-15-hidden-features.html" target="_blank">Hidden Features</a></html>|[[Research Skills|http://www.open.ac.uk/infoskills-researchers/search-techniques.htm#Boolean]]<br><br>[[Webwise|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/0/22562913]]<br><br>[[Operators|http://www.googleguide.com/crafting_queries.html]]<br><br><br>[[Search Tips|TroubleShooting##Self]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Complete Planet|http://websearch.about.com/od/invisibleweb/a/completeplanet.htm]]<br><br>[[The Deep Web|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/basics/how-the-deep-web-works.htm]]<br><br>[[The Dark Web|http://www.rogerdavies.com/2011/06/dark-internet/]]<br><br>[[Some Tips|http://websearch.about.com/od/searchingtheweb/tp/web_search_simple.htm]]<br><br>[[More Ideas|http://hanlib.sou.edu/searchtools/searchtips.html]]<br><br>[[Advanced Skills|http://mycourse.solent.ac.uk/mod/book/view.php?id=2936&chapterid=1741]]<br><br>[[Being Search Savvy|http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2011/12/12-ways-to-be-more-search-savvy/]]|
}}}
!5. Google Images and Maps - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">The Google home page provides more than simple search facilities. Click on <strong><a href="http://www.google.co.uk/intl/en/about/products/" target="_blank">MORE</a></strong>. If you are searching for <strong>something difficult to describe accurately</strong>, say a particlar style of ANTIQUE DESK, then use IMAGE search. Copying images raises problems of COPYRIGHT. Use the ADVANCED IMAGE search available from the OPTIONS menu to view only free-to-use images. To search LOCATIONS, then <a href="http://www.instantstreetview.com/" target="_blank">StreetView</a>, <a href="http://showmystreet.com/" target="_blank">ShowMYStreet</a>,  Google Earth and <a href="http://www.earth-scout.com/links.php" target="_blank">Earth Scout</a> offer alternatives. If you enjoy watching paint dry, then <a href="http://traintimes.org.uk/map/#man" target="_blank">Live Train Maps</a>, <a href="https://www.marinetraffic.com/en/ais/home/shipid:711998/zoom:10" target="_blank">Marine Traffic</a>, <a href="http://www.n2yo.com/satellite/?s=25544" target="_blank">Satellites</a> or <a href="http://www.flightradar24.com/53.1,-1.03/7" target="_blank">Live Flight Tracker</a>, are fun.<br><br>Very useful is Google's Daft Logic site on which you can measure an area, such as your lawn!</html>|<br>[[Free to use images|http://www.everystockphoto.com/]]<br><br>[[Sharing Google Maps|https://support.google.com/maps/answer/144361]]<br><br>[[Using StreetView|https://support.google.com/maps/answer/6077229?rd=1]]<br><br>[[Daft Logic|http://www.daftlogic.com/projects-google-maps-area-calculator-tool.htm#loginbox]]<br><br>[[Bing Maps|http://www.bing.com/maps/]]|
}}}   
!6. Search History - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Search History</strong> is a valuable resource. It can be turned off or be cleared frequently but will helpfully locate a lost page opened in the past.<br><strong>InPrivate browsing</strong> - this option in a dedicated browser merely avoids history being saved on your computer. It does not eliminate Google keyword collection.</html>|
}}}
!7. Bookmarks
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">Internet Explorer alone uses the term "Favorite" for Bookmark". Bookmarks are website shortcuts one makes many of, but rarely uses because a quick Google search will find the favourite site!<br> If you are determined to accumulate bookmarks, then right click an empty space on the browser Menubar and tick "<a href="https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/bookmarks-toolbar-display-favorite-websites" target="_blank">BOOKMARK TOOLBAR</a>" where a small number of shortcuts for regular use can be displayed. Otherwise, if you habitually make many, religiously <a href="http://www.wikihow.com/Organize-Bookmarks-in-Firefox" target="_blank">organise your bookmarks</a> into well named FOLDERS. Bookmarks can be synchronized between browsers and other computers.</html>|[[Make Bookmarks|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/use-bookmarks-to-save-and-organize-websites]]<br><br>[[Import Bookmarks|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/import-bookmarks-google-chrome]]<br><br>[[Syncronize Firefox|https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/use-sync-share-bookmarks-and-more-with-firefox-mobile]]<br><br>[[Syncronize Chrome|http://www.guidingtech.com/3125/chrome-bookmarks-sync/]]|
}}}
!8. Browser "Search" ~ADD-ONs - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">These are best found through the MENU of your preferred browser where you might find a toolbar extension which offers a quick choice of engines.<br>If they add clutter then Uninstall or <a href="http://help.yahoo.com/kb/index?locale=en_US&amp;page=content&amp;y=PROD_GRPS&amp;id=SLN3016" target="_blank">	Disable</a> the Add-on.<br><br>Choose only Add-ons approved by the browser provider........such as <a href="https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/session-manager/" target="_blank"><strong>Session Manager</strong></a>.</html>|[[Tree Style Tabs|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/tree-style-tab/]]<br><br>[[Cool Previews|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-us/firefox/addon/coolpreviews/]]<br><br>[[Explorer Gallery|http://www.iegallery.com/en-gb/addons?callback=true&amp;featuretype=2]]<br><br>[[Chrome Search|https://chrome.google.com/webstore/category/ext/38-search-tools]]|
}}}    
!9. Search Records  - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">Sometimes it is convenient to gather web clips, images and links for a PROJECT. There is a wide choice; the best Evernote and OneNote, require payment, the free and trial versions are often cluttered with adverts and hidden downloads. Try <a href="http://cintanotes.com/" target="_blank">CintaNotes</a> or <a href="http://freemind.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page" target="_blank">	FreeMind</a><br>To view an earlier version of a website back in history at a given time...See Web Archive.</html>|<br>[[Taking Notes|http://www.howtogeek.com/114794/the-best-apps-and-cloud-services-for-taking-storing-and-sharing-notes/]]<br><br><br>[[Web Archive|https://archive.org/]]|
}}}
!10. Search - judgement, evaluation, comparison 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">As with Newspapers, not everything on the Web is true! The search result at the top of the first page is often the most relevant to your keywords, may be the most popular or may be commercially influenced. Obviously the value of every result must be evaluated in terms of your own personal judgement. Search for <strong>counter arguments</strong>, use the Keyword: <strong>review</strong>, use Keyword: <strong>forums</strong> for alternative opinion, similar problems and the experience of others.</html>''Censorship.'' Some countries and search engines make these judgements for us. See references to the ''Google Blacklist'' and ''Political Blocking''. There is of course a balance between free speech and propriety but sometimes automated databases lead to anomalies. Try sending an email using Thunderbird with "Your talk about Canals" in the subject line.|<br>[[Result Evaluation|http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.html]]<br><br>[[Evaluation|http://www.openpolytechnic.ac.nz/study-with-us/study-resources-for-students/researching-and-reading/how-to-evaluate-information/]]<br><br>[[Political Blocking|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_the_United_Kingdom]]<br><br>[[Google Blacklist|http://www.2600.com/googleblacklist/]]<br><br>[[Google Fake News|https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/mar/06/google-accused-spreading-fake-news]]<br><br>[[Google Fact Check|http://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/07/google-fake-news-fact-check.html]]|
}}}   
!11. Personal Profile - 
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">What information is collected?  How not to be <a href="https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2012/06/how-turn-do-not-track-your-browser" target="_blank">TRACKED</a>.<br><strong>1. IP Address</strong>: Your personal computer IP address can be traced back to you identifying not only your ISP but also <a href="http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Does_an_IP_address_tell_you_where_a_computer_is?#slide=1" target="_blank"><u>your approximate location.</u></a> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="http://theconversation.com/explainer-what-is-geoblocking-13057" target="_blank"><strong>Geo Blocking</strong></a><br><strong>2. Date & Time: </strong> The exact date and time you were searching for a certain keyword will be logged. The name of the browser you use is normally also stored in search engine logs.<br><strong>3. Query Terms: </strong> The terms and keywords you searched with will be stored.<br><strong>4. Cookie ID: </strong>A unique code is embedded into the cookie and assigned to a particular computer by the search engine. It allows a search engine to learn if requests came from a particular computer while that identifiable cookie is still stored in your browser.<br><br>Using the last two items, the search engine provider can target adverts most likely to appeal to your interests. <a href="https://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs18-cyb.htm" target="_blank">	Don't let this put you off surfing!</a>&nbsp; &nbsp:&nbsp; &nbsp:<a href="http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/08/19/google_says_it_bypasses_british_law/" target="_blank">Or this</a><br>To stop Google using your profile picture and name in adverts, go to <a href="http://www.snipca.com/10351">www.snipca.com/10351</a> and <strong>untick</strong> the box against "Based on my activity, Google may....."</html>[[Five alternative Search Engines to Google|http://www.howtogeek.com/113513/5-alternative-search-engines-that-respect-your-privacy/]]<br> If you are concerned about privacy...... &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Consider "Startpage"|https://www.startpage.com/]] or just [[Google Disconnect|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/gdc/]]<br><br>~FireFox has built in tracking protection which can be activated in "About"config". For details see link.|<br> [[Ghostery|https://www.ghostery.com/en-GB/]]<br><br>[[What is my IP Address|http://whatismyipaddress.com/]]<br><br>[[What are cookies|http://www.whatarecookies.com/]]<br><br>[[How to Remove|http://www.lab99.com/how-to-remove-advertisements-from-websites]]<br><br>[[Google|https://support.google.com/ads/answer/2662850?hl=en-GB]]<br><br>[[Managing Cookies|http://help.ft.com/tools-services/how-to-manage-cookies/#axzz2eDUxod2k]]<br><br>[[ICO Advice|http://www.ico.org.uk/for_the_public/topic_specific_guides/online/cookies]]<br><br>[[EU Cookie Law|http://www.cookielaw.org/]]<br><br>[[Right to be Forgotten|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28640218]]<br><br>[[FireFox Anti-tracking|http://lifehacker.com/turn-on-tracking-protection-in-firefox-to-make-pages-lo-1706946166]]|
}}}   
!12. Copying from webpages
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Save </strong>- The least effective method is to save the page as an .html or .txt file.<br>strong>Print</strong> - Whole pages can be printed to .pdf file using the ~CUTEpdf utility. Print-preview first to check the content and format. Firefox gives the cleanest copy.<br><strong>Copy to text</strong> - Highlight the section of text and/or picture and COPY & PASTE to a word processor page or to the body of an email.<br><strong>Snipping Tool </strong>- A snipping tool is built into Vista, W7 and W8 but has to be downloaded for XP. This tool enables a selection to be cropped and saved to a .jpg file. The selection cannot extend beyond the visible section of the webpage.<br><strong>Shift-Prt Scr </strong>- Using the PRINT SCREEN key copies the whole screen to the CLIPBOARD from where it can pasted into an editor, such as Irfanview, cropped or resized and saved.<br><strong>Note taking and organisation utilities</strong> - including <strong>Evernote, OneNote and CintaNotes.</strong></html>|<br>[[CUTEpdf|http://www.cutepdf.com/products/cutepdf/writer.asp%22]]<br><br>[[Irfanview|http://www.irfanview.com/main_download_engl.htm]]<br><br>[[Use Snipping Tool|http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/tutorials/how-to-use-the-windows-snipping-tool/]]<br><br>[[Evernote|http://evernote.com/webclipper/]]<br><br>[[Note-Taking Utilities.|http://www.snapfiles.com/freeware/productivity/fwnotetaking.html]]|
}}}   
!13. Add-ons
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">All browsers have the facility to add additional facilities to the basic structure, known as Add-ons or Plug-ins. Access to ADD-ONs in the TOOLS MENU will show those already installed and access to a store of others available. In the past with slower operating systems and older versions of browser, excessive use of add-ons led to slow performance and crashing. This has been rectified with the latest browser versions and the cautious use of approved compatible add-ons improves your surfing experience. Add-ons are available for security, appearance of browser, enhancing facilities such as tabs, menu items, zoom, page preview, Internet radio, language translation, etc.&nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="https://adblockplus.org/en/tutorials" target="_blank">Adblock Plus</a>, a useful deterrent, is now <a href="http://simple-adblock.com/" target="_blank">available for IE.</a> .<br><br>Choose only Add-ons approved by the browser provider........such as <a href="https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/session-manager/" target="_blank"><strong>Session Manager</strong></a>.</html>|<br>[[Advice|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/how-do-browser-add-ons-affect-my-computer]]<br><br>[[Internet Explorer v9|<a href="http://www.howtogeek.com/115222/disable-add-ons-to-speed-up-browsing-in-internet-explorer-9/]]<br><br>[[Security Add-ons|http://www.techrepublic.com/article/five-must-have-security-browser-add-ons/]]|
}}}
!14. Security
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>SiteAdvisor is</strong> a useful indicator showing safe or dangerous sites in the <strong>search result listings.</strong>  With care you can avoid or uninstall the toolbar that comes with it.<br>An alternative is <strong>Web of Trust</strong> (WOT) which is a browser add-on providing a ''Traffic Light indicator'' of safe sites. Internet Explorer v11 has a Smart Screen Filter which automatically avoids dangerous sites, without the need for "Traffic Lights" and WOT is unavailable for this version in Windows 8.1.<br><strong>BullGuard</strong> anti-virus software provides a similar green light indicator against safe sites.<br><br><strong>Secondary Links can be dodgy.</strong> It is one thing to have a traffic lights warning against a list of <strong>search sites</strong>, but often there is no similar warning against links on that secure website which may themselves be <strong>insecure</strong>. Utilities such as WOT and good AV software may block your access, but there is no <strong>prewarning.</strong> The add-on <a href="https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/safe-preview/?src=ss" target="_blank"><strong>Safe Preview</strong></a> will give you this, if you are a FireFox or Chrome user. It offers a site check against six blacklist databases before you enter by means of an icon adjacent to the link.<br>Check Safe Preview out on some unsafe sites and see how cautious WOT is compared with the others.</html>|[[SiteAdvisor|http://www.siteadvisor.com/howitworks/index.html]]<br><br>[[WOT|http://www.mywot.com/]]<br><br>[[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br><br>[[BullGuard Features|http://www.bullguard.com/internetsecurity9/en/features.html]]|
}}}   
!15. Using Search in Windows (File) Explorer
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">When searching for a file, using the search box in Windows Explorer, you need to know at least part of the file name, and/or the date and/or the file type. <strong>Careful choice of the keywords used to search is critical.</strong><br><strong>Right clicking</strong> on a search result and selecting "Properties" will provide the file location.<br><br><strong>Use  Ctrl +F</strong> to highlight your keywords in the search results and long web pages.<br><br>Check <strong>Indexing Options</strong> and select only folders you search frequently. Keep the number of folders to a minimum to speed up search. "Indexing Options" is best found by search in the Start Menu.</html>|<br>[[Search Tutorial|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/window-on-windows/take-advantage-of-search-filters-in-windows-explorer/3915]]<br><br>[[Indexing Options|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/improve-windows-searches-using-index-faq#1TC=windows-7]]<br><br>[[SeeMac|ForMacUsers]]|
}}}

----
{{{
<<sectionTOC>>
}}}
 
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;1. It is much easier to find items in Control Panel if it "''Displays as a menu''" rather than as a linked window. Customize the START MENU in "Start Menu Properties". The tutorial can be interpreted for Vista and W7. If you have Classic Start installed for Windows 8, the same customization is done in SETTINGS.<br>2. ''A quick way'' to find a Windows Utility is to use the search box at the foot of the START MENU. Well chosen keywords are necessary so you need to know the correct name of the utility you are searching.|[[Customizing Start Menu|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/bcs4p10.html]]<br><br>[[Customize CP in W7|http://www.tweakhound.com/tweaking-windows-7/3/]]<br><br>[[Control Panel]]||
}}}
-----------------------
 
/***
|Name|SectionLinksPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#SectionLinksPlugin|
|Documentation|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#SectionLinksPlugin|
|Version|1.4.2|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|allow tiddler sections in TiddlyLinks to be used as anchor points|
This plugin enhances tiddler links so that they can include section references that ''auto-scroll to the indicated section heading'' within a tiddler (i.e., similar to the 'anchor' behavior provided in HTML by {{{<a name="foo">}}} and {{{<a href="#foo">...</a>}}}).  The {{{<<tiddler>>}}} macro syntax has also be extended to allow section references without a tiddler name, so that transclusion of //hidden sections from the same tiddler// can be easily accomplished.  The plugin also adds a new macro, <<sectionTOC>> which can auto-generate and embed a 'Table of Contents' outline view into a tiddler to enable quick navigation to sections within that tiddler.
!!!Usage
<<<
!!!!~TiddlyLink syntax
You can link to a section of a tiddler by adding the "##sectionname" syntax to the tiddlername:
{{{
[[SomeTiddler##SomeSection]]
}}}
When clicked, the tiddler is displayed and the specified section heading is automatically scrolled into view. If the tiddler title is omitted or the 'here' keyword is used, e.g.,
{{{
[[##SomeSection]] or [[here##SomeSection]]>>
}}}
then the current containing tiddler is implied by default.
!!!!HTML anchor syntax
You can use HTML syntax to create a scrollable 'anchor' location within a tiddler without use of the standard TW section heading syntax:
{{{
<html><a name="sectionname" /></html>
}}}
You can then link to that section using the enhanced TiddlyLink syntax as above.
!!!!{{{<<tiddler>>}}} macro 
The {{{<<tiddler>>}}} syntax has been extended so that when the tiddler title is omitted or the 'here' keyword is used, e.g.,
{{{
<<tiddler ##SomeSection>> or <<tiddler here##SomeSection>>
}}}
then the current containing tiddler is implied by default.
!!!!"""<<sectionTOC>>""" macro
This macro generates a 'Table of Contents' outline-style bullet list with links to all sections within the current tiddler.  Simply place the following macro at the //end of the tiddler content// (i.e., following all section headings).  Important note: //''The {{{<<sectionTOC>>}}} macro must occur at the end of the tiddler in order to locate the rendered section headings that precede it.''//
{{{
<<sectionTOC>> or <<sectionTOC className>>
}}}
To position the macro's //output// within the tiddler, you must create a special 'target element' that uses a specific classname (default='sectionTOC'), like this:
{{{
{{sectionTOC{}}}
}}}
When the {{{<<sectionTOC>>}}} macro is rendered, it will find the matching 'sectionTOC'-classed element and writes it's output there.  You can also add the macro and/or target elements directly to the [[ViewTemplate]] definition, so that every tiddler can automatically display the table of contents:
{{{
<span class='sectionTOC'></span> <!-- target element -->
...
<span macro='sectionTOC'></span> <!-- must be at end of tiddler -->
}}}
<<<
!!!Configuration
<<<
You can change the {{{<<SectionTOC>>}}} output link format by adding the following statement to a tiddler tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>
{{{
config.macros.sectionTOC.linkFormat='[[%0|##%0]]';
}}}
The default value (shown above) produces a link to each section within the tiddler, using "%0" to insert the section name into the link.  You can add extra formatting to generate additional output to suit your purposes.  For example, if you have EditSectionPlugin installed, you could include a link that invokes that plugin's popup editor directly from each item in the TOC display, like this:
{{{
config.macros.sectionTOC.linkFormat='[[%0|##%0]] <<editSection [[##%0]] [[(edit)]]>>';
}}}
<<<
!!!Examples
<<<
links to sections defined by ''TW heading syntax'' (e.g, {{{!!!sectionname}}}):{{indent{
[[SectionLinksPlugin##onClickTiddlerLink]]
[[##onClickTiddlerLink]] //(current tiddler implied)//}}}
links to anchors defined by ''HTML syntax'' (e.g., {{{<html><a href="anchorname"></html>}}}):{{indent{
[[SectionLinksPlugin##sampleanchorlink]]
[[##sampleanchorlink]] //(current tiddler implied)//}}}
<<<
!!!Revisions
<<<
2011.12.21 1.4.2 refactor sectionTOCformat to permit customization
2011.02.08 1.4.1 in isExternalLink() hijack, strip section references before testing for external link
2010.08.09 1.4.0 in scrollToSection(), added support for using HTML <a name="..."> anchor elements
2009.08.21 1.3.4 added handling to ignore leading/trailing whitespace in section references
2009.08.21 1.3.3 in createTiddlyLink(), add tiddlyLinkNonExistingSection class if matching section is not found
2009.08.14 1.3.2 in createTiddlyLink(), don't override core value for ~TiddlyLink attribute
2009.08.02 1.3.1 in sectionTOC.handler(), trim leading/trailing whitespace from generated section links
2009.08.01 1.3.0 in scrollToSection(), apply 3-tier section matching (exact, startsWith, contains)
2009.07.06 1.2.2 fixed displayTiddler() hijack
2009.07.03 1.2.1 in {{{<<sectionTOC>>}}}, suppress output if target is not found
2009.06.02 1.2.0 added support for 'here' keyword in {{{[[here##section]]}}} links and {{{<<tiddler here##section>>}}} macro
2009.04.09 1.1.1 in sectionTOC macro, make target visible when TOC is rendered.
2009.01.18 1.1.0 added {{{<<sectionTOC>>}}} macro to generate numbered-bullet links to sections of current tiddler
2009.01.06 1.0.0 converted to stand-alone plugin
2008.10.14 0.0.0 initial release (as [[CoreTweaks]] #784 - http://trac.tiddlywiki.org/ticket/784)
<<<
!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.SectionLinksPlugin= {major: 1, minor: 4, revision: 2, date: new Date(2011,12,21)};

Story.prototype.scrollToSection = function(title,section) {
	if (!title||!section) return; var t=this.getTiddler(title); if (!t) return null;
	var elems=t.getElementsByTagName('*');
	var heads=[]; var anchors=[];
	for (var i=0; i<elems.length; i++)
		if (['H1','H2','H3','H4','H5'].contains(elems[i].nodeName)) heads.push(elems[i]);
	for (var i=0; i<elems.length; i++)
		if (elems[i].nodeName=='A' && (elems[i].getAttribute('name')||'').length) anchors.push(elems[i]);
	var found=null;
	for (var i=0; i<heads.length; i++)
		if (getPlainText(heads[i]).trim()==section) { found=heads[i]; break; }
	if (!found) for (var i=0; i<heads.length; i++)
		if (getPlainText(heads[i]).trim().startsWith(section)) { found=heads[i]; break; }
	if (!found) for (var i=0; i<heads.length; i++)
		if (getPlainText(heads[i]).trim().indexOf(section)!=-1) { found=heads[i]; break; }
	if (!found) for (var i=0; i<anchors.length; i++)
		if (anchors[i].getAttribute('name')==section) { found=anchors[i]; break; }
	if (!found) for (var i=0; i<anchors.length; i++)
		if (anchors[i].getAttribute('name').startsWith(section)) { found=anchors[i]; break; }
	if (!found) for (var i=0; i<anchors.length; i++)
		if (anchors[i].getAttribute('name').indexOf(section)!=-1) { found=anchors[i]; break; }
	if (found) {
		// if section heading is collapsed, click to expand it - see [[FoldHeadingsPlugin]]
		if (hasClass(found,'foldable') && found.nextSibling.style.display=='none') found.onclick();
		// scroll *after* tiddler animation
		var delay=config.options.chkAnimate?config.animDuration+100:0;
		setTimeout('window.scrollTo('+findPosX(found)+','+findPosY(found)+')',delay);
		return found;
	}
}
//}}}
/***
!!!!core hijacks
***/
/***
!!!!!createTiddlyLink
***/
//{{{
// [[tiddlername##section]] and [[##section]]
if (!window.createTiddlyLink_section)
	window.createTiddlyLink_section=window.createTiddlyLink;
window.createTiddlyLink=function(place,title) {
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place); var tid=t?t.getAttribute('tiddler'):'';
	var parts=title.split(config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator);
	var title=parts[0]; var section=parts[1]; if (section) section=section.trim();
	if (!title.length || title.toLowerCase()=='here') title=tid;  // default=current tiddler
	arguments[1]=title;
	var btn=createTiddlyLink_section.apply(this,arguments);
	if (section) {
		btn.setAttribute('section',section);
		if (store.getTiddlerText(title+config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator+section)===null)
			addClass(btn,'tiddlyLinkNonExistingSection');
	}
	return btn;
}
//}}}
/***
!!!!!onClickTiddlerLink
***/
//{{{
if (!window.onClickTiddlerLink_section)
	window.onClickTiddlerLink_section=window.onClickTiddlerLink;
window.onClickTiddlerLink=function(ev) {
	var e=ev||window.event;	var target=resolveTarget(e); var title=null;
	while (target!=null && title==null) {
		title=target.getAttribute('tiddlyLink');
		section=target.getAttribute('section');
		target=target.parentNode;
	} 
	var t=story.findContainingTiddler(target); var tid=t?t.getAttribute('tiddler'):'';
	if (title!=tid||!section) // avoid excess scrolling for intra-tiddler links
		onClickTiddlerLink_section.apply(this,arguments);
	story.scrollToSection(title,section);
	return false;
}
//}}}
/***
!!!!! displayTiddler
***/
//{{{
if (!Story.prototype.displayTiddler_section)
	Story.prototype.displayTiddler_section=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,tiddler)
{
	var title=(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)?tiddler.title:tiddler;
	var parts=title.split(config.textPrimitives.sectionSeparator);
	var title=parts[0]; var section=parts[1]; if (section) section=section.trim();
	if (!title.length || title.toLowerCase()=='here') {
		var t=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
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}
//}}}
/***
<html><a name="sampleanchorlink" /></html>This is a sample ''anchor link'': {{{<html><a name="sampleanchorlink" /></html>}}}
!!!!!isExternalLink
***/
//{{{
if (!config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink_section)
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config.formatterHelpers.isExternalLink=function(link) {  // remove section references before testing
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}
//}}}
/***
!!!!!tiddler.handler
***/
//{{{
if (!config.macros.tiddler.handler_section)
	config.macros.tiddler.handler_section=config.macros.tiddler.handler;
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{
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	config.macros.tiddler.handler_section.apply(this,arguments);
}
//}}}
/***
!!!!sectionTOC macro
***/
//{{{
config.macros.sectionTOC = {
	targetClass: 'sectionTOC',
	linkFormat: '[[%0|##%0]]',
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
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				case 'H2': out.push('##'+link);		level=level<2?level:2; break;
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/***
!!!Invoke macro
{{{
<<sectionTOC>>
}}}
***/
// //<<sectionTOC>>
<br><br><br><br><br><br><html><span style="color:red;font-size:1.5em";><strong><u>Tips</u></strong></span>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; 1. Have a deep scan Antivirus utility installed for an emergency.<br> &nbsp' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; 2. Never click on a link in an email unless you trust the sender.</html><br><br><br><br>

''When you have read all this you will wonder if it's worth going online at all. But when you walk the dog in a wood you are cautious and have learnt to watch your step, not to trip over a stump or eat wild mushrooms. The Internet is just the same. It is a safe and valuable resource for learning and communication. So smell the flowers, enjoy the scenery.''<br><br>If you would like to compare ''[[my security strategy|MySecurityStrategy]]'' with your own, here is mine.
<br>''The Action Centre'' ( the flag icon in the System Tray area in the ~TaskBar of Windows 7) gives a quick summary of any computer security issues.<br>''For Windows 10'' if you are seeking reassurance, go to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM - SYSTEM & MAINTENANCE but otherwise leave it to Windows 10 and AV notifications.<br>''Windows Event Log''  (Control Panel - Administrative Tools) requires [[considerable study|http://www.techrepublic.com/article/simplify-the-windows-87-event-viewer-by-creating-custom-views/]] but is the ultimate source of troubleshooting information. 
! 1. Security advice
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;Some specific security advice, but note that email clients enable you to view the content of an email without [[OPENING it|http://www.howtogeek.com/135546/htg-explains-why-you-cant-get-infected-just-by-opening-an-email-and-when-you-can/]]. However, take great care with attachments. There are three overriding precautions to take:<br><br> 1. Use strong passwords,<br>2. Always hover your mouse over a link before opening it, view the URL and consider the destination,<br>3. Use real-time AV and malware protection comensurate with the risks you take ''and keep it up to date'',<br>4. And the fourth is, check for ''[[ https://|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]] vulnerability'' on a web site on which you are using your credit/debit card.<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Department of Homeland Security|http://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  [[Microsoft|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/default.aspx]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[MI5|https://www.mi5.gov.uk/home/the-threats/cyber.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[How Secure is "https://"?|http://security.stackexchange.com/questions/5/does-an-established-ssl-connection-mean-a-line-is-really-secure]]<br><br>''Don't'', for example, use your Mother's maiden name if required to provide answers to security questions to recover a forgotten username or password when that information is available on the Internet, perhaps in a Family History website. Choose security questions to which only you know the answer.|[[Security Advice|http://www.knowthenet.org.uk/knowledge-centre]]<br><br>[[Heartbleed|http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/how-to-protect-yourself-from-the-heartbleed-bug/]]<br><br>[[Heartbleed Test|https://lastpass.com/heartbleed/]]<br><br>[[Heartbleed Hit List|http://mashable.com/2014/04/09/heartbleed-bug-websites-affected/]]<br><br>[[Get Safe Online|http://www.getsafeonline.org/]]<br><br>[[Detailed Advice|https://www.getsafeonline.org/nca/]]<br><br>[[National Crime Agency|http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/crime-threats/cyber-crime]]|
}}}
|centered|k
| [[Secutity in a Public Place|https://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-yourself/using-public-computers/]] | &nbsp; - &nbsp; | [[Security Knowhow Articles|http://knowhow.com/information-article-listing.dhtml?categoryReference=109&sortOn=lastModified&country=uk]] |
!2. Passwords
{{invisibletable{
|width:54em;''Use a Strong Password'' - Speaking for myself, we are all too lax in the use of strong passwords!  Knowing that passwords using memorable words [[can be cracked|http://www.nmrc.org/pub/faq/hackfaq/hackfaq-04.html]] using a robot dictionary or a list of common words and that they are not always encrypted is a guide to making them safe and strong.<br><br>There is one clear message to hear in the matter of "passwords":<br> ''Don't use an easily remembered name or dictionary word when you choose a password.''<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How to create a strong password - [[Guide|http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2008/06/the-ultimate-guide-for-creating-strong-passwords/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Passwords Generator|http://passwordsgenerator.net/]]<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How secure is your password? - [[Test1|https://www.microsoft.com/security/pc-security/password-checker.aspx]]&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; How secure is your password?   [[Test2|http://www.passwordmeter.com/]]<br><br>''An ideal password'' looks something like: ''bReZ£4xMyKaG'' which scores 100% in Test2, but is too short to score "strong" in Test1. It is effective because it contains alternate upper and lower case letters, symbols, numbers, no repeats and 12 characters.<br><br>You can ''view those encrypted passwords'' that you have saved in ANY browser by going to CONTROL PANEL - USER ACCOUNTS - CREDENTIAL MANAGER - show (entering your PC login in password).|[[Strong Passwords|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/passwords-create.aspx]].<br><br><br><br>[[Your Passwords|Files/YourPasswords.jpg]]<br><br><br><br>[[Changing Passwords|Passwords##Changing]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[View Saved Passwords|http://www.technicalnotes.org/how-to-view-your-password-saved-in-microsoft-edge-in-windows-10/]]|
}}}
It is logical to assume that the enemy will not break into your house to steal your password but attack through your computer. ''Therefore the best option is to make a very STRONG password and write it down in a well organised NOTEBOOK'', rather than activating browser SAVING of your passwords or even using a Password Management Tool, like the encrypted one inbuilt into Firefox. Use a different password in each account.<br><br>[[Password Management Tools|http://mashable.com/2010/10/08/password-management-tools/]]. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[LastPass|https://lastpass.com/how-it-works/]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Change Password Frequently|http://lifehacker.com/5966214/how-often-should-i-change-my-passwords]] &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Creating a Password..... Contains strong language!|Files/CreatingPassword.pdf]]
<br>
!3. Stay safe when.....
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;Shopping and Banking<br><br>Using Social Networks<br><br>Using Email<br><br>Surfing<br><br>On the Move<br><br>On the Phone. Watch out for telephone scams concerning your computer<br><br>Which browser is best? &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Google Chrome is Malware|https://www.gnu.org/proprietary/malware-google.en.html]]<br><br>Downloading Apps - Don't use Third Party App stores<br><br><br>''If you suspect'' your email address has been compromised and your password stolen, use the trusted, reputable and secure site called "Haveibeenpwned?" to check. Next, read this article [[about email account hacking|http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2375028,00.asp]]. Then, change your email account password, particularly if you have unwisely used the same password for any other account. Change it in your account on your providers website (Webmail) and then in your email client. See [[Passwords|Security##Passwords]]<br><br>''Identity Theft'' <br>Cifas is a not-for-profit company working to protect businesses, charities, public bodies and individuals from financial crime.<br><br>''If you have used an Android device'' for Gmail, check that your Gmail account email has not been hacked in the Googlian Checkpoint site.|[[Shopping Online|http://www.staysafeonline.org/stay-safe-online/protect-your-personal-information/online-shopping]]<br><br>[[Social Networks|http://www.staysafeonline.org/stay-safe-online/protect-your-personal-information/social-networks]]<br><br>[[Securing Email|http://web.appstorm.net/roundups/tips-tricks/10-simple-tips-to-secure-your-email-account/]]<br><br>[[Securing Browser|https://www.us-cert.gov/ncas/tips/ST05-001]]<br><br>[[Mobile Security|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/mobile-phone-safety.aspx]] &nbsp; [[Outsde The Home|SecurityOutsideTheHome]]<br><br>[[Phone Scams|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/how-to/security/microsoft-phone-scam-dont-be-victim-3378798/]]<br><br>[[PCWorld Review|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2966127/browsers/the-best-web-browser-of-2015-firefox-chrome-edge-ie-and-opera-compared.html]]<br><br>[[Downloading Apps|http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/danger-lurks-third-party-android-app-stores-1544861]]<br><br>[[Security Myths|http://www.pctechguide.com/glossary/communications/malware-myths-facts]]<br><br>[[Have I Been Pwned?|https://haveibeenpwned.com/]]<br><br>[[If you have been|http://www.pcworld.com/article/229301/sony_pictures_hack.html]]<br><br>[[Identity Theft|https://www.cifas.org.uk/pr_for_individuals]]<br><br>[[ID Theft Protection|http://www.experian.co.uk/consumer/types-of-fraud.html]]<br><br><br>[[Goolian CheckPoint|https://gooligan.checkpoint.com/]]|
}}}  
+++[<strong>&nbsp; If you suspect unusual Internet activity</strong> when your computer is idle , click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br>''Unusual Internet Activity''<br><br>If you suspect your Internet is running slowly or that there is internet activity when your computer is idle, the cause could be:<br>1. Normal routine update of programs, Apps, drivers, news streams, cloud systems and web pages.<br>For these you will have at some time cautiously given permission to connect to the Internet.<br>2. Malicious code feeding back data from webcam, key-logging utilities and rootkit remote control.<br>Assuming your AV software has not intercepted malware, run the ~MalwareBytes utility which you always have ready installed in your PC, or run the Microsoft Safety Scanner.<br><br>''Malware Symptoms''<br><br>While these types of malware differ greatly in how they spread and infect computers, they can all produce similar symptoms. Computers that are infected with malware can exhibit any of the following symptoms:<br>Increased CPU usage<br>Slow computer or web browser speeds<br>Problems connecting to networks<br>Freezing or crashing<br>Modified or deleted files<br>Appearance of strange files, programs, or desktop icons<br>Programs running, turning off, or reconfiguring themselves <br>(malware will often reconfigure or turn off antivirus and firewall programs)<br>Strange computer behaviour<br>Emails/messages being sent automatically and without user’s knowledge (a friend receives a strange email from you that you did not send) <br><br>''Internet activity can be monitored by:''<br><br>1. Viewing the ~TaskManager, Performance tab choosing "Internet" or "Ethernet",<br>2. Downloading and using the safe real-time Internet monitoring utility Glassware, <br>3. Recording a period of activity with the Windows "netstat command"and analysing it with tools in "~SysInternal Tools".  See link.|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[List of Malware Types|https://www.veracode.com/blog/2012/10/common-malware-types-cybersecurity-101]]<br><br>[[Rootkits|http://www.techradar.com/news/computing/pc/how-to-discover-hidden-rootkits-1095174]]<br><br>[[MS Security Center|http://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/help/remediation.aspx]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Glassware Download|https://www.glasswire.com/download/]]<br><br>[[Netstat Command|http://www.howtogeek.com/98601/easily-monitor-your-computers-internet-connection-activity/]]<br><br>[[SysInternal Tools|http://www.howtogeek.com/school/sysinternals-pro/lesson10/all/#]]|
}}}
===

!4. Spam
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Most email providers incorporate spam filters at the Webmail stage. This spam is not downloaded into a client. Using an email client not only provides ''another'' spam filter but ''adds to email password security.''<br>See the "Email Help" page for your particular provider for details, e.g. for [[Btinternet,|http://bt.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/9907]]   for [[Talktalk,|http://help2.talktalk.co.uk/search/core/security?f[0]=im_field_category%3A56]]   [[for gMail,|https://support.google.com/chat/answer/46526?hl=en]]     for [[Outlook|http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff657852.aspx]]<br><br>How to minimise Spam<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Phishing Emails|Topic%20Slides/Email00%20PhishingEmail.JPG]] &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; [[Ransom Spam Attachments|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-24964426]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Avoiding Scams|http://www.moneysavingexpert.com/family/avoid-phishing-scams]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Action Fraud|http://www.actionfraud.police.uk/fraud-az-phishing]]<br><br>''ALWAYS hover your mouse'' over a link in an email to ensure that the actual URL is the same as the typed URL and appears reasonable, even if the email appears to be genuine. Be particularly careful with TIFF image files.|[[Stopping Spam|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/stopping-spam-emails]]<br><br>[[Phish Recognition|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/phishing-symptoms.aspx]]<br><br>[[Phishing Quiz|http://www.opendns.com/phishing-quiz/]]|
}}}
+++[<strong>&nbsp; Read more about "hovering"</strong> , please click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">You can learn so much by hovering your mouse pointer over a link. This will reveal the true hyperlink under the guise of a spammers deception. Have a go at this <strong>safe demonstration.</strong> First ''click'' the link as requested; then, afterwards hover over it and see the truth.<br><br><p align="left">This link will take you to the Google search engine site.<br><strong> Please click on it. <a href=" http://www.bing.com/" target="_blank"><u>https://www.google.co.uk/</u></a></strong><br><br>When you return here, hover over the link and look for the message your browser gives you at the bottom left of the page. It shows you the true hyperlink hidden under the deceptive instruction. The spammer can play the same trick with images, buttons and adverts.<br><br>Falling for this simple trick in a phishing email will probably load you computer with malware. If you are lucky your well chosen strong anti-virus utility will protect you - <strong> but it may not.</strong><br><br>Just delete this type of email and, if your email client has the facility, <strong>block the domain</strong> at the same time as it is sent to "junk" or "trash".</html>|width:4em;.|width:20em;<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Dealing with Phishing Emails|http://blog.returnpath.com/blog/lauren-soares/10-tips-on-how-to-identify-a-phishing-or-spoofing-email]]|
}}}
===
!5. ~AntiVirus Software
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;What is malware?<br>Practical advice about malware<br>The 10 best ''free antivirus'' programs<br>Microsoft Security Essentials<br>Malwarebytes Review<br>''Malwarebytes'' is an excellent malware removal tool. The free version has no real-time protection but should be installed in your PC ready for use in emergency and is compatible with Microsoft Security Essentials (W7), Windows Defender (W8) and many ~Anti-Virus utilities. When installing, uncheck "Trial Version" to obtain FREE version. Also, learn about ''[[Microsoft Security Scanner|http://www.microsoft.com/security/scanner/en-gb/default.aspx]].''<br><br>''Warning.'' Other than from a manufacturer's site, never download "free" software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8) alone. Always use a strong virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware.<br>''Paid-for versions of antivirus'' often contain many additional security features - such as password managers,  parental control, PC optimisation and ad-blockers needed to protect your PC against a growing variety of threats. A good anti-virus utility ''gives protection agains five threats: viruses, other malware, identity theft, botnets and [[keyloggers|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/4-ways-protect-keyloggers/]]''. It should also report on any utilities requiring ''update'' without which they are vulnerabilities.<br>''Firewall.'' Your Windows Firewall (and Windows Defender) should be OFF if a firewall is provided by your AV software, and not automatically turned off by it, to avoid conflicts.<br>To check ''Firewall Status'', go to CONTROL PANEL - SYSTEM & SECURITY - WINDOWS FIREWALL.|[[Types of Malware|http://ist.mit.edu/security/malware]]<br>[[Viruses|http://www.ucs.cam.ac.uk/security/malware]]<br>[[Free Antivirus Programs|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/ten-best-antivirus-programs/]]<br>[[MSE Website|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/software/utilities/anti-malware-software/microsoft-security-essentials-640587/review]]<br><br>[[Malwarebytes|http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/windows-and-office/review-cover-all-the-bases-with-malwarebytes/]]<br><br>[[Download Malwarebytes|https://www.malwarebytes.org/mwb-download/]]<br><br>[[BullGuard Review|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/reviews/software/3481172/bullguard-internet-security-2014-review/]]<br><br>[[BullGuard Download|http://www.bullguard.com/downloads.aspx]]<br><br>[[Best Paid-For AV|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/best-antivirus-10-programs-on-test-924608]]<br><br>[[Antivirus software Review|http://anti-virus-software-review.toptenreviews.com/]]<br><br>[[Virus Encyclopedia|http://www.pandasecurity.com/homeusers/security-info/61252/Mediaplex]]<br><br>[[Two Firewalls|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001273.htm]]<br><br>[[Best AV for Windows 10|http://www.howtogeek.com/225385/what%E2%80%99s-the-best-antivirus-for-windows-10-is-windows-defender-good-enough/]]|
}}}   
!6. Modem Router Security
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;This is your first line of defence. Without protection, an itinerant surfer could stand by your garden gate and use your broadband account for nefarious purposes. You would have created an unsecured HOTSPOT. A strong WPA password is important. Check in Network & Sharing Centre - Wifi Properties.<br>The router itself may also be protected by a ''rediculously simple'' username and password when it was first installed. Change this password to stop neighbours (or a hacker) using your account, because anyone can guess the simple password used.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; About Routers &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[WEP vs WPA|http://www.openxtra.co.uk/articles/wpa-vs-wep]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[Router Crime|http://www.police.qld.gov.au/programs/cscp/eCrime/wireless.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[Router Security|http://www.onguardonline.gov/articles/0013-securing-your-wireless-network]]|[[Going Wireless|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/bc/bcs6p3.html]]<br><br>[[Security Tips|http://www.tripwire.com/state-of-security/vulnerability-management/wireless-router-vulnerabilities-leave-enterprise-networks-vulnerable/]]<br><br>[[Security Flaws|http://blogs.computerworld.com/network-security/23443/how-and-why-check-port-32764-your-router]]<br><br>[[Huawei|http://www.bit-tech.net/news/hardware/2013/12/17/bt-back-door/1]]<br><br>[[F-Secure Router Checker|https://campaigns.f-secure.com/router-checker/en_global/]]|
}}}
|centered|k
| [[How Test Your Router from Inside|Files/TestYourRouterfromInside.jpg]]| &nbsp;|[[How Test Your Router from Outside|Files/TestYourRouterfromOutside.jpg]]]|[[Test from Outside NOW|https://www.grc.com/x/portprobe=32764]]|
------
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:53em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Domestic surveillance</strong> There is a wealth of devices available that are designed to enhance domestic surveillance and give warning of intrusion.. Many of these work in conjunction with a PC, tablet or mobile. They are therefore devices connected to a Network and usually deliver their output at a distance from the user. There is a whole industry devoted to this subject but many devices are available now for DIY installation. The Worksheet page on this topic is designed to enable you to apply your general computing knowledge to setting up a system yourself.<br><br>The various devices available fall into these groups:<br><br><strong>1. Indoor or Weatherproof Outdoor.</strong><br> This is simply a feature to watch for when purchasing. This page concentrate on Outdoor weatherproof devices although the features of both are otherwise identical.<br><br><strong>2. Unidirectional or PTZ</strong><br>A bullet camera is a standard unidirectional camera. It may have a zoom facility. PTZ stands for "Pan-Tilt-Zoom" and may be protected by a dome or exposed. A Dome camera may or may not have PTZ.<br><br><strong>3. CCTV or PIR Camera. </strong> Some cameras provide continuous video of a scene; others take a still image when alerted. Most cameras have IR night vision of varing strength. PIR cameras provide a single image of intrusion.They make recordings straight onto an SD card whenever movement is detected<br><br><strong>4. Single unit or Multiple device systems</strong><br>Single units may be grouped simply on the LAN or have a system control box.<br><br><strong>5. Local Area Network (LAN), Internet connected, or line connected.</strong><br>Those working on your LAN are described as "WiFi" or "cable cameras". Those using the Internet are described as "IP Cameras". Some units have all three capabilities.<br><br><strong>6. Those powered by mains or battery.</strong><br> Mains powered units are usually connected through a 12 Volt 2 amp adapter. Battery powered WiFi units are rare but useful and usually offer only still images on alert. <a href="http://www.broadbandbuyer.com/store/ip-cameras/poe-ip-cameras/?t=743&sort=1#content" target="_blank"><u>Power over ethernet (PoE).</u></a> is an alternative way to deliver power remotely. <br></html>|<html> &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/bullet2.jpg" style="height:90px; width: 120px" /><br><strong>Bullet Camera<br><br><img alt=""  src="Files/Dome.jpg" style="height:90px; width: 120px" /><br>Dome Camera<br><br><img alt=""  src="Files/PTZ.jpg" style="height:90px; width: 120px" /><br>PTZ Camera<br><br><img alt=""  src="Files/PIR.jpg" style="height:90px; width: 120px" /><br>PIR Camera</html><br><br>[[Typical Product Range|http://www.cricklewoodelectronics.com/CCTV-and-Security.html]]<br><br>[[Battery Powered Netgear|http://www.vuezone.com/use-ideas/battery-powered-camera]]<br><br>[[Buyer's Guide|https://www.safety.com/p/outdoor-security-cameras-buying-guide/#types]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Guide 2|http://www.vueville.com/home-security/cctv/ip-cameras/best-ip-camera-2016-recommendations/#best-ip-camera-2016-recommendations-summary]]|
}}}
+++[List of Keywords, Definitions and Cameras, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
<br>
''Glossary''
<br>
Use these keywords for Google search to find the type of camera you need and to interpret camera specifications.<br>
Line &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Ethernet Cable
CCTV  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Closed Circuit TV system in which signals are not publicly distributed but are monitored.
Webcam &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;   A video camera connected to a computer, allowing its images to be seen by Internet users.
IP Camera &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  A camera accessed by ~WiFi or the Internet.
PIR  &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Passive Infrared Sensor is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR) light radiating from objects in its field of view. 
IR  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Infra Red - Radiation at the red end of the light spectrum.
PTZ  &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Pan - Tilt - Zoom motion facility
LAN  &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Local Area Network - The network consisting of your router, PC and other connected devices.
IP address   &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Internet Protocol Address - a unique string of numbers separated by full stops that identifies each Internet device.
MAC address   &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  Media Access Control address - a unique identifier string of numbers that identifies an interface on a network
DHPC &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Allows devices needing an IP address to request one automatically when they are starting up
~PoE  &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Power over Ethernet - where not only data but power also is delivered through an ethernet cable.
SSID &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Service Set Identifier or network name is a sequence of characters that uniquely names a wireless local area network (WLAN).
WPA    &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  ~Wi-Fi Protected Access - the security protocol requiring a password to access a network.
DNS  &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Domain Name System - The Internet's system for converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses.
GUI  &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Grapical User Interface - What you see on your screen and enables control of the utility, application or program.
Server &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; A computer on a network, such as the Internet, that distributes information to other ~PCs. 
<br>
''Suggested Camera Suppliers''<br>
[[Dericam|http://www.dericam.net/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Sumpple|http://www.sumpple.com/products.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Wanscam|http://www.wanscam.com/products/#]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Hikvision|http://www.hikvision.com/en/products_157.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Dahua|http://www.dahuasecurity.com/uk/category.php?cid=574]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Foscam|http://foscam.co.uk/]]
<br>
''Suggested IP Camera Software''<br>
[[IP Camera Viewer|http://www.deskshare.com/ip-camera-viewer.aspx]]  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Blue Iris|http://blueirissoftware.com/]]  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[iSpy Connect|https://www.ispyconnect.com/]]
----
===
!! Positioning
{{invisibletable{
|width:53em;''Positioning needs thought and careful planning.'' Height gives wider coverage. Choice of a lower position is often restricted by a PTZ camera's ability  to tilt up to the horizontal; many are limited to 15 degrees down from the horizontal. The choice of position is often limited by the combined availability of a power source, ~WiFi signal strength, esthetics of a line connection and access to service and reset the camera.<br>''~WiFi signal strength'' is often the limiting factor even with an extender. A nine inch wall or a single sheet of window glass attenuates the ~WiFi signal strength by 50%. A solution might be offered by compormise using ethernet cable from the camera to the indoor ~WiFi reception point.|[[PTZ with 90 degree Tilt|http://www.wanscam.com/productshow-14-69-1.html]]<br><br>[[Anatomy of a Burglar|http://www.ackermansecurity.com/resources/blog/top-3-places-to-install-security-cameras-to-catch-burglars]]<br><br>[[Camera Location|http://www.cctvstoreuk.com/pages/locating-your-cameras]]<br><br>[[Other Uses|http://www.redspan.com/ip-cameras/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[And Others|http://avonsurveillance.com/cctv/]]|
}}}

 
!! Local Area Network (LAN), Internet connected, or line connected.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong> Line connected.</strong><br>Connection by ethernet cable is the easiest, the most reliable and least exciting method of connection. It does however often require many cable clips, many holes in brickwork, the need for resealing against damp intrusion, restriction of monitor position and the risk of tripping over cables. All these could contribute problems of esthetics and safety. <br><strong>A Power Over Ethernet (POE) Camera </strong>is one which, in contrast to a wireless camera, is powered through the data ethernet line using an injector adapter. This offers a solution where power and WiFi are not jointly avaiable at the location required for the camera. <br><br><strong> Local Area Network (LAN)</strong><br>This type of connection (CCTV) to your monitoring screen treats the security unit as just any other periferal device connected to you LAN such as a printer, TV or shared PC. The usual Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) password can be set up. It requires a strong WiFi signal especially with a PTZ camera to which movement instructions are sent through the RF connection. A suitably chosen router extension is often needed to amplify the line-of-sight signal to and from the unit. For most routers and extenders, this is a simple process assisted by a wizard.<br>As with all connected devices an IP address is allocated by your router and knowledge of this is required to set up the software which captures and presents the video or image display. The associated software will contain an IP address and MAC address search facility, but in most cases these addresses are entered automatically from the search facility.<br>The IP address of each camera is allocated by the router through which the video streams. To avoid a change of IP address each time your router is rebooted, setting a fixed IP address in your router settings maybe desired.<br><br><strong>Internet connected</strong><br>IP Cameras are the most difficult to set up with Internet access requiring the use of a free or paid for DNS server facility provided by a third party, often the camera manufacturer. However, this type of connection does offer remote access on a mobile or tablet, etc while away from the property.<br><br>In most cases you will find the camera software and wizards will make connection easy. Familiarity with accessing your Router settings would also be an advantage, using http://www.routerlogin.com or the IP address of the router. If you require access away from home, you might arm yourself with awareness of DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), Port Forwarding and Static IP Addresses. </html>|<br><br>[[Camera Connection|http://www.brickhousesecurity.com/category/video+surveillance+security+cameras/how+ip+cameras+work.do]]<br><br><br><br>[[POE Splitter Kits|https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B01KWZNNO2/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1]]<br><br><br><br>[[IP Address|RemoteAccess##IP Address]]<br><br>[[DHPC|http://whatismyipaddress.com/dhcp]]<br><br>[[Netgear Extenders|http://www.netgear.co.uk/home/products/networking/wifi-range-extenders/EX6120.aspx]]<br><br>[[Router Extender Setup|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/how-to/network-wifi/how-set-up-router-as-repeater-summary-3633135/]]<br><br>[[Static vs Dynamic IP|http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/difference-static-ip-dynamic-ip-address/]]<br><br>[[DNS and Port Forwarding|http://enterprise.sourceforge.net/configuring_routers_to_use_dynamic_dns_and_port_forwarding.htm]]<br><br>[[IP Connection|http://www.cnet.com/uk/how-to/diy-home-surveillance-with-ip-network-cameras/]]<br><br>[[Port Forwarding Guide 1|http://www.noip.com/support/knowledgebase/general-port-forwarding-guide/]]<br><br>[[Port Forwarding Guide 2|https://portforward.com/default.htm]]<br><br>[[Using DHCP|http://compnetworking.about.com/cs/protocolsdhcp/g/bldef_dhcp.htm]]<br><br>[[Port Forwarding|http://www.howtogeek.com/66214/how-to-forward-ports-on-your-router/]]|
}}}

!! Monitoring Apps and Software.
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Most cameras are accompanied by monitorig software and ~APPs for PC, tablet and mobile. Beware of Chinese software. It tends to be unintuitive, to assume you are telepathic and often lacks empathy with the user. Free third party software for compatible cameras is also available and there are many ~APPs in Android, Apple and Windows stores. Avoid ~SightHound (AKA Vitamin D) which is over intrusive in Windows and runs uninvited in the background after being closed.<br>''The open source iSpy software is good; Deskshare listed IP Camera Viewer is very good, but the 21 day free trial then modestly priced Blue Iris is excellent.'' Check that your chosen camera manufacturer and model is listed in the software before purchasing your camera. You will then be certain the unit you purchase has compatible software with the necessary features, e.g. PTZ controls.<br>''Browser View.''  Most camera video can be streamed to a browser by inserting the camera IP addrees in the address bar using the format http://192.168.x.x. Some cameras will automatically download control software/plugins to the browser.<br>''Additional Features.''  Free or Demo software has limited facility. Paid-for software will possibly provide such features as: snapshots, recording, watchdog, alerts by email, bell, and text message, face recognition, preset PTZ, remote access with web server, scheduling and speaker microphone connection.|[[Deskshare Software|http://www.deskshare.com/download.aspx]]<br><br>[[iSpy Software|https://www.ispyconnect.com/download.aspx#]]<br><br>[[More choices|http://listoffreeware.com/list-of-best-free-cctv-security-surveillance-software/]]<br><br>[[For Windows 10|http://www.ilovefreesoftware.com/08/featured/5-best-webcam-surveillance-software-for-windows-10.html]]<br><br>[[Blue Iris|http://blueirissoftware.com/]]|
}}}
!! On Line Security
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Security of your camera becomes an issue when remote access is uses. Defence includes changing the default camera password, using a port in the 8100 and above range instead of the default port and checking the log regularly to see which IP addresses have attempted access.<br><br>''Remote Access.'' Remote access setup is not difficult but watch security.<br>1. Create a static IP address for the camera.<br>2. Set up Port Forwarding.<br>3. Change ID and password.|<br>[[Passwords]]|
}}}
!! In Summary
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;1. The quality and reliability of different makes of IP camera varies widely. Careful study of user reviews is essential.<br>2. The most reliable way to view camera video stream is with the Internet Explorer v 11 browser. It is very difficult, in spite of the configuration options offered, to find one program which will accommodate two cameras of different manufacture. Blue Iris provides the best facility. The best solution is always to have a bank of matched cameras.||
}}}
-------
<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''At home you are relatively safe using the Internet, if you have:''<br><br>1. ~WiFi with a Security Password set,<br>2. Antivirus software installed which protects against, Identity Theft, Spyware and Malware,<br>3. A knowledge of, and skill to combat, the dangers of phishing emails and doggy websites.<br><br>''However as soon as you are mobile and venture outside your home, a new set of threats exist.''|<br><br><br>[[Security]]<br><br>[[USBMemorySticks]]|
}}}
! Security on the Move
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;As soon as you connect to a public hotspot in the Library or in a ~CyberCafe, new risks occur:<br><br>1. People gaining access to your online activity if you are using an unsecured or illicit wireless network.<br>2. 'Shoulder surfing’ – people viewing your screen.<br>3. Loss or theft of your computer, smartphone or tablet.<br>4. Malware, including spyware, on public computers.<br>5. Theft of personal information from, or access to browsing history on public computers.|[[Protecting Yourself|https://www.getsafeonline.org/protecting-yourself/using-public-computers/]]<br><br>[[Five Tips|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/public-pc.aspx]]<br><br>[[Smartphones|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/security/online-privacy/mobile-phone-safety.aspx]]|

!VPN - Virtual Private Networks
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;If you surf frequently on the move, you might be interested in VPN.<br><br>See [[Virtual|Virtual##3]]|[[VPN|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2030763/how-and-why-to-set-up-a-vpn-today.html]]<br><br>[[Play it Safe|http://www.twortw.com/2010/03/30/how-to-play-it-safe-in-an-internet-cafe/]]|
----


 
<br><br><br>
!!!''Example 1.''
Read the following sentence and ask yourself if you understand it.
''"The base of the hexadecimal number system is sixteen"''<br>
If you do understand the statement, answer these questions:<br>(a) What is a "number system"?<br>(b) What is the 11th digit in this number system?<br>(c) What is the definition of "base"?<br>(d) What relates the values 10, 16 and 10000?<br>
If you did not understand the statement, did you ask yourself questions (a) and (c)?
What remedial action did you take? Can you list some facts and concepts that you learnt? Could you explain what a number system is to another person?<br>What have you learnt about "understanding" from this example?<br>
!!!''Example 2.''
Watch this short skill video once and ask yourself if you could repeat this operation on your own computer running Windows 7.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40Wz6DwMJOA
<br>If you think you could, then:<br>(a) On which icon was the mouse pointer first placed?<br>(b) List the subsequent steps to finding the System Restore dialogue box.<br>(c) What was the purpose of carrying out this sequence of steps?<br>(d) What can one do once the operation is completed?<br>
If you were not confident that you could repeat the operation on your own computer, what did you do?
List the other basic skills you think you needed to have to watch the video and to carry out the operation on your own computer.<br>
!!!''Example 3.''
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;''Take an example'' in which prior knowledge is part of general knowledge.<br><br>How would you check that a person knew what a CUBE was?<br><br>You would ask them to select a cube from a variety of shapes.<br>You would invite them to look at it from all directions. Then you would ask them to list and describe its features. You would look for:-<br>1. It has six faces and eight corners<br>2. Adjacent faces were at right angles to each other.<br>3. Opposite faces were parallel.<br>4. There are 12 edges.<br>5. Each edge is the same length.<br>6. Each face is a square.<br><br>This done, you would be satisfied they UNDERSTOOD what a CUBE was.<br><br>The PRIOR KNOWLEDGE assumed was knowing the meaning of face, square, corner, right angle, opposite, parallel, edge and length. |<html> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/cube.jpg" style="height:180px; width: 230px" /></html>|
}}}
--------
<br><br><br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''You've just bought a sparkling new computer, preferably on line, resisted the temptation to spend £300/hour having it set up commercially and just about to muster the courage to switch it on for the first time.''||
}}}
!Initial Actions
''1. To Get Started''
##Read the ''manual'' - the setting up chapter.
##If there is a wireless keyboard and mouse, insert batteries and USB dongle. If wired, plug into USB port.
##Link it to a power source and switch on.
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''2. Initial set up''<br>The setup screen appears, follow the onscreen instructions and complete the requests for a language, to accept the terms of use, to personalize, to connect wirelessly, to complete other set up choices and then log on for the first time. See the paragraphs on each item below. You are well on your way to saving £300/hour commercial cost.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''a. Language'' - be careful to choose English GB if this is available and differentiated from English US.<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''b. Personalize'' -<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Computer Name''  Make sure you choose a simple unique computer name. You will use this later when setting up sharing and HomeGroup.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''Password.'' Create a Microsoft Account. If you are the soul user, choose the option not to need a password to log on, unless the PC will be used in insecure locations and you need this protection. With W8 a Microsoft account is free and facilitates many benefits. By-passing the log-on password can be set later in "Classic Shell". Use the RUN command with "netplwiz" (without quotes) and uncheck the requirement for a password.<br> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''User Accounts.''  When you set up a PC with your name, you are by default the administrator user (perhaps using your first and surname) . Further "User Accounts" can then be setup later for others. If you are not the sole user of the PC, it is more secure to set up also a user account for yourself (using your first name as your ''Username''), but you may be asked for a password each time you install new software. This becomes the name of the folder which holds all your personal data, documents, photos, etc. and distinguishes it from the data belonging to other users. Distinguish between Administrator, User (Local) Account and Microsoft Account.<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''c. ~WiFi Security'' - Choose ~WPA2 TKIP if available and a strong password. [[This is your second line of defence, the router password being the first.|Files/YourPasswords.jpg]] Make a note of the strong password. See [[SECURITY|Security##Passwords]] page para 2.<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''d. Other setup options.''  All will be simple and most can be decided later.<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; ''e. Log on'' for the first time and study any tutorials provided.<br><br>''3. Virus Protection.'' Your first priority is to ensure your protection against malware, once you travel outside the safe setup contact with Microsoft. If your new machine operates on W8, then the freely included Windows Defender is perfectly adequate for our everyday use. If you are on W7 then download the free Microsoft Security Essentials. This likewise is perfectly adequate for everyday protection, provided you are very cautious with downloads and email attachments and links. There is no need to spend on virus/malware protection unless you are determined to venture onto dodgy websites. Open this virus protection program and ensure that Real Time Protection is ON. Downloading WOT (Web of Trust) tells which are the doggy. See the [[Search page para 14.|Search##Security]]<br>''Warning.'' Never download free software depending on Microsoft Security Essentials (W7) or Windows Defender (W8) alone. Always use a strong virus protection tool with real-time protection against malware.<br><br>''4. Getting Folders Organized.'' In the folder with your name on it you should find four folders already made for you. They are MY DOCUMENTS, MY PICTURES, MY MUSIC and MY VIDEOS. Don't delete these basic folders because Windows recognizes these names for other uses. By adding well named sub-folders you create an ordered system which facilitates easy search as you develop it. ''This is by far the most important setting up you will ever do in your computer.''||[[Manuals Online|http://www.manualsonline.com/]]<br><br>[[iFixIt|https://www.ifixit.com/Device/Computer_Hardware]]<br><br>[[Manual Library|http://www.manualslib.com/brand/]]<br><br><br><br>[[WPA|http://www.openxtra.co.uk/articles/wpa-vs-wep]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[User Account|http://www.howtogeek.com/school/windows-network-sharing/lesson1/all/]]<br><br>[[Administrator|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows-vista/what-is-an-administrator-account]]<br><br>[[Change UA Name|http://www.sevenforums.com/tutorials/147545-user-profile-folder-change-user-account-folder-name.html]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[AntiVirusSoftware]]<br><br><br>[[Best AV for Windows 10|http://www.howtogeek.com/225385/what%E2%80%99s-the-best-antivirus-for-windows-10-is-windows-defender-good-enough/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Getting Organised]]|
}}}
!Transferring Utilities and Data.
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''5. Hoping to transfer favourite software,'' documents and images is often the reason people spend on professional set up. If you are changing from XP, forget it, most utility software will be out of date and incompatible - but not all. A fresh start is cathartic!  If you are upgrading from W7 or even Vista, then it is worth considering the options.<br><br>''Transferring Utilities'' - In order to transfer software from your previous computer, you will need either the original software disk to reinstall on the new computer, or have downloaded the installation file (.exe and associated files)  and saved it in the download folder of your old PC. Without special software, you cannot transfer a program already installed on your old machine without having the original installation files. It is these you transfer, not the installed program.  ''Microsoft ~EasyTransfer'' (used with a special cable) may help especially from XP and Vista, but a fresh start on Windows settings is preferable, while using old software on a more recent operating system such as W7 or W8 may have ''compatibility issues.'' There are masses of freeware W7 and W8 utilities available for download from the Internet. However there is software to transfer installed programs. ''Laplink'' is an established software house which I would trust but have not used for this purpose.<br><br>''Transferring Email'' - In the FILE menu of your old email client you will find an EXPORT command. Your contacts and old emails can be exported separately into files which can be transferred to the new computer, and then IMPORTED into the new client. There are a number of different export file types so check which file type the new client will import and choose the common one.<br><br>''6. File Transfer between computers.'' <br><br>Remember you must never link two ~PCs together by USB port to port without a ''special cable''.<br><br>You can use a memory stick, use the sharing facilities of the two computers or set up a HOMEGROUP which both ~PCs can join. The files concerned will be visible in Windows Explorer. Use copy and paste.<br>''Homegroup'' - This is the simplest and most automatic method. See [[NETWORK|Networks]] page para 2 (Sharing).<br>''File Sharing facility'' - Homegroup will not work with XP or Vista, so set up file sharing in both computers. See [[NETWORK|Networks]] page para 2 (Sharing).<br>''Use of External Backup'' - If you have used an external backup hard disk for your old machine, you will realize transferring is simple.|[[How to|http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/tech-tips-and-tricks/how-to-transfer-files-to-a-new-computer.html]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[View Saved Passwords|http://www.technicalnotes.org/how-to-view-your-password-saved-in-microsoft-edge-in-windows-10/]]<br><br><br><br>[[EasyTransfer|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows7/how-does-windows-easy-transfer-make-setting-up-a-computer-easier]]<br><br>[[Download EasyTransfer|http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/download/details.aspx?id=4503]]<br><br>[[Laplink|http://www.laplink.com/landingpages/pcmoverpro/unbranded-gbp_withNav.html?x-affiliatenetwork=google]]<br><br>[[Compatibility|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/what-is-program-compatibility]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[USBMemorySticks]]<br><br>[[HomeGroup|http://www.computershopper.com/feature/13-essential-steps-set-up-your-new-pc/(page)/11]]|
}}}
! Further Setup
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''7. Nearly Finished.''  You may have spent all day achieving the above but you have the satisfaction of saving £120 during the day and will have become your own master. The remaining setup is to make the computer meet your personal needs and would still be needed even after professional setup.<br><br>''8. Wireless Keyboard & Mouse.''<br>The most important lesson you will ever learn about Wireless periferal devices which require a small USB receiver plugged into your PC, is ALWAYS to store this USB dongle CLOSELY ATTACHED to the device when not in use. Most mouse dongles use RF connection rather than bluetooth connection and ARE UNIQUE to the device model. There is a reasonalble conspiraacy theory that manufacturers maximise their sales by not providing replacement dongles for older devices. ''Logitech'' provides a solution to the lost dongle problem by selling a "Universal Receiver" which is compatible with a number of their devices listed on their site. Logitech thus provides a solution to the lost dongle conspiracy theory at the cost of belonging to the Logitech family of devices.<br><br>''Shared Keyboard and mouse.'' If you have two Computers and two screens and want to use one mouse and keyboard, there is some reliable Microsoft software which will enable this. &nbsp; [[Mouse Without Boarders|http://download.cnet.com/Mouse-without-Borders/3000-2072_4-75788880.html]]|[[Some Tips|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/11]]<br><br>[[More Tips|http://www.laptopmag.com/advice/how-to/out-of-the-box-laptop-tips.aspx]]<br><br>[[Computer Basics|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics]]<br><br>[[Logitech Dongle|http://www.amazon.co.uk/ORIGINAL-Logitech-Unifying-Receiver-Replacement/dp/B005GB31PE]]<br><br>[[Unifying Software|http://support.logitech.com/en_ch/software/unifying]]<br><br>[[One Mouse 2 PCs|http://www.techsupportalert.com/content/control-two-pcs-one-mouse-freebie-microsoft.htm]]|
}}}
+++[Further Setup - Remaining Jobs, click here.=I|click for information or press Alt-I]
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<br>The remaining jobs are:-<br>''Mouse Pad'' - The laptop mouse pad benefits from personalization, particularly the double click speed and the pointer speed. See [[FAQ|FAQBasic]] page para.14.  Also, Google search the keywords SETUP LAPTOP TOUCHPAD <your manufacturer and model> because laptops differ.<br>''Start Menu in W8'' - See [[WINDOWS 8|Windows 8]] page para 7.<br>''Task Bar'' - See [[FAQ|FAQBasic]] page para. 17<br>''Screen Text size'' - Adjust by going to CONTROL PANEL - DISPLAY.<br>''Windows Update'' - Go to CONTROL PANEL - WINDOWS UPDATE and tick automatic.<br>''Default Programs'' - Once your utilities are installed, check file associations<br>''Sound'' - Go to CONTROL PANEL - SOUND and familiarize yourself with the controls which work by default settings until you might add external speakers.<br>''Power Settings'' - In CONTROL PANEL - POWER OPTIONS - adjust to suit.<br>''Desktop Theme'' - In CONTROL PANEL - PERSONALISATION - choose a desktop theme with an uncluttered light background on which it is easy to see Shortcut Icons.<br>''Update Drivers'' - When you connect your peripherals (printer, memory sticks), their DRIVERS may be out of date, even in a new computer which has been on the shelf for a while since manufacture, you may need to update them. Often this is automatic. Update using the facilities in Windows,(Windows Update and Device Manager) rather than searching manually on the Internet, other than on the manufacturer's support page.<br>''Download UK English Language pack'' - to replace Americanisms on your PC by selecting "Language" in Control Panel and adding. Then check advanced settings. Language settings on each program (eg Microsoft Office) then need checking.<br>''Create a Repair Disk'' - Finally, should you have a fatal computer crash, a repair disk will enable you to boot your PC independently of your hard drive and make repairs. A 32GB memory stick is recommended.<br>....and [[how to use|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-use-a-system-repair-disc-to-restore-windows.html]] the disk. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[BackUpRestore]]<br>''Product Keys.'' It is a good insurance to keep a record of "Product Keys", the five group code necessary to reinstall your operating system and Office utilities. A safe and unintrusive program that finds these in your system is [[ProduKey|http://www.nirsoft.net/utils/product_cd_key_viewer.html]]|<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Default Programs|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qsPgSZI24s]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Drivers|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows/update-drivers-recommended-links#update-drivers-recommended-links=windows-vista]]<br><br>[[Device Manager|http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/d/devicema.htm]]<br><br>[[Finding Drivers|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000644.htm]]<br><br>[[W7 Repair Guide|http://pcsupport.about.com/od/windows7/ht/system-repair-disc-windows-7.htm]]<br>[[W8 Repair Guide|http://pcsupport.about.com/od/repair-recovery/a/recovery-drive-windows-8.htm]]<br>[[Video Guide|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/create-a-system-repair-disc]]<br><br><br>[[Your Windows 10]]|
}}}
===
!''In Summary''
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The more recent your version of Windows, the more automatic is the recovery from error. ''The best way to improve performance is often merely to reboot the PC.'' The system then does it's own housekeeping. All that remains then is to learn how to setup the PC for your own convenience as operator. This will give the perception of better PC performance because we are often the weak link.|
}}}

----

{{{
<<sectionTOC>>
}}}
	  	
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>This page is aimed at those cautious about the wisdom of buying on line.</strong> The BUYING NEW page is specific to computer hardware purchases. This page is aimed at general on-line shopping and includes banking. When read, much will seem obvious, but while offering reassurance, it also highlights the pitfalls.  We have moved on from saving our high streets, as they were in our childhood, through showrooming, to accept change, reassess their appropriate place in the community and use ON-LINE services  effectively and safely. Delivery services have adapted to the Internet age, security is good, informed product comparison is better than ever and using these facilities makes sense particularly as we grow older and mobility becomes an issue.<br><br><strong>1. On-line Banking</strong> - Being able, at any time of the day, to check the detail of your personal income and expenditure, transfer money between accounts, adjust standing orders, make payments to individuals and organise savings, is an invaluable free service available through your computer.<br><br><strong>Security - On-line Banking is very secure.</strong><br>There are three levels of security:- <br>*  https:// ensures the browser sends only encrypted information, <br>* an account ID and a password are used <br>*  a pin number is scrambled with a card reader.<br><br><strong>You do not store your passwords or pin numbers in your computer or on line</strong>. The only risk is malware observing your password being keyed in when accessing your account, known as keylogging. This is prevented with good up-to-date real-time scanning virus protection to ensure malware is not present in the first place and  with additional real-time protection against keylogging included in the AV software.<br><br>In summary, the only risks in online banking are your giving a criminal your password and and pin number, either through responding to a PHISHING EMAIL or by allowing MALWARE into your computer.</html>|<br>[[BUYING NEW|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO]]<br><br>[[ON-LINE Services|Topic%20Slides/Web8%20Shopping%20Product%20Research.jpg]]<br><br>[[Safe ON-LINE Services|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/topics/safety-and-privacy/]]<br><br>[[https://|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]]<br><br>[[Acount ID & Password|http://www.plus.net/support/security/usernames_and_passwords/username_and_password_security.shtml#a1]]<br><br>[[The only Risk|http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/saving/article-1679815/How-safe-is-your-internet-banking.html]]<br><br>[[Keylogging|http://www.securelist.com/en/analysis?pubid=204791931]]<br><br>[[Virtual Keyboard|http://www.shoutmeloud.com/online-virtual-keyboard-secure-passwords-from-keyloggers.html]]<br><br>[[PinSentry Devices|http://www.barclays.co.uk/Helpsupport/HowtousePINsentry/P1242560253457]]<br><br>[[PHISHING Email|Topic Slides/Email7 Bank Phishing.JPG]]<br><br>[[BullGuard Anti-Keylogging|http://www.bullguard.com/bullguard-security-center/pc-security/computer-security-resources/keylogger_removal_page.aspx]]<br><br>[[Criminal Offerering|http://www.shoutmeloud.com/how-do-hackers-hack-your-passwords.html]]|
}}}  
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''2. Shopping basic tips'' - The customer decisions you make on line are the same as those in the high street or a market stall. You just have more powers of comparison at hand on line. Your concern then is to discover those extra on-line facilities.<br><br>''3. Product comparison - price and specification.''Price comparison is only of value if like products are compared.   Other factors, such as delivery cost and speed, bundled software, warranty, condition and minor omitted detail of component version, may affect the offer price.<br>Many Price Comparison sites don't take this detailed comparison into account and their results are only an initial guide. Omission of spec detail is rife on the Internet in an attempt to offer a competitive price.<br><br>''4. Fit For Purpose ''<br>Having compared products by manufacturer and model, it is then essential to seek expert opinion on your selected product. Search with keywords including the full model name and number and the word "REVIEW". The results list will include sites such as those listed here. For technical items, "~ExpertReview" and "~TrustedReview" are most helpful and "Which", the least, unless you subscribe.<br><br>''5. Supply Company comparison''<br>Good companies have a reputation that they do not want to lose. Over time, this is based on returning customers finding clear and accurate product descriptions, reliable delivery and swift refunds for genuine error or fault. Always check "Contact Us", to judge how enthusiastic a company is to be contacted by phone and email, has a full postal address; and that that address is REAL.<br><br>If a company is risky, this will often show up in discussion forums. Search: <company name> FORUM <scam, failure, address, returns or delivery>, advisably before your first purchase.<br><br>''6. Extended Warranty''<html><p align="justify">If a warranty beyond the legal requirement is included by default and the price competitive, so good. However, although electronic products have built-in obsolescence and are fast surpassed by inproved versions, technology, manufactured by a reliable manufacturer, mostly functions well without fault (provided it works when used the first time). The high cost, therefore, of an extended warranty, lasting two or three years, is probably best saved towards a modern replacement which may better suit your needs at that future date.</html>''7. Expected services''<br>It is a sign of a good on-line supplier that they give clear advice on returns, refunds, delivery costs and after purchase support. It is always worth scrolling through the "Terms and Conditions" before accepting. If they are convoluted and unreadable, beware.<br><br>''8. View Basket and checkout''<br>Avoid one-click purchases. Delivery cost should be clearly indicated before checkout and the opportunity to  edit and update the basket should be provided. Check that immediately you progress to the checkout, the web address changes to[[ https://|http://www.instantssl.com/ssl-certificate-products/https.html]]. If it doesn't, don't use it.<br>Personally, I avoid ~PayPal and always use a [[Credit Card|http://www.adviceguide.org.uk/wales/consumer_w/consumer_different_ways_of_buying_e/consumer_buying_goods_and_services_on_credit_or_by_debit_card_e.htm]] for purchases over £100.<br><br>''9. Consumer rights:-'' &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;  -  [[Citizens Advice Bureau|http://www.adviceguide.org.uk/england/consumer_e.htm]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Fair Trading|http://www.oft.gov.uk/OFTwork/consumer-protection/campaign11-12/kycr/kycr-buying-online/#.UjTIVT9zOZs]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Reporting a Problem|http://www.adviceguide.org.uk/england/consumer_e/consumer_protection_for_the_consumer_e/protection_trading_standards_e/reporting_a_problem_to_trading_standards.htm]]<br><br>[[Complaining to the Ombudsman|http://www.ombudsman-services.org/complaining-to-the-company-communications.html]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Deadlock Letter Template|http://www.ombudsman-services.org/downloads/Deadlock%20letter%20template.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Ofcom|http://consumers.ofcom.org.uk/]] |[[PC World Advice|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2018995/safe-online-shopping-10-tips-to-avoid-getting-burned.html]]<br><br>[[Age UK|http://www.ageuk.org.uk/money-matters/consumer-advice/get-the-most-out-of-shopping-online/]]<br><br>[[Price Comparison sites|http://www.pricelocator.co.uk/compare/computers]]<br><br>[[Price Runner|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/]]<br><br>[[Idealo|http://www.idealo.co.uk/sitemap.html]]<br><br>[[Kelkoo|http://www.kelkoo.co.uk/sm_site-map.htmll]]<br><br>[[TV Buying Guide|http://reviews.cnet.com/tv-buying-guide/]]<br><br>[[Good Web Guide|http://www.thegoodwebguide.co.uk/news-info/best-sites-digest/best-sites-for-consumer-reviews/13473]]<br><br>[[UK 250|http://www.uk250.co.uk/all-categories.htm]]<br><br>[[Shopsafe|http://www.shopsafe.co.uk/categories/]]<br><br>[[Webwise|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/0/22728224]]<br><br>[[Forum|http://forums.bimmerforums.com/forum/archive/index.php?t-778738.html]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Money Advice Service|https://www.moneyadviceservice.org.uk/en/articles/extended-warranties-are-they-worth-it]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Energy Shopping|http://www.goenergyshopping.co.uk/en-gb/help/how-to-compare-tariffs]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Trading Standards|http://www.tradingstandards.gov.uk/advice/consumer-advice.cfm]]|
}}}
----
<br><br><br>

<html> &nbsp;<img alt=""  src="Files/Test.jpg" style="height:3000px; width: 700px" /></html>


   
 
 
/%
!info
|Name|ShowPopup|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#ShowPopup|
|Version|1.2.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements/|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|transcluded html|
|Requires||
|Overrides||
|Description|display tiddler content in a TiddlyWiki popup panel|
Usage:
<<<
{{{
<<tiddler ShowPopup with: TiddlerName label tooltip buttonClass width popupClass>>
}}}
where:
*''~TiddlerName''<br>title of the tiddler to be displayed
*''label''<br>text for the command link
*''tooltip''<br>mouseover help text for the link
*''buttonClass''<br>CSS classname applied to the command text (default=button)
*''width''<br>width of the popup (using CSS measurements, default=auto)
*''popupClass''<br>CSS classname applied to the popup panel (default=none).<br>Use 'sticky' for persistent popups (see StickyPopupPlugin)
<<<
Example:
<<<
{{{
<<tiddler ShowPopup with: ShowPopup [[Try this]] [[show this tiddler in a popup]]>>
}}}
<<tiddler ShowPopup with: ShowPopup [[Try this]] [[show this tiddler in a popup]]>>
<<<
!end/

!show
<html><hide linebreaks>
<a href="javascript:;" class="$4" title="$3" onclick="
	var p=Popup.create(this); if(!p)return;
	p.className+='$6'!='$'+'6'?' $6':'';
	var d=createTiddlyElement(p,'div');
	var s=d.style;
	s.whiteSpace='normal';
	s.width='$5'!='$'+'5'?'$5':'auto';
	s.padding='2px';
	wikify(store.getTiddlerText('$1',''),d);
	Popup.show();
	event.cancelBubble=true;
	if(event.stopPropagation)event.stopPropagation();
	return(false);
">$2</a></html>
!end/

%/<<tiddler {{'ShowPopup##'+('$1'=='$'+'1'?'info':'show')}} with: [[$1]] [[$2]] [[$3]] [[$4]] [[$5]] [[$6]]>>
<<search>><<closeAll>><<permaview>><<newTiddler>><<newJournal "DD MMM YYYY" "journal">><<saveChanges>><<slider chkSliderOptionsPanel OptionsPanel "options »" "Change TiddlyWiki advanced options">>
version.extensions.SinglePageModePlugin= {major: 2, minor: 9, revision: 7, date: new Date(2010,11,30)};

config.paramifiers.SPM = { onstart: function(v) {
	config.options.chkSinglePageMode=eval(v);
	if (config.options.chkSinglePageMode && config.options.chkSinglePagePermalink && !config.browser.isSafari) {
		config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
		if (!config.SPMTimer) config.SPMTimer=window.setInterval(function() {checkLastURL();},1000);
	}
} };

if (config.options.chkSinglePageMode==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkSinglePagePermalink==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePagePermalink=true;
if (config.options.chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers=false;
if (config.options.chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers=false;
if (config.options.chkTopOfPageMode==undefined)
	config.options.chkTopOfPageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkBottomOfPageMode==undefined)
	config.options.chkBottomOfPageMode=false;
if (config.options.chkSinglePageAutoScroll==undefined)
	config.options.chkSinglePageAutoScroll=false;

config.SPMTimer = 0;
config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
function checkLastURL()
{
	if (!config.options.chkSinglePageMode)
		{ window.clearInterval(config.SPMTimer); config.SPMTimer=0; return; }
	if (config.lastURL == window.location.hash) return; // no change in hash
	var tids=decodeURIComponent(window.location.hash.substr(1)).readBracketedList();
	if (tids.length==1) // permalink (single tiddler in URL)
		story.displayTiddler(null,tids[0]);
	else { // restore permaview or default view
		config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
		if (!tids.length) tids=store.getTiddlerText("DefaultTiddlers").readBracketedList();
		story.closeAllTiddlers();
		story.displayTiddlers(null,tids);
	}
}


if (Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler==undefined)
	Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler=Story.prototype.displayTiddler;
Story.prototype.displayTiddler = function(srcElement,tiddler,template,animate,slowly)
{
	var title=(tiddler instanceof Tiddler)?tiddler.title:tiddler;
	var tiddlerElem=story.getTiddler(title); // ==null unless tiddler is already displayed
	var opt=config.options;
	var single=opt.chkSinglePageMode && !startingUp;
	var top=opt.chkTopOfPageMode && !startingUp;
	var bottom=opt.chkBottomOfPageMode && !startingUp;
	if (single) {
		story.forEachTiddler(function(tid,elem) {
			// skip current tiddler and, optionally, tiddlers that are folded.
			if (	tid==title
				|| (opt.chkSinglePageKeepFoldedTiddlers && elem.getAttribute("folded")=="true"))
				return;
			// if a tiddler is being edited, ask before closing
			if (elem.getAttribute("dirty")=="true") {
				if (opt.chkSinglePageKeepEditedTiddlers) return;
				// if tiddler to be displayed is already shown, then leave active tiddler editor as is
				// (occurs when switching between view and edit modes)
				if (tiddlerElem) return;
				// otherwise, ask for permission
				var msg="'"+tid+"' is currently being edited.\n\n";
				msg+="Press OK to save and close this tiddler\nor press Cancel to leave it opened";
				if (!confirm(msg)) return; else story.saveTiddler(tid);
			}
			story.closeTiddler(tid);
		});
	}
	else if (top)
		arguments[0]=null;
	else if (bottom)
		arguments[0]="bottom";
	if (single && opt.chkSinglePagePermalink && !config.browser.isSafari) {
		window.location.hash = encodeURIComponent(String.encodeTiddlyLink(title));
		config.lastURL = window.location.hash;
		document.title = wikifyPlain("SiteTitle") + " - " + title;
		if (!config.SPMTimer) config.SPMTimer=window.setInterval(function() {checkLastURL();},1000);
	}
	if (tiddlerElem && tiddlerElem.getAttribute("dirty")=="true") { // editing... move tiddler without re-rendering
		var isTopTiddler=(tiddlerElem.previousSibling==null);
		if (!isTopTiddler && (single || top))
			tiddlerElem.parentNode.insertBefore(tiddlerElem,tiddlerElem.parentNode.firstChild);
		else if (bottom)
			tiddlerElem.parentNode.insertBefore(tiddlerElem,null);
		else this.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments); // let CORE render tiddler
	} else
		this.SPM_coreDisplayTiddler.apply(this,arguments); // let CORE render tiddler
	var tiddlerElem=story.getTiddler(title);
	if (tiddlerElem&&opt.chkSinglePageAutoScroll) {
		// scroll to top of page or top of tiddler
		var isTopTiddler=(tiddlerElem.previousSibling==null);
		var yPos=isTopTiddler?0:ensureVisible(tiddlerElem);
		// if animating, defer scroll until after animation completes
		var delay=opt.chkAnimate?config.animDuration+10:0;
		setTimeout("window.scrollTo(0,"+yPos+")",delay); 
	}
}

if (Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddlers==undefined)
	Story.prototype.SPM_coreDisplayTiddlers=Story.prototype.displayTiddlers;
Story.prototype.displayTiddlers = function() {
	// suspend single/top/bottom modes when showing multiple tiddlers
	var opt=config.options;
	var saveSPM=opt.chkSinglePageMode; opt.chkSinglePageMode=false;
	var saveTPM=opt.chkTopOfPageMode; opt.chkTopOfPageMode=false;
	var saveBPM=opt.chkBottomOfPageMode; opt.chkBottomOfPageMode=false;
	this.SPM_coreDisplayTiddlers.apply(this,arguments);
	opt.chkBottomOfPageMode=saveBPM;
	opt.chkTopOfPageMode=saveTPM;
	opt.chkSinglePageMode=saveSPM;
}

&nbsp; <html><img src="Files/Copy of Southwellu3a.gif" alt=" " width="100" ></html>&nbsp; &nbsp;Computer Club Worksheet
<br><br><br>
!!!Setting Up Your Smart Home
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Setting up a smart home requires good research before investment</strong>'<br> First set your project priorities between, Heating, Lighting, Security, Media and simple luxury convenience. Each project requires a "Hub" controller bought from a choice of manufacturers. The smart devices link to the hub. There is some degree of overlap between projects and hubs. It is the hub which is voice controlled by Alexa and perhaps a smartphone or tablet to set it up. The trap is in starting to buy devices without an overall plan based on project priorities, resulting in redundant or too many hubs.<br><br><strong>There is no one universal hub,</strong> although the direction of Amazon is to make Alexa, with its "Skills", able to directly control many devices. The Broadlink RM Pro comes close to universality with its ability to detect both Radio Frequency and Infra Red devices but requires apps to set it up. There is currently no Broadlink skill in Alexa. Combined with Alexa voice control it starts to reduce the growing number of handheld remote controls appearing around the house. It is also much cheaper than the many hubs it replaces, especially for TV voice control.</p?.</html>|<br><br>[[10 Tips|http://www.tomsguide.com/faq/id-3218047/tips-smart-home.html]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Broadlink RM Pro|http://www.ibroadlink.com/rm/]]|
}}}
!!!Comparison of ~WiFi and ~BlueTooth
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Other than those using BlueTooth, smart control of home devices operate through your LAN so have become of interest to the computer user. This page is written round the Amazon Echo because, with the introduction of this device, the clumsy control of smart devices by a smart phone app has moved to the voice controlled Alexa.</strong> Echo isn't the only choice on the market; compare it with Google Home. I chose the former and can report on that.<br><br><strong>Bluetooth Smart Devices</strong>. These simply pair with a smartphone, tablet or PC using an app and no voice control. Music playing, Internet Radio streaming, colour control bulbs and speakers are examples. They use BlueTooth, not your WiFi LAN system.</html><br>[[Bluetooth Tutorial|https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/bluetooth-basics/all.pdf]]|<br>[[Alexa vs Google|http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/139063-google-home-vs-amazon-echo-what-s-the-difference]]<br><br>[[Google vs Alexa|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jrpaQN8TN6o&t=27s]]<br><br><br><br>[[BlueTooth Bulb|http://www.actlighting.co.uk/pd/product/9489698]]|
}}}
!!!Alexa
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''Amazon Echo.'' The Amazon Echo, aka ''Alexa Voice Service, is a very reliable voice activated multimedia device which works very much like Cortana or Seri but has far wider application and is very easy to set up''. You are not "inviting a third party to openly eavesdrop on your every word", as some ctitics assert. The microphone opens only under user control and you can delete history. <br><br>''The 2nd generation Echo'' is available from [[Amazon UK|https://www.amazon.co.uk/Amazon-SK705DI-Echo-Black/dp/B01GAGVIE4]] for £90 with speakers incorporated or, as ''Amazon Dot, without for £49''. The latter is easily paired to a Bluetooth speaker (bulb). It is a hands-free speaker you control with your voice. Echo connects to the [[Alexa Voice Service|https://www.cnet.com/how-to/amazon-alexa-device-compatibility-how-tos-and-much-more/]] to play music from your own collection, Audiobooks, Amazon Music, Prime Music, Spotify and ~TuneIn.[[ Alexa provides information|http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/138846-amazon-echo-what-can-alexa-do-and-what-services-are-compatible]], news, sports scores, weather, [[smart device control and more.|http://forthesmarthome.com/ultimate-guide-to-amazon-alexa/]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Echo Connect to Landline|https://www.amazon.co.uk/b/ref=gw_acc_bel_launch?node=14157459031&pf_rd_p=05588f2c-fa4f-431d-8f12-bdfc647a0fff&pf_rd_r=9S9RK4WR459XKK2H1DAJ]]<br><br>''Multimedia.'' Alexa is a fantastic provider of Music, News, Radio and Information through Wikipedia with conversational voice control .Amazon Prime subscribers have the bonus of free Prime Music with a large database of free music to stream.<br><br>''Internet of Things.''  With Alexa you are at the threshold of The Internet of Things. Alexa is compatible with [[a number of smart hubs|http://www.digitaltrends.com/home/everything-that-works-with-amazon-echo-smart-home/]], such as [[Honeywell|http://yourhome.honeywell.com/en/amazon-echo]], [[Energenie|https://mihome4u.co.uk/]], [[Nest|https://nest.com/uk/works-with-nest/]], [[Logitech Harmony Hub|http://www.logitech.com/en-gb/product/harmony-hub]], [[Simple Control|https://www.simplecontrol.com/check-compatibility/]] and [[Samsung SmartThings|https://www.smartthings.com/uk/]], etc. Without careful research this can be an expensive hobby, but a wise early adopter starts with a smart plug with which any household appliance can take on smartness, at the same time bringing addictive satisfaction to the control freak in need of a morale boost.<br> "The Internet of Things" ( ~IoT ) refers to the interconnection of uniquely identifiable embedded computing-like devices within the existing Internet infrastructure." This might include your fridge, your central heating, your smartphone, your car, your shopping ''and your privacy''.<br><br>''Smart Hubs'' Although Alexa is itself a hub, if you’re looking to truly get as much power as possible out of your Echo, you’ll want to purchase a starter kit with ''[[a smart home hub|http://smarthome.reviewed.com/features/everything-that-works-with-amazon-echo-alexa]]''. These hubs connect all your compatible smart devices to the cloud and use third-party apps that allow for compatibility with many more devices than Alexa can connect with natively. Smart hubs fall broadly into four catagories: Media, Lighting & Heating, Security and General Domestic devices and use the Skills facility of Alexa. Once a decision on hub is made, the purchase of compatible devices becomes more rational. Starting with smart lighting will introduce the economy of the [[LED bulb|http://www.integral-led.com/how-to-choose-your-led-bulb]].<br><br>''Device Setup'' Be aware that, although many devices and hubs are advertised as controlable with Alexa (UK), they may still require set up with a manufacturer's Cloud account accessed only through a smartphone App using a very recent version of iOS or Android, rarely Windows 10 or mobile. Careful research then before investment, particularly to distinguish between USA and UK Alexa skills and devices.<br><br>''Simple Device Setup.''  I expected it to be as simple as saying, "Alexa, turn off my sleeping blanket". Not so. It would be much cheaper to buy a blanket with a good thermostat using matured technology. ''To set up a smart device, you need,'' together with Alexa, the smart device and perhaps a smart hub:<br>(1) The device and Alexa on the same LAN, &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - select appropriately.<br> (2) Universal Plug and Play (~UPnP) set in your router, &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - Usually the default setting.<br>(3) The correct "Skill" in Alexa UK provided by the manufacturer, &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - Many skills are USA orientated.<br>(4) A mobile app for the device setup,  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; - Download from App Store.<br>(5) A smartphone sufficiently up to date version to use the app,<br>(6) Successful discovery of the device on the LAN by Alexa, and <br>(7) A supply of many different sized replacement button batteries for some devices.<br>The early adopter would expect nothing less. Don't let this deter. All setup instructions are clear.<br><br>''IFTTT'' IFTTT is an incredibly easy to use and most useful ''skill of Alexa''. IFTTT is a free web-based service that allows users to create chains of simple conditional statements, called "applets", which are triggered by voice commands from Alexa to connected devices. FTTT is an abbreviation of "If This Then That".<br>Once started with your IFTTT account registered and the skill enabled in Alexa, you will find a list of your IFTTT commands on the IFTTT site in "My Applets" Here you can easily amend them, add new, choose from and customise many suggested examples.<br><br>''Security'' All "Internet of Things" devices and hubs use a Cloud account to connect. Security will depend on the Cloud provider's integrity, quality of encryption and the users awareness of password strength and the need to change it initially from the well known default ID and password provided by the manufacturer. Most Cloud Terms of Use and Conditions emphasise the user's obligations but I have yet to see clear commitment in provider obligations to the user. Cloud accounts require access to user location, passwords and sometimes household details. Once created, the means of cancelling an account is often obscure.<br><br> ''Passwords must therefore be complex and unique. Change the default ID and password on your router.'' <br><br>''Be Prepared for System Failure.'' Once all controls by voice are invested in Alexa and other Cloud services, a Broadband outage or ~WiFi failure renders your control unworkable. There is some backup in computer or smartphone control but it is essential that provision is made to return your systems to manual control in an emergency. This may involve bypassing smart plugs, replacing manual radiator valve tops, etc. The marking of power socket function and recording the location of  stored radiator valves tops, etc. is good boy scout practice.<br><br>''Range'' <br>Often it is the range at which a device will opperate successfully which is the limiting factor when setting up your system. Devices are connected by ~WiFi from Alexa or use ~Z-Wave or ~ZeeBee technology when controlled by a hub. Since ~ZigBee works in the 2.4 ~GHz frequency space, it is most affected by 2.4 ~GHz ~WiFi networks and microwave ovens. ~Z-Wave, on the other hand, works in the 900 ~MHz frequency space and is most affected by mobile phones and baby monitors.<br>A 5GHz ~WiFi extender will often carry a stronger signal when brick walls have to be penitrated. Change ~WiFi channel to reduce interference between signals and another ~ZeeBee or ~Z-Wave powered device in the vicinity will act as a repeater.|[[Amazon UK|https://www.amazon.co.uk/Amazon-SK705DI-Echo-Black/dp/B01GAGVIE4]]<br><br>[[ Alexa Voice Service|http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/138846-amazon-echo-what-can-alexa-do-and-what-services-are-compatible]]<br><br>[[Meet Alexa|https://www.amazon.co.uk/l/12728352031?ref_=pe_3080231_206373681_echo_crm_8_04_meet_alexa_guide]]<br><br>[[Review|http://www.trustedreviews.com/amazon-echo-review]]<br><br>[[Review|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/audio-visual/hi-fi-and-audio/audio-systems/amazon-echo-1329791/review]]<br><br><br>[[Compatible Smart Hubs|http://www.digitaltrends.com/home/everything-that-works-with-amazon-echo-smart-home/]]<br><br>[[Logitech Harmony Hub|http://www.logitech.com/en-gb/product/harmony-hub]]<br><br>[[Simple Control|https://www.simplecontrol.com/check-compatibility/]]<br><br>[[Samsung Smart Things|https://www.smartthings.com/uk/]]<br><br>[["The Internet of Things"|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things]]<br><br>[[Smart Living|http://www.live-smart.co/smart-home/smart-home-hub-uk-automation-12714]]<br><br>[[Smart Home Hubs|http://smarthome.reviewed.com/features/everything-that-works-with-amazon-echo-alexa]]<br><br>[[Wirecutter Choice|http://thewirecutter.com/reviews/best-smart-hub/]]<br><br>[[Car Automatic|https://www.automatic.com/]]<br><br>[[Ooma Alexa Phone|http://www.ooma.com/telo/]]<br><br><br>[[Device compatibility|https://www.cnet.com/how-to/amazon-alexa-device-compatibility-how-tos-and-much-more/]]<br><br>[[Device Compatibility|http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/138846-amazon-echo-what-can-alexa-do-and-what-services-are-compatible]]<br><br><br>[[At Last|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-38183529]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[YouView|http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2017/06/08/youview-to-pilot-alexa-voice-control/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[IFTTT with Alexa|https://ifttt.com/amazon_alexa]]<br><br>[[Connecting with IFTTT|https://www.sitepoint.com/how-to-empower-the-amazon-echo-with-ifttt/]]<br><br>[[IFTTT Complete List|https://ifttt.com/search]]<br><br><br>[[Cloud Security|http://www.computerweekly.com/opinion/Security-Think-Tank-Control-smart-devices-and-apps-like-the-rest-of-ICT]]<br><br>[[Cloud Security|https://www.secureworks.com/blog/the-security-of-smart-devices]]<br><br>[[F-Secure Sense|https://sense.f-secure.com/]]<br><br>[[Bullguard Security Scanner|https://iotscanner.bullguard.com/deep-scan-completed]]|
}}}
!!!Detail about Hubs and Devices
{{invisibletable{
|width:21em;''~MiHome Energenie Hub''<br>1. [[Wide range of devices|https://energenie4u.co.uk/catalogue/category/Home-Automation]]: radiator valves, plugs, switches, energy-use monitor.<br>2. Excellent support, quality of products, user guides. Works well with Windows 10.<br>3. Apple, Android and Windows 10 apps.<br>4. Competitively priced devices either direct or through Amazon.<br>5. Works directly with Alexa for plugs and switches and radiators with IFTTT.<br>6. Hub has better range than the Samsung hub.<br>7. Works with a Nest boiler thermostat system.<br><br>''Energenie Thermostatic Valves (eTRV)''<br>1. Very reliable and controllable.<br>2. Good detailed fitting Guide.<br>3. Valve compatibility guide available.<br>4. Easy setup either in App or web browser.<br>5. Very accurate temperature control, scheduling and feedback on each radiator.<br>6. Very cost effective in times of rising fuel prices. <br>7. Energy Monitor shows current, daily and accumulative use. Can lead to neurosis.|width:21em;''Alexa''<br>1. A very reliable voice hub.<br>2. Excellent for Music, Internet Radio, Wikipedia, News , Audiobooks, and Trivia.<br>3.	A growing wealth of Skills enabling voice control of many smart hubs and devices.<br>4. Many devices work directly from Alexa without a hub; others use IFTTT.<br>5. Devices and skills extremely easy to set up<br>6. [[A Z-Wave compatible hub|http://www.z-wave.com/shop-z-wave-smart-home-products/category/smart-lighting]].<br>7. [[Calling & Messaging|https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/browse.html?node=14072704031&ref_=pe_3080231_217113171_email_AUCC_CM_UK_meet_alexa_cm]] &nbsp; [[Landline Connect|https://www.amazon.co.uk/b?ie=UTF8&node=14157459031]]<br><br><br>''Smart Bulbs''<br>1. Two types: ~WiFi and ~BlueTooth.<br>2. Lifx and Phillips ~WiFi colour bulbs reliable and controlable. <br>3. Some ~BlueTooth bulbs contain speakers.<br>4. Cheap speaker bulbs unreliable.<br>5. Voice control with Alexa.<br>6. Wattage Lumens [[Comparison Table|http://www.thelightbulb.co.uk/resources/lumens_watts/]]<br>7. All about bulbs [[Which Guide|http://www.which.co.uk/reviews/light-bulbs/article/five-tips-for-choosing-the-right-light-bulb]]<br><br>''Smart Plugs''<br>1. Consider Range, Scheduling and Ease of control by App or Alexa.|''Samsung ~SmartThings''<br>1. A very reliable system for motion, moisture, temperature sensors, and plugs, bulbs.<br>2. Works well with Alexa and IFTTT.<br>3. [[SmartThings Reviewed|http://thewirecutter.com/reviews/best-smart-hub/]].<br>4. List of [[compatible devices.|https://www.smartthings.com/uk/compatible-products]]<br>5. [[A Z-Wave compatible hub.|https://support.smartthings.com/hc/en-gb/articles/208672926-Z-Wave-and-ZigBee-FAQ]]<br><br>''Lombex Plug''<br>1. Good range, easy setup with App.<br>2. Works well with Alexa.<br>3. Low price and reliable timer scheduling.<br><br><br><br>''Philips Hue Bridge''<br>1. Bulbs cheaper than Lifx but requires Hub<br>2. The hub called a Bridge very easy to set up.<br>3. Good Apple, Android and Windows Apps.<br>4. Works well with Alexa and IFTTT.<br>5. [[Product range includes|http://www2.meethue.com/en-gb/products/]] a motion sensor.<br>6. Extensive range of lighting bulbs.<br><br>''Control Methods''<br>1. [[Alexa groups|https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/help/customer/display.html?nodeId=201749250]]<br>2. [[IFTTT applets|http://www.pocket-lint.com/news/130082-what-is-ifttt-and-how-does-it-work]]<br>3. [[sayMosaic Workflow.|https://saymosaic.com/labs]]<br>4. [[Glitch|https://glitch.com/]]<br>5. [[Stringify|https://www.stringify.com/]]|
}}}
!!!Smart Summary
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;1. Do your homework first. Decide if you are motivated by economy of energy use, convenience or need for a passtime.<br>2. ''Devices.''  Select a manufacturer (and hub) with the devices that fit your requirements. ~Z-Wave compatibility widens your choice of third party devices.<br>3. ''Set up.''  Ensure that setup is provided by your choice of Apple, Android or Windows, mobile, tablet or PC.<br>4. ''Control.''  Select a maufacturer that uses IFTTT, and Alexa if you want voice control.|[[Planning|http://www.self-build.co.uk/planning-high-tech-home]]<br><br>[[Z-Wave Hubs|https://homecontrolsblog.wordpress.com/2015/07/22/ultimate-guide-how-to-choose-a-z-wave-smart-home-hub/]]<br><br>[[Range and Repeaters|https://blog.smartthings.com/iot101/a-guide-to-wireless-range-repeaters/]]|
}}}
 <br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:54em;''A Smart TV'' is a ''tablet'' connected to the Internet with a large good quality screen, good connectivity and plenty of ports. It has many inovations to improve remote control. Like your laptop or desktop it can include a couple of tuners to receive Fresat or Freeview channels. Buy with caution, however, because a smart TV expects a fast broadband speed. For example, BBC iPlayer will run well on a PC but the HD version on a smart TV needs at least 2MBits/sec.; and ask yourself, ''do you really need all those apps?'' Better perhaps a dumb TV with a very good high quality (HD) screen and good conectivity. The computer facilities on a smart TV will be very clunky for many years to come. They can be added more effectively with a TV box or a mini PC.<br><br>The largest smart monitor on the market currently is 22". Larger dumb monitors are very expensive. This limits the prospect of buying a monitor and making it smart.<br><br>''The Pros and Cons.''  A good resolution HD TV does not have to be a "Smart TV". The choice of a good quality screen is the first priority; the appropriate tuners and connection ports available, is the second. Only if you need ''smart features'' do you need the extra expense of a smart TV. Smart features are 3D readiness, access to the Internet to surf the web (with difficulty) and to download Apps and videos, inbuilt features to link other devices such as tablets, smartphones and PC, to share images and videos for display on the TV screen. All but the first are routine with your computer so one has to balance the need for these in a TV against the extra cost. On the other hand, for non-computer users, the Smart TV makes these facilities available all in one device with their TV.<br><br>''Linking Devices.''  If you decide that you need a Smart TV, then it is the connectivity issue in which there is a jungle of choices. All manufacturers offer different methods of connectivity which work with only certain tablets and matching PC chips and software. See para 3 of [[Networks]] concerning Streaming. Study the Expert Reviews with care. Not all is disclosed in the specification of your chosen TV. Unlike the simplicity of choosing between Apple and Microsoft in computer purchase, each of the manufactures offering a Smart TV has a different operating system.<br><br> If you choose your Smart TV intuitively, you will probably be disappointed. If you choose after extensive research, it will only be after some weeks of use that its Pros and Cons will become clearly apparent.|[[The Six Best|http://www.techradar.com/news/television/6-best-smart-tv-platforms-in-the-world-today-1120795]]<br><br>[[Avoid Smart TVs|http://www.howtogeek.com/176392/smart-tvs-are-stupid-why-you-dont-really-want-a-smart-tv/]]<br><br><br>[[Mini PCs|http://the-gadgeteer.com/2013/09/24/android-mini-pc-review/]]<br><br>[[Intel Stick|http://www.lifehacker.co.uk/2015/01/12/intels-compute-stick-sub-100-windows-pc]]<br><br>[[TV Box Reviews|http://radiodigitalterrestre.com/smart-tv-box/smart-tv-box-reviews.html]]<br><br>[[Set Top Boxes|http://www.theverge.com/2012/5/17/2997361/buying-set-top-box-buying-guide]]<br><br>[[Smart Monitors|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2047076/the-pc-monitor-is-dead-meet-the-new-smart-monitor.html]]<br><br><br>[[Resolution|http://www.rtings.com/info/what-is-the-resolution]]<br><br>[[4K TV Review|http://www.trustedreviews.com/opinions/4k-tv-10-reasons-why-you-should-care]]<br><br><br><br>[[HDMI and Mini Display Port|http://www.diffen.com/difference/DisplayPort_vs_HDMI]]<br><br>[[Computer Ports|Topic Slides/Files11 Computer Ports.jpg]]|
}}}
----
 
{{invisibletable{
|width:40em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>I'm the last person who should be writing this page. <a href="http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/10-reasons-why-i-avoid-social-networking-services/" target="_blank"><u>I don't use Social Media</u></strong></a> and am prone to preceeding these tools with a sarcastic definite article. I am uneasy about the privacy controls within "the" FaceBook and suspect my prudence as a Tweet publisher. However as every teacher knows, the best way to learn a subject is to teach it. If you have any experience, ideas or amendments for this page, concerning social media, please email me on Clive.Bates@btinternet.com<br><br>First, why do we have social media?  What drives the system?<br><strong>"It's marketing, of course."</strong> So with that mystery removed, here goes. </html>|<html> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img alt="" height="196" src="Files/images4.jpg" style="height:175px; width: 233px" width="257" /></html>|
}}}
!1. Definition
 {{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">Social media  are a set of Internet-based tools for sharing and discussing information among human beings <em>while being mindful of relationships</em>, rather than simply a means of broadcasting to disseminate content.<br><br>The links offered demonstrate the multitude of definitions and the different perceptions of its elements: <strong>participation, openness, conversation, community, connectedness.</strong></html>|<br>[[30 Definitions|http://heidicohen.com/social-media-definition/]]<br><br>[[Elements|http://blogs.gartner.com/anthony_bradley/2010/01/07/a-new-definition-of-social-media/]]<br><br>[[What it is|http://blog.referralcandy.com/2013/09/30/what-is-social-media/]]|
}}}  
!2. The List of Social Media Tools
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">Most of us could name three or four but there are at least 40, each serving a different niche from a <a href="http://searchnewscentral.com/20130806458/Social-Media/effective-social-media-channels-for-different-niches.html" target="_blank">marketing view point</a>. The <a href="http://www.uncp.edu/home/acurtis/NewMedia/SocialMedia/SocialMediaHistory.html" target="_blank">beginning of time</a> as far a social media is concerned was in 2003 with the launch of Linkedin and MySpace.</html>|[[List of Sites|http://socialmediatoday.com/soravjain/195917/40-most-popular-social-networking-sites-world]]<br><br>[[By Popularity|http://www.ebizmba.com/articles/social-networking-websites]]<br><br>[[52 Sites|http://60secondmarketer.com/blog/2010/04/09/top-52-social-media-platforms/]]|
}}}
!3. Marketing
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>If you search the Internet for "Advice on Social Media" the vast majority of results listed will concern advice to business on the efficient exploitation of these tools.</strong> The links are examples.<br><br>Site popularity and site profitability is a synergy not to be despised. Without this synergy the site would not survive and the "Social" contribution of the site lost. As with software downloads, nothing in life is free. Like the Football Industry, there has to be a balance between cusomer care and profit.</html>|[[Marketing Tips|http://searchnewscentral.com/20130806458/Social-Media/effective-social-media-channels-for-different-niches.html]]<br><br>[[Best Practice|http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/34180/30-Terrible-Pieces-of-Social-Media-Advice-You-Should-Ignore.aspx]]<br><br>[[Platform Selection|http://www.wordstream.com/social-media-marketing]]<br><br>[[Information Overload|http://www.relationship-economy.com/Five%20Elements%20of%20Social%20Media.pdf]]|
}}}
!4. Some community aspects
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Policing - </strong>The police need to be swift and ready to respond to the online community so that when a major incident breaks the police can lead the social media community rather than there being mixed messages on social networking websites.<br><strong>The Asian Spring - </strong>Social media can only facilitate, not create, the leadership that is necessary for insurgencies to survive and succeed.<br><strong>Propaganda War -</strong>Automated Twitter is used to influence the political battle for public opinion.<br><strong>Free Speech - </strong>There are people who would happily ban or restrict social media and even much of the Internet completely. In the latter case, they have called on search engines to create blocks for searches for abusive pornography or be forced to do so by law. Such calls will increase, unless the relevant sites (social media, search engines, etc.) show that they accept the responsibilities of their public position, and actively look at ways of fighting, blocking or reporting abuse themselves.<br><strong>Parental Advice - </strong>By behaving responsibly online, children can get the best of what the Web has to offer, plus stay safe and private.<br><strong>Privacy - </strong>It is surprisingly easy to inadvertently give away your personal information online, especially when prompted to do so by an email, on social networking sites or on company websites requesting information which they do not necessarily need to do business with you. Consider this, for example, when opening a Facebook account and you are asked to share all your contacts with them!<br><strong>Security - </strong>The nature of social networking – having such a massive base of users who are unknown to you – means that using it carries a degree of risk including becoming a target for cyber-criminals.  Use strong passwords, think before you post and report abuse. <a href="http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2011/05/16/facebook-dislike-button-spreads-fast-but-is-a-fake-watch-out/" target="_blank"><u>An example</u></a> of some scams.<br><strong>Being forced to use Social media - </strong>There is a growing tendency for companies, two examples are Audi and Halifax, to provide information only to those with a Facebook account. In most cases, this is but just another channel of communication with customers.<br><strong>Automatic  Facebook.</strong>  It is an interesting  observation on the value of excessive social media use, that an app has been created to respond automatically to Twitter and Facebook messages using artificial intelligence; and perhaps relates to the practical limit of 150 group size that the <a href="http://www.lifewithalacrity.com/2004/03/the_dunbar_numb.html" target="_blank"><u>Dunbar theory</u></a> suggests, if applied to social media. Facebook has recently conducted an experiment of emotional manipulation by selective omission of text in user's messages.<br><strong>Crowd Maps.</strong> A very positive application for social media text and tweets is their use for Crowdmapping to build up a real time assessment of a disaster zone or incident area.<br><strong>Imbalance. </strong>Twitter, for example, can display an unbalanced picture of reality when a popular belief is supported while the supporters of the opposing view are not regular tweeters. An example of this is "Climate Change" when scientists who could demonstrate the evidence are rare tweeters.<br><strong>Credit Rating</strong> Friendly Score’s entire business model is based on using social media data to create a scorecard, which it offers lenders as a supplement to their existing credit checks. Facebook Users with a stable social and family network would be seen as less of a credit risk than those whose friends chop and change regularly - giving them access to better credit.<br /><br />Good or Bad for Society? &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="http://www.debate.org/opinions/are-social-networking-sites-generally-beneficial-to-our-way-of-life" target="_blank"><u>The Debate</u></a><br><br>What goes viral? &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="http://webtrends.about.com/od/howtoguides/a/Viral-Online.htm" target="_blank"><u>Meaning of Viral</u><a></html>|[[Policing|http://connectedcops.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Police-and-Social-Media-IPC-Evidence.pdf]]<br><br>[[Asian Spring|http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/what-the-arab-spring-tells-us-about-the-future-of-social-media-in-revolutionary-movements]]<br><br>[[Automation|http://toinformistoinfluence.com/2014/06/03/ukrainewar-how-to-spot-a-russian-twitter-troll/]]<br><br>[[Free Speech|http://awareci.com/2013/08/09/freedom-of-speech-abuse-and-social-media/]]<br><br>[[Debate|http://freespeechdebate.com/en/tag/anonymity/]]<br><br>[[The Retweet|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-20299551]]<br><br>[[Parental Tips|http://www.commonsensemedia.org/advice-for-parents/social-networking-tips]]<br><br><br>[[Privacy|http://www.teachtoday.eu/en/Teacher-advice/Protecting-Privacy-and-Reputation/Privacy-tips-for-social-networking.aspx]]<br><br>[[Keep Safe|http://www.getsafeonline.org/social-networking/social-networking-sites/]]<br><br>[[Personal Security|http://www.getsafeonline.org/social-networking/social-networking-sites/]]<br><br>[[Report Abuse|http://www.teachtoday.eu/en/Useful-resources/Other-resources/Useful-contacts.aspx]]<br><br>[[ICO|http://www.ico.org.uk/Global/faqs/social]]<br><br>MeetingSystems<br><br><br>[[Crowdmapping|http://resources-now.org/?p=1083]]<br><br>[[Using Ushahidi|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/crowdmap-disaster-information-citizen-reports-ushahidi/]]<br><br>[[Tweet, or Not Tweet|http://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2012/02/memo-to-climate-scientists-tweet-or-not-tweet-and-how/]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[What is a Meme?|https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-a-meme-2483702]]<br><br>[[TED - Memes|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzGjEkp772s]]|
}}}  
!5. Tutorials on their Use
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">For Windows 8 users, there is a suite of Apps provided by Vodeclic.com which can be downloaded from the Windows Store.<br><br><strong>Twitter - </strong>An assortment of 12 video demonstrations.<br><br><strong>Facebook - </strong>Video demonstration on YouTube.<br><br><strong>LinkedIn - </strong>an overview and many other detailed videos.<br><br><strong>Google + </strong>- A very clever alternative to Facebook, but underused.<br><br></html>''~YouTube - '' Even [[YouTube]] is a Social Network site! <html>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HxPXlANmllE" target="_blank">YouTube</a><br><br> <strong>WhatsApp</strong> is a popular messaging service free of advertising.&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="http://www.whatsapp.com/" target="_blank">WhatsApp</a><br><br><strong>appear.in </strong>is a very simple and effective web browser based video chat tool. &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="https://appear.in/" target="_blank">appear.in</a><br><br><strong>Skype</strong> In spite of its conference facility, not strictly social media because it is peer-to-peer and does not offer itself as a marketing tool.<br><br><strong>Slack-</strong> A team communication facility that we might use in Computer Group and more widely in Southwell U3A.</html>|<br>[[Vodeclic.com|http://www.vodeclic.com/en/course/462-twitter]]<br><br>[[Twitter Tutorial|https://www.appsmarts.com/app-store/windows/education/twitter_-_training]]<br><br>[[Facebook Tutorial|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/facebook101]]<br><br>[[LinkedIn|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQca7AJlMw8]]<br><br>[[Google Plus|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3pq3bLfuRY]]<br><br>[[YouTube Tutorial|http://www.teachertrainingvideos.com/youTube/]]<br><br>[[WhatsApp Tutorial|http://whatsapp-android.en.softonic.com/android/video/whatsapp-messenger-beginners-guide-to-whatsapp-13500]]<br><br>[[Security|http://www.asd.gov.au/publications/csocprotect/security_tips_for_using_social_media_websites.htm]]<br><br>[[appear.in Review|http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/move-google-plus-hangouts-appear-really-good/]]<br><br>[[Using Skype|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/tips/how-to-use-skype.htm]]<br><br>[[Slack Review|http://uk.pcmag.com/slack/40141/review/slack]]|
}}}
!6.The Future
 {{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Some forecasts you might care to read.</strong><br><br><a href="http://thenextweb.com/socialmedia/2011/06/14/whats-next-in-social-media/" target="_blank">What's next in Social media</a><br><br><a href="http://www.slideshare.net/ratna1958/impact-of-social-media-on-the-future-of-childhood" target="_blank">The Future of Childhood</a><br><br><a href="http://www.onbile.com/info/social-networking-in-the-future/" target="_blank">A Collection of Future Uses</a><br><br><a href="http://socialmediatoday.com/starrknight/1423216/future-social-media" target="_blank">Who Knows?</a></html>|<br>[[OfCom Statistics|http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/market-data-research/other/research-publications/adults/adults-media-lit-14/]]|
}}}
!7. Conclusion
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify">The five sites listed in para 5 above are probably the most likely to interest.<br><br><strong> YouTube </strong>becomes a social medium when one subscribes and uploads personal videos rather than merely just views those of others.<br><strong> Facebook</strong> is rather like having your own website or "wall" that is interactive with other people's web sites and acts as a hub for your interests coupled with AI influenced news feeds. Users must declare their true identities. Don't believe a word you read on it - post-truth is word of the year.<br><strong> Google Plus</strong> is a more exclusive version of <strong>Facebook</strong> with the facility for creating "circles" of friends and is integrated with your Google account. <br><strong>Twitter</strong> is a dedicated communication system, unlike texting which is peer-to-peer, and has become a powerful medium, an open platform,  in the present modern world. It has the potential to promote understanding between presidents, anarchists, celebrities and  the hoi polloi. <a href="http://gigaom.com/2013/03/27/why-twitter-is-doing-the-right-thing-by-refusing-to-identify-users-who-posted-anti-semitic-comments/" target="_blank"><strong>Users may use pseudonyms</strong></a> to allow Twitter to be used as a communications tool by all kinds of disadvantaged groups, including political dissidents.<br><strong>Linkedin</strong> is a serious device for promoting one's professional image and credentials in the jungle of personnel selection and career advancement.<br><br>Of them all, I suspect it is <strong>Facebook</strong> that has appealed to most seniors who have ventured into the world of their grandchildren. If pushed, I have been tempted to consider <strong>Twitter</strong>, but still feel that I can express myself more forcefully and contentedly sealed securely in my familiar fish bowl with its clearly defined boundaries.<br><br>Having listened to representatives of Facebook and Twitter appearing before the Lords Communications Committee, I was impressed by their professionalism, the systems and proceedures in place to ensure users were protected and observed their strict rules, and their cooperation with law enforcement agencies internationally.</html>|<br>[[Age Digital Divide|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/10846869/End-of-age-based-digital-divide-silver-surfer-myths-debunked.html]]|
}}}

----
        
!3. Streaming<br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;''Streaming''<br>The motivation for developing your LAN is to view images and videos on a smart TV, distribute music to other devices in the house from a database on the PC and to listen to Internet Radio on devices other than your PC or tablet, such as a ''good pair of speakers.'' Streaming is the flowing of data from devices without downloading and saving the files in the device but enabling its reproduction. iMediaShare is an app for streaming between PC, tablet and TV.<br>''Streaming to TV''<br>A link for streaming video with audio to a TV with an HTMI port can be made either with an HTMI cable between the HTMI ports of the PC and the TV [[or wirelessly|http://www.howtogeek.com/177145/wireless-display-standards-explained-airplay-miracast-widi-chromecast-and-dlna/]], using an adapter such as VEEBEAM, Netgear's ~Push2TV or an Apple TV Box. A Veebeam adapter is connected to the HTMI port of the TV while the transmission is via a wireless signal from the dongle transmitter in the USB port of the PC to the adapter. In the case of the Apple TV Box, it is via your LAN. The PC desktop can be displayed in real time on the TV screen or video files played on the TV while the PC is used independently. It is usually necessary to download, in addition to the Veebeam software, a full codex pack, such as ~K-Lite, to enable a wide variety of different file typed to be used.<br><br>Apple provides the slickest video and desktop streaming to TV. The iPad and iPhone and Apple TV box have a feature called ~AirPlay built in. Windows PC users can harness this system by streaming to the Apple TV box (v2 and later) using ~AirParrot software in the PC.<br>See also ~WiDi at [[para 12 on the  SYNERGY page|Synergy]]<br>[[AllSharePlay|http://www.samsung.com/us/2012-allshare-play/]] is a similar feature available on Samsung devices. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Apps for Streaming from Android|http://www.knowyourmobile.com/android-apps/18049/best-airplay-apps-android-gettin-dream-stream]]<br><br>As ~HDTVs become smarter, these features will become standard and streaming from tablets and PC and Mac laptops with suitable apps and software will make mirroring commonplace. The direct mirroring of a PC desktop without an adapter is yet to be universally possible unless the devices are from the same manufacturer. Competition does not breed standardisation. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Wireless Display Standards|http://www.howtogeek.com/177145/wireless-display-standards-explained-airplay-miracast-widi-chromecast-and-dlna/]]<br><br>''In Summary - PC to HDTV''<html><a name="Summary" /></html><br>To date, for screen mirroring of the PC Desktop to HDTV, nothing beats a wired HTMI cable link for a reliable connection with no latency. ~WiDi requires a strict match of Intel chip, Intel ~WiFi Network adapter and suitable software in Windows 8.1.  Miracast type adapters, although making a wireless link between a wider variety of devices, suffer from latency, a lag, when used for presentation by displaying the Desktop on the TV screen, as does the Apple TV Box and Veebeam. Manufacturers have much more development to do before it is worth investing.<br><br>''With Windows 10'', the Microsoft Display Adapter available from Logitech has made media casting to TV a simple and reliable process with no lagging. ''Media Casting is built into the Edge browser'' and is available by right-click menu from most utilities.<br><br>Simply streaming photos, videos and music to TV is less problematic although somewhat unpredictable without good file organisation in the PC. A server software such as ~MultiCast, ~AirPlay, ~AllPlay or, the excellent, ''[[Serviio|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/downloads/3328519/serviio-1412/]]'' is run in the PC and once pairing with the HDTV is suitably setup, display results and can be controled by the remote.||<br>[[Skifta|http://www.skifta.com/support/faq]]<br><br>[[iMediaShare|http://support.imediashare.tv/entries/21610968-How-to-Stream-Video-and-Music-from-Windows-7-to-iPad-without-Syncing]]<br><br>[[Veebeam|http://www.veebeam.com/products/veebeam-hd/]]<br><br>[[How it works|http://www.veebeam.com/products/how-it-works/]]<br><br>[[Veebeam Review|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/networking-and-wi-fi/media-streaming-devices/veebeam-hd-929024/review]]<br><br>[[Codex Guide|http://www.codecguide.com/faq.htm]]<br><br>[[Amazon|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Veebeam-HD-Wireless-link-1080p/dp/B004D6725I]]<br><br>[[AirPlay|http://www.apple.com/uk/airplay/]]<br><br>[[AirParrot|http://www.airsquirrels.com/airparrot/in-action/]]<br><br>[[Apple TV|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Apple-MD199B-A-TV/dp/B0040GIZT8/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1388165088&amp;sr=8-1&amp;keywords=apple+tv+3]]<br><br>[[AirPlay or WiDi|http://www.overworkeditguy.com/2012/10/apple-airplay-intel-widi-reshaping.html]]<br><br>[[Which App|http://www.tomsguide.com/us/how-to-stream-to-tv,news-18335.html]]<br><br>[[Serviio|http://serviio.org/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Screen Mirroring|http://www.dell.com/support/article/us/en/19/SLN128740/en]]<br><br>[[Webcams|Synergy1##Webcam]]|
}}}
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<br><br><br><br><br>
''Just double click to view in YOUR BROWSER or __copy and paste__ the web address of the video you wish to view into the URL bar of [[Telestrator]].''<br>
This is a collection of videos selected for being evidence based and free of conspiricy theory and sensationalism, with perhaps one exception. Equally interesting may be the associated videos which follow each on the same page and will flow if "Autoplay" is selected.

''Perhaps I should justify the inclusion of a page on Ancient Knowledge in the Computer Worksheet. The justification is twofold. The Computer is a comprehensive calculating machine and much of Ancient Knowledge involves astronomical calulations, geometry and number theory, i.e. the equinoxes and the Golden Number. See Sumarian, Egyptian and Grecian history. Secondly, the subject raises questions of Human Origin. Recent research of this is closely associated with DNA study and DNA is now accepted as an example of computer code or language conveying design information, i.e. ICT.''

!Ancient Knowledge<br><br>
| ''__Topic__'' | ''__Title__'' | ''__Web Address__'' |
|!Basics |The Importance of Maths|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LECig33-6s||
|!DNA|A Communication System|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOXZGnY2ZpM|
||The Human Genome|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8bsCiq6hvM|
||Mitochondrial Eve|http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2010/12/the-paradigm-is-dead-long-live-the-paradigm/#.WSHFw4WcHGc|
||Genetics of Human Origins |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkPGM9b61P8|
||Entropy |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=870y6GUKbwc|
||Evolution 2.0|https://cosmicfingerprints.com/stephen-meyer-debate/|
||Evolution Unknown to Darwin|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNPbjtej1Hk&t=5407s|
||DNA Repair|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzXcq2h0VCk|
||Birth & Death of Genes|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgvcQIjwsyo|
||Dawkins on the Origin of DNA|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t09Pzg9MSZ8|
||The Cambrian Explosion|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NfwTlUy-7q8|
||Cause of the Cambrian Explosion|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qNtQwUO9ff8&t=590s|
|!Human Origin|Anthropology|http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/evolve_3.htm| |
||Human Evolution|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MCayG4IIOEQ|
||Out of Africa Theory|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AZ2H9NUn150|
||Homo Erectus|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBNMS9DpdKk|
||Out of Africa is Wrong|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZWM6z47EGSE|
| [[Zecharia Sitchin|https://grahamhancock.com/sitchinz1/]] |Alternative Anthropology|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Wr-lXLGCxQ&list=PLxmXAWphq9qBXgI96Q5FKtf5laU5aEX9e|
|!Recent Discoveries|The Hidden Truth|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=asy5_t1GyW4|
||Truth & Dogma|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8DxNBNsdUg&t=1586s|
||Classical History|https://grahamhancock.com/is-the-house-of-history-built-on-foundations-of-sand/|
||3 Cities|http://morgana249.blogspot.co.uk/2014/07/3-civilizations-that-make-historians.html|
|!Ancient Civilisations|An Overview|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1BkMqtWMns&t=111s|
||Forbidden Archaeology|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKfGC3P9KoQ|
||~Ancient_Indian_Archaeology|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pC1JWt3rYMM|
||Lost Civilisations|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IoL_422A1bU&t=1586s#t=4108.898616|
| [[Debunked|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3H64pTiQwuA]] |~The_Sumerian_Cuneiform_Tablets|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQsy4cM09bQ|
|!Ancient Technology|Ancient Technologies|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yj7Z6KrYK3w|
| [[Ancient Artifacts|http://www.ancient-origins.net/unexplained-phenomena/17-out-place-artifacts-said-suggest-high-tech-prehistoric-civilizations-020544]] |Cairo Museum High Tech|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLQi_DMxEUo|
||Pyramids Questions|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=us-7d1x_9RM|
||Pyramid Construction|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cm4eUPNo3_8|
||Giza Power Plant|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSftyiTrDnY|
||Ancient Knowledge|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmAIPwNw1nM |
||Prehistoric Knowledge System|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNoyyIo7Ol8&t=735s|
||The Hutchinson Effect|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIqIT9avewU|
| [[Dustification|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ermHx3akejc]] &nbsp; [[Debunked|https://kendoc911.wordpress.com/debunking-dr-judy-wood/]] |Recent Applications?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mX37D0NGoEU|
||Ancient Machining of Rock|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vXKYa6nT7oA|
|!Impact Events|Cosmic Impact|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K1BkMqtWMns|
||Precession of the Equinox|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1hOUGu2wXw&t=5745s|
| [[Maps|https://www.iceagenow.info/ice-age-maps-2/]] |Ice Ages|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDejwCGdUV8|
| [[Man Made Climate Change|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wAKVz_lKv0]] |Global Climate|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02eZMf17wFs|
||Climate Oscillations|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PIRz2tv6nk|
||Mass Extinctions|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZqbeGc7KBE|
||Extinctions Past & Present|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFDdm6nWpRc|
|!~The_Sholders_of_Giants|Plato|http://www.ancient.eu/plato/|
||Aristotle|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotle|
||Mendel|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregor_Mendel|
||Darwin|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin|
||Watson|https://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/SC/Views/Exhibit/narrative/doublehelix.html|
||Crick|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Crick|
||Graham Hancock|https://grahamhancock.com/bio/|
-------
 
<br><br><br>
''Just double click to view in YOUR BROWSER or __copy and paste__ the web address of the video you wish to view into the URL bar of [[Telestrator]].''
!Maths<br><br>
| ''__Topic__'' | ''__Title__'' | ''__Web Address__'' |
|Basics |The Importance of Maths|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LECig33-6s|
||How to Approach Maths|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hdcmxWHsgb0|
||Kahn Acadamy Tutorials|https://www.khanacademy.org/math|
||Factorising an expression|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQ-NRsWhOGI|
||Nancy on Logarithms|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIwmZ9m0byI|
||Integration|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RjLkuYtxCrc|
||The Matrix|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kqWCwwyeE6k|
||Interacive Maths|http://www.intmath.com/help/interactive-math-applications.php|
||A basic understanding of Probability|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUYbHSNotjY|
||Introduction to Probability|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8eSOmTPUbk|
|QM|The Wave Function - 1|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02eZMf17wFs|
||The Wave Function - 2|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZFGabP8ExbM|
||Randomness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hGGb0nGTPLk|
||Probability in QM|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WesAzpieCYU|
|Learning|Study Less Study Smart|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IlU-zDU6aQ0|
||Organizing Study|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_ElR-uPOhw|

------
[[Summary of Ancient Knowledge Videos]]
<br><br><br>
''Just double click to view in YOUR BROWSER or __copy and paste__ the web address of the video you wish to view into the URL bar of [[Telestrator]].''
!Communication<br><br>
| ''__Topic__'' | ''__Title__'' | ''__Web Address__'' |
|''Control Systems''|Closed Loop System|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-OqgFE9SD4|
||Probability|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9WZyLZCBzs|
||Principles of Digital Communications |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KXFF8m4uGDc|
|''Data''|We receive more and more data|http://www.ted.com/talks/susan_etlinger_what_do_we_do_with_all_this_big_data?language=en |
|''Consciousness''|Neuroscience|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_ZTNmkIiBc|
||Dan Dennett: The illusion of consciousness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjbWr3ODbAo&index=3&list=PL97795F5F212C4BD2 |
||Antonio Damasio: Understanding it|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AWOC29YitGQ|
||Stuart Hameroff on Consciousness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpUVot-4GPM|
||Our Sense of Self|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMrzdk_YnYY |
||Consciousness: Explored and Explained |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zWfRWdeuPb4|
||Stuart Hameroff: Quantum Consciousness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEpUIcOodnM |
|''Quantum Science''|Measure for Measure: Quantum Physics and Reality |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdqC2bVLesQ|
|''The Brain''|Brain Structure and Function|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enSy28rBIIM|
||Recent Brain Research|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cz-3WDdqbj0 |
||Alzheimer's|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NjgBnx1jVIU |
||Anesthesia|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4scfgPVT0MY |
||Learning and Memory|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cljtsv-CTBY |
||Long Term Memory|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vso9jgfpI_c |
||The New Brain Science of Learning|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahSYwchh-QM|
||Brain Plasticity and Skills Learning, Aging|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z41BTeAU7DI|
||The Aging Brain|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FRVrvpJOztw|
|''Perception''|Is your red the same as my red?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evQsOFQju08|
||Is your time the same as my time?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5my9udw5_H4|
||New Senses|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4c1lqFXHvqI |
||Personal EEG devices|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTcvqCXesZw|
||A headset that reads your brainwaves|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fs2GDSYYCoA|
|''Application''|The Science of Persuasion|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFdCzN7RYbw|
||Mindfulness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nwwKbM_vJc |

--------
 
 
<br><br><br>
''Just double click to view in YOUR BROWSER or __copy and paste__ the web address of the video you wish to view into the URL bar of [[Telestrator]].''
!Quantum Physics<br><br>
| ''__Topic__'' | ''__Title__'' | ''__Web Address__'' |
||The Schrödinger Lecture 2014|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pM_GN2zJPgQ|
||Theory of Relativity|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttZCKAMpcAo|
||~SpaceTime|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MO_Q_f1WgQI|
||4 Laws of Thermodynamics|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ox6o8y46eQ|
||Entropy 1|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gS_C7dM25pc|
||Entropy 2|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=870y6GUKbwc|
||Statistical Thermodynamics|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fud8XZgdgdU|
||Quantum Theory for Dummies|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JP9KP-fwFhk|
||Struktura Kosmosu on Quantum|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2liLIyCIZ5c|
||Parallel Worlds|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IxRfDtaot5U|
||The Quantum Leap|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CBrsWPCp_rs|
||Brian Greene on Quantum|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdqC2bVLesQ&list=PLd4qF6QzoiUeaLxpd7Q_s4SzK_ALjjBju&index=1|
||Schrödinger's Cat|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hHwgSfJtByk|
||Schrodinger's Cat|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZsXu5QdZtc|
||What is a measurement?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KujEMGZGUTI|
||Parallel Universes: Many Worlds |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNwKPfOKipk|
||The Wave Function? |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aowYf44gDRY|
||Probability and Uncertainty|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_k6fSFwOVk|
||Dirac Notation and Photon|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBh7Xqbh5JQ&list=PLXjMbDWXtx8XZcCDg1IP7NajYWW1wYkIM|
||What Is Entanglement?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGulRS2IyF8|
||Vector Space|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UqDb2BcxZk|
||Complex Numbers|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vk78-7bUbzo|
||Imaginary Numbers|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxF5VQSA4Hw|
||Video Maths Approach|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBh7Xqbh5JQ|
||Videos Quantum Mechanics|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JzhlfbWBuQ8&list=PL84C10A9CB1D13841|
||Copenhagen Interpretation|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Um0AvHrPp_w|
||Some simple explanations|https://www.youtube.com/user/LookingGlassUniverse/videos|
||Photon Entanglement|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z34ugMy1QaA&list=PLbT8q_Cig_wu-CcBJEcCppzcg6wxjzkdV&index=2|
||Is anything Real?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L45Q1_psDqk|
||Quantum Fields|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNVQfWC_evg&t=2202s|
||What is Spin?|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cd2Ua9dKEl8 |
||The Maths you Need (1hr 18 min)|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UqDb2BcxZk|
||Wonder in Science|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KzWeTpT43-U|
||Professor Terry Rudolph|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKGZDhQoR9E |
||Sir Roger Penrose - Quantum Consciousness |https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WXTX0IUaOg&list=PLbr_VE8ZFNI-XdORRaWuHy1rI3mWTPiZ4 |
||Stuart Hameroff - The Quantum Mind|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OEpUIcOodnM|
||Stuart Hameroff - Consciousness|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPlBGdZLwTE |
||Zero Point Full series of Videos|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpJ3yO4-Xpo&list=PLWlK1ZorBxmy8K5M6zDALL0EGiYS51Z1d |
 
--------------

 
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:65em;''The MULTIMEDIA page introduces ideas for enjoying the computer for music, images and videos. This SYNERGY page introduces the many other activities for which the computer may be used, so that working together, the two devices produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects.&nbsp;Below are some of those uses for your computer.''||
}}}&nbsp;
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;[[1. Connecting and Disconnecting Periferals|Synergy1]]<br>[[ 2. Link to speakers with Bluetooth|Synergy1]]<br>[[3. Extend your Wi-Fi and Li-Fi|Synergy2]]<br>[[4. Using a telescope from indoors.|Synergy2]]<br>[[5. Controlling your Central Heating and Lighting|Synergy3]]<br>[[ 6. Watch TV on your PC|Synergy3]]<br>[[7. Setting up Security Cameras on the Internet|Synergy4]]<br>[[8. Collecting data from a Weather Station|Synergy4]]|[[9. Reprogram your car|Synergy5]]<br>[[10. Flying Drones|Synergy5]]<br>[[11. Update your SatNav|Synergy6]]<br>[[12. Control your TV from PC|Synergy6]]<br>[[13. Learn a programming language|Programming]]<br>[[14. Make a Driverless Car|DriverlessCar]]<br>[[15. Attach a microscope to your PC|Microscopy]]||
}}}

&nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  ''These three sites explain general principles of Control:-''<br><br>
 &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; [[Control1|http://www.igcseict.info/theory/7_1/control/]] &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; [[Control2|http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/measurecontrol/0computercontrolrev1.shtml]] &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp;  [[Control3|http://www.ictlounge.com/html/control_applications_examples.htm]]
!!New Technology
{{invisibletable{
|width:52em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>"Technology is everything that doesn't work yet"</strong>, <a href="http://kk.org/thetechnium/everything-that/" target="_blank"><u>is a famous quote</u></a> made when the rate of new innovation offered to the consuming public started to escalate. It contains a warning to early adopters.<br><br>We may feel that for much of the new technology we have no need. However if we ignore its introduction, as time passes we discover it has an impact on our lives. We have become vulnerable and in our complacency, not acquired the knowledge to cope with its impact. We must keep up to date even if it is only at the level of awareness.</html>|<br>[[Alphr.com|http://www.alphr.com/]] &nbsp; [[Inverse.com|https://www.inverse.com/article/16980-how-future-tesla-owners-will-escape-range-anxiety]]<br><br>[[Future TimeLine|http://www.futuretimeline.net/blog/computers-internet-blog.htm#.VYQpd0b20hn]] &nbsp; [[Bloomberg|https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-07-21/elon-musk-reveals-how-he-forecasts-tesla-s-future]]<br><br>[[Cool Tech|http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/]]|
}}}



----

<br><br>
!1. Connecting and Disconnecting Peripherals
<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;This is mentioned first because, if you are using the PC to control devices, cables will be ''inserted into'', and ''ejected from, PC ports.'' The important rules are:-<br><br>1. Preferably have the device ''not powered up'', and<br><br>2. Use the right click menu in ''Windows Explorer'' or the ''"Safely Remove Hardware"'' icon in the notification area, to eject the device, rather than just pulling out the cable. The PC and devices are very resilient these days but a USB cable carries power as well as data and carelessness may destroy a delicate device.<br><br>By the way, never join two ~PCs together without a specially dedicated cable for the job. &nbsp; &nbsp; <br><br>''Plug and play'' is a standard for Windows ~PCs that allows peripherals to be connected and used in a matter of moments. In theory, Windows will automatically detect the new device and install any needed drivers.|<br><br><br>[[Ejecting any device|http://www.webosnation.com/properly-eject-your-phone-usb-mode]] <br><br>[[PC ports|Topic Slides/Files11 Computer Ports.jpg]]<br><br>[[How USB Works|http://computer.howstuffworks.com/usb1.htm]]<br><br>[[Peripherals|http://openbookproject.net/courses/intro2ict/hardware/peripherals.html]]<br><br>[[Plug and Play|http://www.techterms.com/definition/plugandplay]]|
}}}
!2. Loud Speakers
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;~BlueTooth is magically simple to use and can be reliably used to stream audio to loudspeakers and media players as well as to send files to other devices. ''Pairing'' is achieved by both devices actively searching for each other and then linking.<br>''To activate'' automatic searching from your PC, go to ''Start - Search for ~BlueTooth Settings'' and tick "Allow Bluetooth devices to find this computer". If your PC has no built-in Bluetooth, download ~BlueTooth software and plug a ''Bluetooth Dongle v2.0'' into a USB port. Some suppliers refer to the computer USB dongle as an adapter, to radiate the signal.<br>If the device is not a Bluetooth device there will be an ''adapter'' for it, to receive the signal. This adapter is plugged in where a wire connection would otherwise have been made from the computer.<br><br>[[Bluetooth Tutorial|https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/bluetooth-basics/all.pdf]]|<br>[[BlueTooth Dongle|http://www.amazon.co.uk/tag/bluetooth%20dongle/products]]<br><br>[[Activate Find|http://www.liutilities.com/how-to/use-bluetooth-and-computer/]]<br><br>[[Adapters|http://www.pcworld.co.uk/gbuk/pc-accessories/pc-speakers/pc-speakers/logitech-wireless-bluetooth-speaker-adapter-11358345-pdt.html]]<br><br>[[BlueTooth Software|http://www.broadcom.com/support/bluetooth/update.php]]|
}}}   
!3. Webcam
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;Most desktop monitors and laptops now include a webcam installed in the centre at the top of the screen of 0.3 MP upwards. Megapixels is not the only consideration. A screen resolution of 1440×900 requires just 1.3Mp to fill an entire screen with a high quality image. It is the relationship between screen resolution and camera resolution that determines the size and quality of the visual experience. To improve picture quality to stream video over the Internet with video telephone software such as Skype or video conferencing systems, an [[external USB Webcam|http://www.pcworld.co.uk/gbuk/pc-accessories/webcams-headsets/webcams/logitech-pro-c920-full-hd-webcam-12236018-pdt.html]] may be added with improved "frame rate", "auto focus", "low light correction" features.<br><br>Windows has some in-built webcam utilities. Search for "Camera" and "Movie Maker".<br><br>Distinguish between IP Webcams and USB Webcams. The former are setup with an IP address for streaming over the Internet and often used for weather proof security systems. The latter are linked directly by USB cable to a PC and are used with video conference and phone systems..... and, of course, selfies. &nbsp; &nbsp; See [[Synergy4|Synergy4##CCTV]]|[[Which Webcam|http://blog.mailvu.com/blog/which-webcam-should-i-buy/]]<br><br>[[Webcam Features|http://paulsinternetsecurityblog.wordpress.com/2011/10/27/5-important-features-when-choosing-a-webcam/]]<br><br>[[Webcam Settings|http://wind8apps.com/access-windows-8-webcam-settings/]]<br><br>[[Webcam Errors|http://www.pcauthorities.com/pc-errors/how-to-fix-webcam-problems/]]<br><br>[[Webcam Reviews|http://webcam-review.toptenreviews.com/]]<br><br>[[Skype Webcam|https://support.skype.com/en/faq/FA3731/how-can-i-check-that-my-webcam-is-working-correctly-in-skype-for-windows-desktop]]<br><br>[[Webcam Security|http://uk.norton.com/yoursecurityresource/detail.jsp?aid=webcam_hacking]]|
}}}
----

!3. Extend your ~WiFi
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;There are a number of ways to extend your ~WiFi signal:-<br><br>1. Change your Router for a more powerful model.<br>2. Add a router extender which amplifies the signal.<br>3. Use a mains adapter such as ~HomePlug which transmits the signal through the mains electricity system.<br>4. ~Li-Fi will be available soon. This radiates the signal from LED light bulbs and is very secure.<br><br>~Li-Fi refers to wireless communication systems using light as a medium instead of traditional radio frequencies, as in technology using the trademark ~Li-Fi, which has the advantage of being able to be used in electromagnetic sensitive areas such as in aircraft or nuclear power plants, without causing interference. However, the light waves used cannot penetrate walls which makes ~Li-Fi more secure than ~Wi-Fi.|<br><br>[[Router Comparison|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/wireless-routers]]<br><br>[[Router Extenders|http://www.uk.best-price.com/search/landing/query/Range+Extender+Wireless/s/google/koid/2189955077/?gclid=CJH0_Y2ex7oCFRMctAodwxsAZQ&amp;ef_id=UdaCKgAAAFwApdaP:20131102231708:s]]<br><br>[[Mains Adapters|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/buying-advice/network-wifi/3370997/homeplug-powerline-networking-adaptors-buying-advice]]<br><br>[[Li-Fi|http://www.sciencealert.com/li-fi-tested-in-the-real-world-for-the-first-time-is-100-times-faster-than-wi-fi]]|
}}}  
!4. PC Telescope connection
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;There are two aspects to study:-<br><br>1. Controlling the telescope from a computer. Most computer control systems consist of a small handset linked to the telescope by a short cable. Recent computers don't have a ''serial port'', often used for the cable connecting PC to telescope, but adapters are available.<br><br>2. Viewing the eye piece image on the computer or TV screen.|<br>[[Beginners' Telescopes|http://www.space.com/15693-telescopes-beginners-telescope-reviews-buying-guide.html]]<br><br>[[BBC Guide|http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/tv/stargazinglive/sgl_guide_to_telescopes.pdf]]<br><br>[[Some Reviews|http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2012/09/test/star-spotting]]<br><br>[[WorldWide Telescope|http://www.worldwidetelescope.org/]]|
}}}

----
!5. Central Heating and Lighting
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;All systems involve suitable PC software or a dedicated handset and components or actuators that respond to a wireless signal. The choice of system is extensive and each uses a particular protocol, e.g. X10, ~Z-Wave.<br>The links to the right provide an introduction to further in depth research with a chosen system, e.g. [[LightwaveRF|http://recombu.com/digital/news/lightwaverf-home-automation_M11004.html]]<br><br>Then there's - [[Voice Activation!|http://compnetworking.about.com/od/homeautomationsystems/a/voice-]],  &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[PIR lighting|http://www.lightingstyles.co.uk/accessories-lamps-transformers/indoor-pir-movement-detectors/]], &nbsp; &nbsp; - [[The Internet of Things|http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/the_internet_of_things]] &nbsp; and &nbsp; [[Samsung's Smart Home|http://www.techradar.com/news/phone-and-communications/mobile-phones/samsung-smart-home-platform-brings-the-connected-home-under-one-app-s-roof-1212140?src=rss&attr=all]]<br><br>''__[[Smart Devices]]__'' |[[Home Automation|http://www.pcworld.com/article/203587/automate_your_home_with_four_easy_projects.html]]<br><br>[[How to Automate|http://www.wikihow.com/Automate-Your-Home]]<br><br>[[Heating System|http://www.theowl.com/heatingcontrols.pdf]]<br><br>[[Software|http://www.domcontroller.com/en/]]<br><br>[[Article|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/how-to/digital-home/3376401/easy-home-automation-projects-for-weekend-warrior-part-one/]]|
}}}   
!6.Watch TV on your PC
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;The PC offers a second home HDTV. There are two ways to use it.<br><br>''Live TV.'' Some ~PCs have an in-built tuner. If not, then, depending on the design, a USB TV dongle or a tuner card can be added. Programs can be viewed in Windows Media Centre with an aerial connection.<br><br>''Internet TV.'' There are a number of ways, all of which require a strong unlimited broadband connection:-<br><br>1. ~TV-Catchup, 4oD, BBC iPlayer, and embedded browser videos, such as those on the BBC News site.<br>2. ~FireFox or other browser Add-on Toolbar, but your security protection may prohibit the associated codex files required.<br>3. Software gives access to many channels but there are regional and legal limitations to watching in the UK.|<br><br>[[Windows Media Center|http://windows.microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/watch-tv-in-windows-media-center]]<br><br>[[A comprehensive Guide|http://www.adventcomputers.co.uk/everyday-computing/guide-using-your-pc-tv]]<br><br>[[FireFox TV Add-on|https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/tv-fox-watch-tv-online/]]<br><br>[[Cards and Dongles|http://www.frequencycast.co.uk/pctv.html]]<br><br>[[Downloads|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/features/software/3289821/five-of-the-best-downloads-to-watch-tv-on-your-pc/]]|
}}}

----
!7. CCTV
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;Undoubtedly the simplest DIY system is a hard wired system. However cameras often need to be weatherproof and located some distance from the warmth of the monitoring computer. This leads to a Wireless CCTV system using either a ''direct ~WiFi link'' or one using the Internet, and this in turn, requires [[learning about IP addresses|http://www.2seetv.co.uk/remotecctv.htm]] and setting up a DNS server. There is a lot to read but in the end it is fairly simple. The direct ~WiFi link is the simplest and will radiate up to about 100m. ''__Warning.__'' Use a very strong password and carefully chosen username when setting up IP cameras. These are otherwise easily hacked.<br><br>The links, to the right, provide system and camera reviews and a link to Maplin which often has good low price deals. A professionally installed system will cost six times a DIY installation but may give more peace of mind.|[[System Reviews|http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/reviews/10187748/HomeMonitor-security-camera-review.html]]<br><br>[[CCTV Guide|http://www.iviewcameras.co.uk/pdf/cctv_buying_guide.pdf]]<br><br>[[Camera Reviews|http://www.safesitefacilities.co.uk/knowledge-base/the-7-best-security-cameras-in-the-u]]<br><br>[[Maplin's advice|http://www.maplin.co.uk/media/PDFs/CCTV.pdf]]<br><br>[[ParamountZone|http://www.paramountzone.com/microcam.htm]]|
}}}   
!8. Weather Station 
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;Rather than looking out of the window, a weather station in the garden can deliver meteorological data right to your computer, current, historical and forecast.<br><br>You can validate the accuracy of your collected data by comparison with [[your local weather station|http://weather.weatherbug.co.uk/United%20Kingdom/Ollerton%20and%20Boughton-weather.html?zcode=z6286&amp;lang_id=en-gb]] or the [[local Met Office station|http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/uk/em/newark_forecast_weather.html]]. Of course, you could save the expense of your own station by using these sites - but would it be as much fun, would you [[learn the problems|http://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/climate-weather/atmospheric/scientists-predict-weather.htm]] of [[accurate data|http://www.weatherstations.co.uk/gooddata.htm]] collection and the [[names of clouds|http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/learning/clouds/cloud-names-classifications]]?<br><br>There is a choice of two well known software utilities for collating data and displaying it on PC. |[[A Selection of Stations|http://weather-station.co.uk/]]<br><br>[[An inexpensive one|http://www.maplin.co.uk/usb-touchscreen-wireless-weather-forecaster-22882]]<br><br>[[Cumulus|http://sandaysoft.com/products/cumulus]]<br><br>[[EasyWeather|http://softadvice.informer.com/Easy_Weather_Software_Download.html]]|
}}}

----

!9. Retune your Car
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;In the name of family safety, this is an activity most of us would keep at arms length. However, knowing it is now possible and is a routine but an unmentioned part of your regular car service, it is worth being aware of the unintended consequences of technological progress.<br><br>In order to [["Hack"|http://www.caranddriver.com/features/can-your-car-be-hacked-feature]] an automotive system you have to have physical access. That means you have to be in the car with your computer hooked up to the diagnostic port. While [[some prankster could|http://us.norton.com/yoursecurityresource/detail.jsp?aid=car_computer]] break into your car and interfere with the ECU programming, it isn't going to happen as you are driving down the street as many might assume from some scare story headlines... [[or is it?|http://www.gizmag.com/vehicle-computer-systems-hacks/15156/]]|[[Onboard Diagnostics|http://www.pencomputing.com/frames/obd2.html]]<br><br>[[Connect a Laptop|http://www.ehow.com/how_8229738_connect-laptop-cars-computer.html]]<br><br>[[Smart Driving|http://www.macrumors.com/2013/08/09/hands-on-with-the-automatic-connected-driving-assistant-system/]]<br><br>[[The US perspective|http://www.macrumors.com/2013/08/09/hands-on-with-the-automatic-connected-driving-assistant-system/]]|
}}}   
!10. Fly a Drone - UAV (or RPA?)
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;This very popular American hobby is now used in the UK, miniaturized for surveillance, in agriculture and will soon enable Royal Mail to deliver economically to your rural doorstep.<br><br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Intelligence Gathering|http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/bruno-in-brussels-eu-unplugged/brusselsbruno/367/"]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[The implications|http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/03/08-drones-singer]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Parcel Delivery|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-25180906]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[RAF Waddington|http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-25425711]]|[[What are Drones?|http://dronewars.net/aboutdrone/]]<br><br>[[Gadgets|http://android.appstorm.net/roundups/accessories/not-just-helicopters-gadgets-you-can-control-with-android/]]<br><br>[[The Parrot|http://www.amazon.co.uk/Parrot-AR-Drone-Outdoor-Hull-Orange/dp/B007HZLLOK]]|
}}}

----
!11. Update your ~SatNav
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em;This is a simple process using a USB cable connected cradle.   Regular updates are available to download from the provider.<br><br>In another sense of "update", rather than replacing an old dedicated ~SatNav unit, if you have a smartphone, consider doubling it for [[in-car navigation with an App|http://www.trustedreviews.com/best-sat-navs_round-up]] using a suitable cradle. This way offers easy access to real-time updates and current traffic news.|[[Which SatNav|http://www.which.co.uk/technology/computing/reviews/sat-navs/page/faqs/]]<br><br>[[Trusted Reviews|http://www.trustedreviews.com/best-sat-navs_round-up]]<br><br>[[Buying Guide|http://www.techradar.com/news/car-tech/satnav/best-sat-nav-which-one-is-right-for-you-936587]]<br><br>[[Ditch your SatNav|http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1267803/Google-introduce-free-satnav-app-Android-phones.html]]<br><br>[[For the iPhone|http://www.techradar.com/news/car-tech/satnav/best-iphone-sat-nav-5-apps-on-test-1043960]]|
}}}  
!12. Control TV from PC
{{invisibletable{
|width:58em; There is little worthwhile software to replace the elusive remote simply to operate the TV<br><br>However the PC display content can be streamed wirelessly.<br><br>Requirements:<br>• A system with Intel® ~WiDi software version 3.5X or later installed, along with appropriate video and ~WiFi drivers. Check Intel "Product Information",<br>• A DLNA ~WiDi HDTV, or receiver adapter, with wireless networking enabled,<br>• Both the system and the DLNA device must be connected to the same wireless access point (AP),i.e. your router,<br>or,<br>• an HTMI adapter used as supplied by ~VeeBeam or ~Q-Waves,<br>or,<br>• A PC or tablet with a streaming app installed. See [[NETWORK|Networks]] page para. 3.|<br>[[Display Standards|http://www.howtogeek.com/177145/wireless-display-standards-explained-airplay-miracast-widi-chromecast-and-dlna/]]<br><br>[[Intel Guide|http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/architecture-and-technology/connect-mobile-device-tv-wireless.html]]<br><br>[[Intel WiDi Software|https://downloadcenter.intel.com/Detail_Desc.aspx?DwnldID=19782]]<br><br>[[Installation Guide|http://supportkb.intel.com/wireless/wireless-display/templates/selfservice/intelwidi/#portal/1026/article/2506]]<br><br>[[NetGear WiDi Adapter|http://www.amazon.co.uk/NetGear-PTV3000-100PES-Push2TV/dp/B00AKC24Y8/ref=sr_ob_1?ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1384207475&amp;sr=8-1]]<br><br>[[Veebeam|http://www.pcpro.co.uk/reviews/network-media-streamers/362947/veebeam-hd]]|
}}}

----
<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
!!Introduction
|width:52em;<html><p align="justify">The TED Conference is held annually on the West Coast of North America; the TED Conference is at the heart of TED. The acronym "TED" stands for Technical, Entertainment and Design. From this centre, a number of subsidiary organisations sprout. More than 70 speakers appear on the main stage to give 18-minute talks and shorter presentations, including music, performance and comedy. Additionally there are specialist meetings such as TED Active, TED Women, TED Youth, while TED Global is an annual 5-day conference that celebrates human ingenuity by exploring ideas, innovation and creativity from all around the world. The most recent conference was held October 6–10, 2014, in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.</html>|You have so many to choose from but this collection makes an excellent introduction.<br> &nbsp; &nbsp; [[11 must-see TED Talks|http://www.ted.com/playlists/77/11_must_see_ted_talks]]<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; [[TED main site|http://www.ted.com/about/our-organization]]<br><br> &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp;  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Ted Topics|http://www.ted.com/topics]]<br>|
}}}

!!Ideas worth spreading
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">TED's mission is to of spread ideas and spark global conversations. There is now an archieve of over 2000 past talks collected together and viewable both on the TED website itself and on YouTube on the TED Channel. This collection is a valuable resource of stimulating, well presented talks covering a vast wealth of topics, from the Arts and Science to the Humanities. TED further organises talks independent of the main conferences and these are available on the TEDx site.</html>|[[Special Events|https://www.ted.com/attend/conferences/special-events]]<br>[[YouTube TED Channel|https://www.youtube.com/user/TEDtalksDirector/videos?view=0&sort=p&flow=grid]]<br>[[TED Reviewed|http://time.com/34784/why-ted-matters/]]<br>[[TED Reviewed|http://www.newstatesman.com/martin-robbins/2012/09/trouble-ted-talks]]<br>[[TEDx|http://tedxtalks.ted.com/pages/talks-by-topic]]|
}}}
!!As A Learning Resource
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">If you are using TED for study rather than as equally comendable entertainment, you may find considering these thoughts useful:<br>1. If your broadband speed is limited, watching in YouTube leads to less buffering delay than the TED site itself.<br>2. Using YouTube, once you have found a subject to study, suitable keyword search on either "subject" or "presenter" creates an ordered thread for study. You can also subscribe to the TED Channel, of course.<br>3. The Telestrator utility enables very fine control of a video should you need to recap a comment or study in detail a diagram or table presented only briefly during the lecture. Just Cut & Paste the YouTube address into Telestrator and load.<br>4. YouTube can now be remotely controlled from a tablet using an approprate App for streaming to TV, eg Samsung AllShare, Google ChromeCast, Apple AirPlay, Microsoft MiraCast, etc.</html>|<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Telestrator]]<br><br>[[Streaming|http://www.tomsguide.com/us/how-to-stream-to-tv,news-18335.html]]|
}}}
!!TED Censorship Controvacy
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify">"In a statement, TED said: “The reason people are upset is because they think there has been censorship. But it’s simply not true. Both talks are up on our website. If you Google them you will find them immediately. Both have attracted significant views and numerous comments.   This whole flap stems from an initial alert put out by one of the speakers that he thought he might be about to be censored. And when you shout censorship on the Internet, it’s like shouting fire in a cinema. It causes chaos regardless of whether it’s true. In this case it was a misunderstanding on his part. We had made clear from the start that these talks were not being removed from the web.”<br><br>TED "censorship" may be applied not to supress progress but when talks are not based on peer reviewed scientific evidence. There approach is often mis-interpreted as "ideas TED does not want you to know", as in this critique in Natural News. These controversies circle round such as Free Will, Responsibility and Creationism. There have been a number of revolutionary contributions to mankind's understanding of reality; Darwin and Turing, to mention only two. There many be others in future, so we must defend open discussion.</html>|<br>[[TED Censorship|http://www.forbes.com/sites/bruceupbin/2012/05/17/the-real-reason-that-ted-talk-was-censored-its-shoddy-and-dumb/]]<br><br>[[Censored TED Talks|http://www.whydontyoutrythis.com/2013/03/3-censored-ted-talks-the-establishment-does-not-want-you-to-see.html]]<br><br>[[View from Huffington Post|http://www.huffingtonpost.com/chris-anderson/ted-censorship-consciousn_b_3115145.html]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Natural News|http://www.naturalnews.com/041931_TED_talks_censorship_consciousness.html]]|
}}}
!!Alternatives
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Other lecture collections that may interest you are [[Kahn Academy|https://www.khanacademy.org/about]] &nbsp; [[AcademicEarth|http://academicearth.org/]] &nbsp; [[Academic Lectures|http://tigger.uic.edu/~onufrock/lecture_linksA.html]]|.|
}}}
-----
<br><br>
!Tablet Apps
No attempt is made to highlight any of the millions of Apps available. A search of the three main App Stores reveals the range from the futile to the worthwhile. Always check to see what access you allow the App to your files, Internet account and personal profile. Read the reviews both on the App installation page and the web. Often a good App writer offers a trial version and a "paid-for" version. This is a good sign. Avoid filling your tablet with junk which quietly saps battery power searching location and updates. Security is a growing problem, but always install apps from the official Stores which are scanned for malware. Downloading Apps directly from the Web can be dangerous, unless the store directs you to the writer's web site.
{{invisibletable{
|width:30em; ''Apps listed on this Worksheet''<br><br>''Android''<br>[[QuickOffice|http://www.google.co.uk/docs/about/]]&nbsp; &nbsp; [[Office|http://www.techradar.com/news/phone-and-communications/mobile-phones/10-best-office-apps-for-android-993343]]<br>[[AndTidWiki|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=de.mgsimon.android.andtidwiki&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Skifta|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.skifta.android.app&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Documents To Go|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.dataviz.docstogo&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Wifi Anslyser|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farproc.wifi.analyzer&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Apps for Streaming|http://www.knowyourmobile.com/android-apps/18049/best-airplay-apps-android-gettin-dream-stream]]<br>[[iMediashare|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.bianor.amspersonal&hl=en_GB]]|width:30em;<br><br> ''Apple''<br>[[GoodReader|http://www.walkingoffice.com/file-management/quick-tip-how-to-setup-goodreader-sync-with-dropbox/]]<br>[[QuickEdit|http://www.bytesquared.com/product/quickedit-ipad]]<br>[[TWMobile|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/twmobile/id381945222?mt=8]]<br>[[DropBox|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/dropbox/id327630330?mt=8]]<br>[[Air Playit|http://www.airplayit.com/blog/tutorials/best-video-streaming-apps-for-ipad-iphone.htm]]<br>[[iExplorer|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/iexplorer/id307733225?mt=8]]|width:30em;<br><br>''Windows Mobile''<br>[[Tunein Radio|http://tunein.com/get-tunein/]]<br>[[DropBox|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/app/dropbox/8950387a-fad8-4f4e-9b42-b859a4545700]]<br>[[PDF Reader|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/app/pdf-reader/1a28bfcf-9f04-46d2-8532-3a338a5dc23b]]<br>[[Conectivity|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/app/connectivity/4f7eb28d-d8c4-4d8d-a7af-157acd3c7022]]<br>[[Audials|http://audials.com/en/blog/cat/Audials+Mobile/overview.html]]|
}}}
-----
<br><br><br><br><br>
!This page summarizes guidance on ''Tablet choice and use.''
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>The tablet</strong> offers greater mobility than a laptop, is designed for  "apps" and has limited utility.<br>However the partnership of a tablet and a Desktop PC or Mac when both are syncronised through Cloud services is ideal and  overrides the value of a laptop alone.<br><br><strong>The term App</strong> is an abbreviation for application, and is often widened in meaning to include any computer utility. It is also the name given to those utilities now familiar in Windows 8 PCs which work in the "Metro" or tiles mode of this operating system. Apps offer good security if downloaded from controlled sites such as GooglePlay or the AppleStore, many are free or inexpensive but are often of limited utility.<br><br><strong>Different Operating Systems (OS).</strong> There are five major operating systems available - Apple iOS, Android, Windows, Blackberry and webOS.<a name="Android" /></a><br><strong>Apple iOS - </strong> Used in Apple products, excellent quality, most expensive, limited cross-platform capability.<br><strong>Android OS - </strong>Provided by Google, used in Samsung, Motorola products, excellent quality but less expensive, excellent cross-platform connectivity.<br><strong>Windows OS - </strong>Newer, found in Acer, Nokia products, <a href="http://www.realdolmen.com/static/files/webshop/thinkpad_tablet_2_datasheet_en.pdf" target="_blank">Lenovo Thinkpad</a>, excellent connectivity with familiar PC functions. <br><strong>Blackberry OS-</strong>Associated with the renouned Blackberry hardware, simply beautiful OS integrates with the hardware like no other tablet.  <br><strong>webOS -</strong>Similar touch to iPad but less responsive, apps run in separate windows, associated with HP and Palm products, few apps.</p></html>|<br>[[GooglePlay|https://play.google.com/store/apps?hl=en_GB]]<br><br>[[AppleStore|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/apple-store/id375380948?mt=8]]<br><br>[[Blackberry World|http://uk.blackberry.com/apps/blackberry-world.html#tab-1]]<br><br>[[Windows App Store|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/top-free-apps/education/education]]<br><br>[[System Comparison|http://www.techradar.com/news/mobile-computing/tablets/tablet-operating-systems-compared-972510]]<br><br>[[Which Device|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001397.htm]]<br> <br>[[Tablet vs Laptop|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/buying-advice/tablets/3350688/tablet-vs-laptop-which-is-best/]]<br><br>[[Computer vs Tablet|http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch001397.htm]]<br><br>[[The Kindle|http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-store-ebooks-newspapers-blogs/b?ie=UTF8&node=341677031]]|
''Operating system:'' Desktops, laptops, and netbooks use computer operating systems; tablets typically use smartphone operating systems, so they work differently. When using computers you have much more control setting the environment for good performance and manipulating files, whereas a tablet is intended to be used intuitively, you are very dependent upon the quality of the app to exploit potential and the learning curve is less steep. Troubleshooting a tablet is often limited to rebooting, removing troublesome apps and resetting to factory settings. File management in Android and Windows operating systems is similar but Apple iOS is app orientated and [[doesn't have a typical file and folder system|http://www.pcworld.com/article/235894/apple_ipad_day_15_working_with_files_on_the_ipad.html]] for storing data used by a document. See [[Cloud]].

}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;''The benefits of Tablets are'':-<br>1. Lighter than a laptop for mobility<br>2. Simple and quick to use<br>3. Ideal for those applications dependent on location|width:35em;''The disadvantages of Tablets are'':-<br>1. Small screen size limits visibility and accessibility<br>2. Battery capacity limits mobility &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Battery Life|http://ee.co.uk/articles/device-guide---battery-life]]<br>3. Limited file management for complex applications|

Tablets were first designed as devices for consuming media — ebooks, movies, and music — and for playing games, browsing the Internet, or retrieving e-mail. Although you can do moderate word processing and number crunching with a tablet, they were not designed for that and you'll probably find a laptop much better suited to the task. However, if you want a super lightweight device to browse the Internet, send and receive e-mail, peruse content like ebooks, music, or movies and possibly syncronise with a less mobile device such as your desktop or laptop, a tablet might be just right.
}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;''Buying a Tablet -'' The principles outlined in [[Buying New|Buying a new Tablet, Laptop, Desktop or AIO]] apply to your Tablet purchase.<br>To sort through the wide variety of tablets from different manufacturers, of different appearance, capacity and features use the [[PriceRunner|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/cl/224/Tablets]] site and then the ~ExpertReview and ~TechRadar review sites to help make your decision.<br>''Features'' to consider are:- Operating System, ~WiFi only or ~WiFi and 3G, Screen size and Resolution, Memory(16GB or 32G) and Ram(512MB upwards), External Storage card reader, Camera quality, Ports for conectivity, the Weight and Number of CPU cores.<br>Compare the value of each of these features to you against price.<br><br>A comparison of Tesco's Hudl 2 and Google's Nexus 9 with the iPad mini makes interesting reading. &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Which ?|http://blogs.which.co.uk/technology/tablets-2/ipad-mini-3-vs-tesco-hudl-2-which-offers-the-most-value/]]<br><br>''Check out Microsoft's new [[Surface Pro 3|http://www.johnlewis.com/microsoft-surface-pro-3-intel-core-i3-4gb-ram-windows-8-1-pro-12-64gb-wi-fi-silver/p1655157?kpid=233928796&s_kenid=3908faca-3e78-6969-2b05-000064b89332&s_kwcid=402x33637&tmad=c&tmcampid=73&kpid=233928796]] at £639, offering the best of both worlds,<br>the excellent budget buy [[Tesco's Hudl2 @ £129.|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/tablets/tesco-hudl-2-1267726/review]] and the best Android [[Nexus 9|http://www.techradar.com/reviews/pc-mac/tablets/nexus-9-1270539/review]]''<br>Consider the [[ASUS ZenPad Z300M 10-Inch Tablet with Android v6.0|https://www.amazon.co.uk/ASUS-10-Inch-Quad-Core-Mali-T720-Graphics/dp/B01FYDBPHO]] @ £99.|[[ExpertReview|http://www.expertreviews.co.uk/tablet-pcs]]<br><br>[[TechRadar|http://www.techradar.com/news/mobile-computing/tablets]]<br><br>[[Trusted Review|http://www.trustedreviews.com/tablets]]<br><br>[[Apple or Android|http://ipad.about.com/od/ipad_competition/tp/iPad-vs-Android-Which-Tablet-Should-You-Buy.htm]]<br><br>[[Apple vs Windows|http://www.pcworld.com/article/2012280/5-ways-windows-8-beats-ios.html]]|
''Outside connection:'' Tablets connect to the Internet using either ~Wi-Fi or 3G technologies. 3G models require that you pay for your connection time through some kind of cellphone carrier. Tablets do not typically have a keyboard, mouse, or DVD drive. Their screens are their primary input device using an on-screen keyboard and finger touch. They may have a camera that takes photos and video. With the exception of the iPad, most tablets are fitted with mini HTMI and USB ports, but otherwise downloading and syncing is limited to an Internet or ~BlueTooth connection.
}}}
!Tablet Tutorials
These guides are examples of many to be found searching with the KEYWORDS - <model> - USER - GUIDE.
{{invisibletable{
|width:20em; ''Android''<br>[[Overview|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrtZICPZN_Y]]<br>[[Detailed Guide for Motorola Xoom|https://www.motorola.com/moto_care/manuals/XOOM_UG_VZW.pdf]]<br>[[The "For Dummies" Series|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/consumer-electronics/Android-Tablets.html]]<br>[[Guide for Hudl2|https://ttselectrical.custhelp.com/ci/fattach/get/392969/0/filename/hudl2+User+Guide+v5.pdf]]|width:17em;''Apple''<br>[[Overview|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMht9_F3580]]<br>[[Detailed iPad Guide|http://help.apple.com/ipad/10/]]<br>[[The "For Dummies" Series|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/consumer-electronics/iPad.html]]|width:15em;''Windows''<br>[[Overview|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qkVtM0DWYY]]<br>[[Detailed Guide|http://www.realdolmen.com/static/files/webshop/thinkpad_tablet_2_datasheet_en.pdf]]<br>[[Windows Tablets|http://www.techradar.com/news/computing/windows-8-tablets-release-date-specs-and-prices-916134]]|''Blackberry''<br>[[Overview|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0q0asZHhTY]]<br>[[Detailed Guide|http://docs.blackberry.com/en/smartphone_users/deliverables/27018/Overview_1396915_11.jsp]]<br>[[The "For Dummies" Series|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/consumer-electronics/blackberry-pdas-other-devices.html]]|
''Initially,'' on purchase, look for an embedded "Getting Started" guide, tutorial or Help App.
}}}
!Tablet Apps
No attempt is made to highlight any of the millions of Apps available. A search of the three main App Stores reveals the range from the futile to the worthwhile. Always check to see what access you allow the App to your files, Internet account and personal profile. Read the reviews both on the App installation page and the web. Often a good App writer offers a trial version and a "paid-for" version. This is a good sign. Avoid filling your tablet with junk which quietly saps battery power searching location and updates. Security is a growing problem, but always install apps from the official Stores which are scanned for malware. Downloading Apps directly from the Web can be dangerous, unless the store directs you to the writer's web site. ''Download apps only from the official stores - Apple Store, Google Play for Android and Windows Mobile, unless directed by the store to a website.''
{{invisibletable{
|width:30em; ''Apps listed on this Worksheet''<br><br>''Android''<br>[[Quickoffice|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.quickoffice.android]]<br>[[AndTidWiki|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=de.mgsimon.android.andtidwiki&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Skifta|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.skifta.android.app&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Documents To Go|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.dataviz.docstogo&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Wifi Anslyser|https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.farproc.wifi.analyzer&hl=en_GB]]<br>[[Apps for Streaming|http://www.knowyourmobile.com/android-apps/18049/best-airplay-apps-android-gettin-dream-stream]]|width:30em;<br><br> ''Apple''<br>[[GoodReader|http://www.walkingoffice.com/file-management/quick-tip-how-to-setup-goodreader-sync-with-dropbox/]]<br>[[Office Suite|http://www.bytesquared.com/products/office/ipad/]]<br>[[TWMobile|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/twmobile/id381945222?mt=8]]<br>[[DropBox|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/dropbox/id327630330?mt=8]]<br>[[Air Playit|http://www.airplayit.com/blog/tutorials/best-video-streaming-apps-for-ipad-iphone.htm]]<br>[[iExplorer|https://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/iexplorer/id307733225?mt=8]]|width:30em;<br><br>''Windows Mobile''<br>[[Tunein Radio|http://tunein.com/get-tunein/]]<br>[[DropBox|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/app/dropbox/8950387a-fad8-4f4e-9b42-b859a4545700]]<br>[[PDF Reader|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/app/pdf-reader/1a28bfcf-9f04-46d2-8532-3a338a5dc23b]]<br>[[Conectivity|http://www.windowsphone.com/en-gb/store/app/connectivity/4f7eb28d-d8c4-4d8d-a7af-157acd3c7022]]<br>[[Audials|http://audials.com/en/blog/cat/Audials+Mobile/overview.html]]|
}}}
!Tablet Security
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;With the growth in the popularity of mobile devices there is greater risk of malware, if you use the web and social media extensively. An example of the cost of paid-for antivirus software is shown.<br><br>''Ransomware.''<br>Ransomware is a growing threat for mobile devices as it can be hidden in an app, says ~Gert-Jan Schenk, vice-president at internet security company Lookout.<br>"For the most part, we've seen ransomware delivered through drive-by downloads - it pretends to be a popular app, increasing the chances that you'll click on it," he explains.<br>"To avoid these threats, users should be very careful about what apps they install, and where they come from - read the reviews on Google Play, and avoid side-loading from untrusted sources."|[[BullGuard AntiVirus|https://www.bullguard.com/shop/CustomizeProduct/?pid=32]]<br><br>[[Reviews|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/test-centre/security/3355021/best-android-antivirus-tested/]]<br><br><br><br>[[Email|Email##Security]] ''Security''|
}}}
----
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The Windows Task Manager provides information about the processes and programs running on a computer, as well as the general status of the computer. It can also be used to terminate processes and programs. <br>Task manager can be opened by ''[[Right Clicking|RightClick]]'' on the Taskbar and selecting it from the drop-down menu.|[[Opening TaskManager|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwR91a5qDPI]]|
}}}
!What can you do with Task Manager?
! 1. Crashes
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;The slang name is "Crashing", the formal description is ''"Not Responding"''. Either term, your computer freezes. Usually it is the utility in use that freezes and a visit to [[Task Manager]] will get things started again.<br>The cause is often over consumption of available memory. See [[HouseKeeping]]. It may also be caused by a corupted file, out of date driver, incompatibility with your operating system or malware activity.<br><br>When a browser displays "Not Responding" in the title bar, it is most likely that you have too many tabs open using excessive memory.<br>If the cause of failure appears to be with Windows itself, go to CONTROL PANEL - TROUBLESHOOTING and chose the appropriate tool.|
}}}
!2. Start up Programs
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;Sometimes when software is installed, no option is offered to prohibit its automatic start up on booting up your PC. You have to decide whether or not you need a particular program, running in the background, which is using up PC resources. In the OPTIONS or PREFERENCES menu of most programs there is an entry controlling automatic start up. ''Alternatively every PC has a "Startup" file you can edit.''  In W8 this is found in ''Task Manager'' and in earlier versions of windows, in Windows Defender. Navigate to START - RUN - (Enter the keyword "msconfig") - OK,  and the startup programs are listed in the "Startup" tab. You will be able to recognise many common programs by name to stop them running automatically, Some are also listed in the Noticications area of the Task Bar, while with the more obscure, seek help by Google search, entering the name with the additional key word "STARTUP". In general, it is best to view the list of programs running in the background and then go to that program's PREFERENCES and adjust the startup instruction.|<br>[[In Pictures|http://www.wikihow.com/Remove-Startup-Programs]]<br><br>[[Identifying Items|http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/startups/]]<br><br>[[More Items|http://www.pacs-portal.co.uk/startup_index.htm]]<br><br>See [[DOS]]|
}}}
!! Diagnosing Performance
{{invisibletable{
|width:57em;Task Manager offers a live display of CPU use, Memory use and Disk use. If you click on the name of any column, the highest values come to the top of the column and an excessive consumption of any property can be seen. In later operating systems of Windows, performance is displayed graphically. Task Manager also provides the names of programs and services which are running in the background. To glean an understanding of these often obscure files, Google search the name.<br><br>''For a quick check'' open TASKMANAGER and go to the "Processes" tab. Click on the header of the "MEMORY" column and this will bring to the top those utilities which use the most memory. Here you will find ~DropBox, Explorer, ~FireFox and some system files. If there is a utility that you recognise, ''is not a system utility'' and don't realy need to be running all the time which is using more than 10MB of memory, consider removing it from the start up list.<br><br>''Safe Mode'' A way of starting Windows so that various programs and peripherals are prevented from working. This is useful to help diagnose the cause of problems if a computer is behaving oddly. <br><br>''A useful summary of your settings'' that affect Maintenance and Security can be found in ACTION CENTER. Action Center can be found in the System Tray area of the ~TaskBar or by search in the Start Menu.|[[Using Task manager|http://support.microsoft.com/kb/323527]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://www.pcworld.com/article/224448/windows_task_manager_troubleshooting_tips.html?page=2]]<br><br>[[Troubleshooting|http://lifehacker.com/5628396/the-basic-guide-to-troubleshooting-common-windows-pc-problems]]<br><br>[[Task Manager]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Safe Mode|http://www.howtogeek.com/164876/how-to-use-safe-mode-to-fix-your-windows-pc-and-when-you-should/]]|
}}}
----
{{invisibletable{
|width:50em;The most bizarre to date is Sony's ~SmartWig which will be able to monitor the wearer's health, give directions and control slideshows streamed to TV by tapping their sideburns! See: [[www.snipca.com/10824|http://www.snipca.com/10824]]|[[The Internet of Things|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_Things]]|
}}}
-----------------------------------------
 
<br><br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><p align="justify"><strong>Watching YouTube Videos.</strong> A very useful Windows App is available from the Windows Store which enables watching any video, and particularly, YouTube videos in full screen and without the associated distractions of a normal website page. It is called ''Telestrator'', costs £2.99 and also has some very useful features for presentation and demonstration. Telestrator runs on XP, Vista & Windows 7 & 8 , 32 & 64Bit versions, and tablets as an app. Just Cut & Paste the YouTube address into Telestrator and load.<br><br><strong>Telestrator</strong> might be a better tool than PowerPoint if you are giving a presentation. A page of notes, images and videos can be acessed easily from a folder during the presentation. Additionally the presenter can write on the screen with a finger or stylus, adding arrows, circles, all of which can be instantly cleared. Videos can be paused and scrolled in small increments to identify a particular still. <br><br><strong>A progressive series of Tutorials</strong> can be discovered when you click on a link below. The YouTube webpage will suggest more videos. You will often see the next tutorial in the series listed. However subscribing to a <strong>channel</strong> will simplify your search for videos by the same author and the same topic. Using <strong>Telestrator</strong> will eliminate this information but provide a better viewing experience, pausing and provide options to annotate the screen should you wish to make a snapshot or demonstrate a point.<br>See the <strong>YouTube</strong> page<br><br><strong>Subscribing</strong> - By the way, <strong>Subscribing</strong> doesn't necessarily mean paying a subscription. The term includes the situation where you are merely asked to identify yourself as a user. Subscribing to a provider's YouTube <strong>"Channel"</strong> makes a convenient way of bookmarking a collection of similar videos, perhaps tutorials that you use regularly. ''To subscribe'', choose a YouTube video in the collection or channel to which you wish to subscribe. The <strong>"subscribe button"</strong> is just below the video. Subscription requires an email address and a password.<br><br><strong>Features of Telestrator</strong><br>1. Stream YouTube videos from a YouTube website; but not from any other web source,<br>2. Play any downloaded video stored in a folder on your PC,<br>3. Display still images,<br>4. Play, pause and micro scroll videos,<br>5. Enable annotations on a paused video and clear them.<br><br>There is a paid-for version of Telestrator called Point-HD Trainer available with educational discount, which is very feature rich but expensive.</html>|width:10em;<br>[[Telestrator App|http://apps.microsoft.com/windows/en-gb/app/telestrator/8443b7aa-ad10-4283-90fa-5aaa73b66409]]<br><br><br><br><br>[[Presentation]]<br><br><br><br><br><br>[[YouTube]]<br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br>[[Point-HD Demo|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzFvfKb2050&html5=1]]|
}}} 
!!!List of ~YouTube Video Tutorials
[[YouTube Video List]]
 
----
{{invisibletable{
|width:60em;Text size can be controlled in a number of ways but it depends where the text is:-<br>1. Icon size on the Desktop - is altered by right clicking an empty spot on the desktop and selecting from the VIEW menu.<br>2. Text size in a browser is altered by selecting the VIEW or CONTENT menu in browser OPTIONS and selecting a comfortable font size.<br>3. The zoom control in a browser also alters the size of the whole page and consequently the readable size of the text.<br>4. Text size in a Word document or email body is altered by highlighting the text and changing the FONT size in the menu. A permanent font size setting is made in the utility's PREFERENCES or OPTIONS menu.<br>5. It is sometimes worth checking your screen RESOLUTION is set to RECOMMENDED. Right click on an empty spot on the desktop and select SCREEN RESOLUTION from the drop-down menu. Select the RECOMMENDED option from the drop-down menu.|
}}}
-------------------------------

<br><br><br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:35em;''The Basics''<br>[[Bits&Bytes]]<br>[[File Types|Topic Slides/Files1 Types.jpg]] .... [[File Names|Topic Slides/Files2 Names.jpg]] ....[[Folders|Topic Slides/Files3 Folders Drives.jpg]].... [[Icons|Topic Slides/Files4 Office Draws.JPG]]  <br>[[Drives|Topic Slides/Files5 Drives.JPG]]  ....[[The Desktop|Topic Slides/Desktop.JPG]]....[[Advice for Beginners|Files/Advice for the Beginner.jpg]]<br>Take a look at the Beginners Jargon list.<br>See also Topic Slides in Dropbox and EssentialStudy<br>[[All about your Computer|http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_fundamentals/computer_input_devices.htm]] .... [[Inside the Computer|http://www.carnegiecyberacademy.com/facultyPages/computer/computers.html#surgeProtector]]<br><br>''Files, Folders & Drives''<br>Series of ~YouTube videos to learn [[Basic Computer Skills|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XC3huREHZOA&amp;feature=autoplay&amp;list=PL6E305390D0AB216C&amp;lf=plpp&amp;playnext=2]]<br>Tutorial about [[File Extensions|http://www.homeandlearn.co.uk/BC/win7/file_extensions.html]] and [[making them visible|Topic Slides/ShowFileExtensions.jpg]]<br>Safely add [[Copyto and Moveto|http://www.howtogeek.com/howto/windows-vista/add-copy-to-move-to-on-windows-vista-right-click-menu/]] to the RIGHT click menu.<br>Cut, Copy and Paste in Windows Explorer - [[Tutorial|http://www.baycongroup.com/windows_xp/04_windows_xp.htm]]<br>Using Windows Explorer. [[in W7|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/windows7/6]].... [[in W8|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/windows8/8]].... [[Tutorial Index|http://www.gcflearnfree.org/microsoft]]<br>[[Common File Types|http://winbeginners.com/articles/extensions2.htm]]<br><br>''Email''<br>[[Managing Attachments|Files/Email%20Attachmentsand%20Resizing.pdf]] - Resizing attachments<br>Use the Irfanview viewer utility to resize images ..[[Example|Topic%20Slides/ChangeImageSize2.JPG]]<br>[[Email Setup|http://www.liquidweb.com/kb/how-to-set-up-any-e-mail-client/]] and [[Etiquette|http://www.debretts.com/british-etiquette/communication/technology/email-etiquette]] and [[Etiquette|http://www.towson.edu/careercenter/medialibrary/documents/email_etiquette.pdf]] and [[Etiquette|http://latitudescoachblog.com/2013/07/23/email-etiquette-dos-and-donts/]]<br>Five best free Email clients - [[reviewed|http://www.techradar.com/news/software/applications/windows-7-email-5-best-free-clients-903699]]<br>[[Web Mail|Topic%20Slides/Email2 Clients Servers.JPG]] - this applies to most providers [[Go to Website|http://www.bbc.co.uk/webwise/guides/choosing-an-email-program]]<br>Set up a Gmail account...[[How in a PDF file|Files/Setting up%20Gmail.pdf]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Pop&IMAP]]<br>Composing, Forwarding and Printing emails - [[Tutorial1|http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-email-works.navId-397920.html]]....[[Tutorial2|http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4KQK48nuRU]].<br><br>''Windows''<br>[[Opening and Closing Windows|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rybf84Mr2uw]]<br>[[Manipulating Windows|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0i5fXSlNoQ]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Using the DeskTop|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aK8RPsFtNAU]]<br>[[Using the TaskBar|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omark0J5T_k]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Using the Start Menu|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7FhutIIvGQ]]<br>[[Task Manager|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QwR91a5qDPI]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Control Panel as a Menu|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XKoUs_apQRY]]<br>[[What is in Control Panel|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3iwwYhGErMA]] &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Using Control Panel|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rMX2vdXgAxQ]]<br>[[Windows Personalization - Themes|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vaPzCtgPYAM]]|''The Internet''<br>The Living Internet - [[Browse a Summary of features|http://www.livinginternet.com/]]<br>Know The Net - [[Nominet Knowledgebase|http://www.knowthenet.org.uk/knowledge-centre]]<br>Stay Safe [[Shopping and Banking|http://www.staysafeonline.org/stay-safe-online/protect-your-personal-information/online-shopping]] <br>Stay Safe - [[Securing your Network|http://www.staysafeonline.org/stay-safe-online/keep-a-clean-machine/securing-your-home-network]]<br>Choice of free [[anti-virus software|http://www.geekersmagazine.com/free-full-version-antivirus-download/]]<br>Free and safe [[Microsoft Security Essentials|http://www.geekersmagazine.com/free-full-version-antivirus-download/]]<br>[[Copyright Advice|http://www.ipo.gov.uk/types/copy/c-other/c-other-faq/c-other-faq-excep/c-other-faq-excep-priv.htm]]<br>e-Books from the [[Public Library|http://www3.nottinghamshire.gov.uk/learning/libraries/librarymembership/ebooks/]]<br>e-Books for Kindle..The Internet [[Audio Books|http://www.audible.co.uk/whatis/275-8216819-9774919?ie=UTF8&amp;class=link&amp;pf_rd_r=1KXDDWH0MVMYR1EPN9EM&amp;pf_rd_m=A2YHV2RYTDNFG3&amp;pf_rd_t=101&amp;pf_rd_i=Default399Mem&amp;pf_rd_p=241011127&amp;pf_rd_s=top-3]]<br> List of [[Search Engines|http://www.thesearchenginelist.com/]] Tor Search and [[anonymity|https://www.torproject.org/index.html.en]]<br>Compare [[Web Browsers|http://internet-browser-review.toptenreviews.com/]]<br>The interactive [[Web 2.0|http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0]]....[[Example1|http://www.ptable.com/]]....[[Example2|http://edjudo.com/web-2-0-teaching-tools-links]]<br><br>''Mobile Phones''<br>Price Runner [[Buying Advice|http://www.pricerunner.co.uk/ba/1/Mobile-Phone-buying-advice]]<br>Mobile Phones Background [[View in PDF|Files/Mobile Phones.pdf]]<br>Also see [[UK Mobile phones|http://www.mobile-phones-uk.org.uk/]]....[[Senior Phone|http://www.amazon.co.uk/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Delectronics&amp;field-keywords=Phone+for+seniors&amp;rh=n%3A560798%2Ck%3APhone+for+seniors]]....[[Camera Phone|http://www.nokia.co.uk/find-products/all-phones]]<br>[[Doro range of large key Phones|http://www.amazon.co.uk/s/ref=nb_sb_ss_i_2_4?url=search-alias%3Delectronics&amp;field-keywords=doro+mobile+phone&amp;sprefix=doro%2Celectronics%2C801]] &nbsp; &nbsp; [[Motorola budget 4G Phone|http://www.pcadvisor.co.uk/reviews/mobile-phone/3599662/motorola-moto-e-4g-review/]]<br><br>''Definitions''<br>[[View in PDF format|Files/Definitions VG.pdf]]<br>Nine new words of the Internet age.  [[Thesaurus.com|http://thes.thesaurus.com/slideshow/internet-neologisms?ldid=0]]<br><br><br>''Reference''<br>[[The Guide to Everything|http://h2g2.com/categories/C57]]<br>[[Quick Reference Guide|http://it.usu.edu/plugins/work/sitemaps/107/files/computerbasics.pdf]]<br>[[Guide to Quantum Computing|http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_97/journal/vol1/spb3/]]<br>[[Technician's Reference Quide|http://www.slideshare.net/shathees1/computer-techniciansquickreferenceguide]]|
}}}
''Note'' - ''Best install Irfanview image viewer'' as default for jpg files. See [[Useful Utilities]] - Multimedia
-------
<br><br><br><br>
     370 BC The Greek philosopher ''Aristotle'' describes a __geocentric universe__, spherical Earth is at the centre, surrounded by concentric celestial spheres of planets and stars. 
     400 BC  ''Democritus’'' atomic theory posited that all matter is made of small indestructible __units he called atoms__.
----
    1543 ''Copernicus'' proposed a __heliocentric model of the Solar system__, Earth orbiting the Sun.
----
    1609 Johannes ''Kepler'' states his first two empirical laws of __planetary motion__
    1615 ''Galileo's'' writings on heliocentrism submitted to the Roman Inquisition, rejected Aristotelian teachings.
    1613 Galileo ''Galilei'' uses sunspots to demonstrate the __rotation of the sun__
    1619 Johannes ''Kepler'' states his third empirical law of __planetary motion__
    1633 ''Galileo'' was sentenced to life imprisonment
    1656 Christian ''Huygens'' builds the first highly accurate __pendulum clock__
    1665 Isaac ''Newton'' deduces the inverse-square __gravitational force law__ from the acceleration of the moon
    1665 Isaac ''Newton'' invents his __calculus__
    1668 John ''Wallis'' suggests the law of __conservation of momentum__
    1673 Christian ''Huygens'' publishes his discovery that __ac=v2/R__  &nbsp; &nbsp;   Centripetal and Centrifugal acceleration - force due to circular motion 
    1675 Ole ''Romer'' uses the orbital mechanics of Jupiter's moons to estimate the __speed of light__
    1678 Christian ''Huygens'' states his __principle of wavefront sources__
    1684 Isaac ''Newton'' proves that __planets moving__ under an inverse-square force law will obey Kepler's laws
    1687 Isaac ''Newton'' publishes his __Principia Mathematica__
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    1705 Edmond ''Halley'' predicts the __periodicity of Halley's comet__
    1752 Benjamin ''Franklin'' shows that __lightning is electricity__
    1767 Joseph ''Priestly'' proposes an __electrical inverse-square law__
    1783 John ''Michell'' suggests that some objects might be so massive that __not even light could escape__
    1785 Charles ''Coulomb'' introduces the inverse-square law of __electrostatics__
    1798 Henry ''Cavendish ''measures the gravitational constant and determines the __mass of the Earth__
    1798 Count ''Rumford'' has the idea that __heat is a form of energy__
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    1801 Thomas ''Young'' demonstrates the wave nature of light and the __principle of interference__
    1820 Hans ''Oersted''  provides the first concrete evidence of the __connection between electricity and magnetism__
    1820 ''Ampere'' discovers that __two parallel electic currents__ will exert forces on each other
    1821 Michael ''Faraday'' builds an __electricity-powered motor__
    1826 Simon ''Ohm'' states his ____law of electrical resistance
    1827 Robert ''Brown'' discovers the __Brownian motion__
    1831 ''Faraday'' discovers __electromagnetic induction__
    1848 Lord ''Kelvin'' discovers the __absolute zero point of temperature__
    1849 ''Joule''  shows that __heat is a form of energy__
    1850 ''Fizeau and Foucault ''measure the speed of light in water and find that it is slower than in air, in support of the __wave model of light__
    1864 James ''Maxwell'' publishes his papers on a dynamical theory of the __electromagnetic field__
    1873 James ''Maxwell'' states that __light is an electromagnetic phenomenon__
    1874 Lord ''Kelvin'' formally states the __second law of thermodynamics__
    1887 Albert ''Michelson'' and Edward ''Morley'' __do not detect the ether drift__
    1887 Heinrich ''Hertz'' discovers the __photoelectric effect__
    1888 Heinrich ''Hertz'' __discovers radio waves__
    1897 Joseph ''Thomson'' __discovers the electron__
    1899 Ernest ''Rutheford'' discovers that __uranium radiation__ is composed of positively charged alpha particles and negatively charged beta particles
---- 
    1900 Max ''Planck'' states his radiation law and __Planck's constant__
    1905 Albert ''Einstein'' completes his theory of __special relativity__
    1913 Niels ''Bohr'' presents his __first quantum model of the atom__
    1913 Robert ''Millikan'' measures the __fundamental unit of charge__
    1915 Albert ''Einstein'' completes his __theory of general relativity__
    1923 Arthurd ''Compton'' showed that __X-rays bounce off and eject electrons__ in much the same way that billiard balls collide.
    1926 Erwin ''Schrödinger'' proposes his __Schrödinger wave equation__ but does not at first understand exactly what is waving.
    1927 Werner ''Heisenberg'' states the __quantum uncertainty principle__
    1927 Max ''Born'' develops the __Copenhagen interpretation__ of the probabilistic nature of wavefunctions, expressing QM in everyday language
    1927 ''Dirac'' states his relativistic electron quantum wave equation, __the Dirac equation.__
    1929 Edwin ''Hubble'' discovers the __expansion of the universe__
    1931 Ernst ''Ruska'' creates the first __electron microscope.__
    1932 James ''Chadwick'' __discovers the neutron__
    1932 Carl ''Anderson'' __discovers the positron__
    1933 Wolfgang ''Pauli'' proposes the __existence of neutrinos__ to account for an apparent violation of energy conservation in certain nuclear reactions
    1935 ''Schrödinger'' introduces __Schrödinger's cat__ in response to the Copenhagen interpretation.
    1942 to 1946 J. Robert ''Oppenheimer'' leads the Manhattan Project, predicts __quantum tunneling__ and proposes the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion
    1958 Charles ''Townes'' i__nvents the laser__
    1963 Murray ''~Gell-Mann'' and George ''Zweig'' propose __the quark/aces model__
    1964 John Stewart ''Bell'' puts forth __Bell's theorem__, proving Einstein's interpretation wrong and explaining that entanglement is unpredictable before measurement.
    1964 ''Englert, Robert Brout, Peter Higgs, Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and Tom Kibble'' postulate that a fundamental quantum field, the __Higgs field__, permeates space and, which provides mass to all the elementary subatomic particles that interact with it. 
    1965 Arno ''Penzias'' and Robert ''Wilson'' discover the __3K background radiation__
    1973 Brian David ''Josephson'', predicts correctly the __quantum tunneling effect__
    1973 Peter ''Mansfield'' formulates the physical theory of __Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging__ 
    1980 to 1982  Alain ''Aspect'' verifies experimentally the quantum entanglement hypothesis; his Bell test experiments provide strong evidence that a quantum event at one location can affect an event at another location without any obvious mechanism for communication between the two locations.
    1991 Richard R. ''Ernst'' develops __two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy__ (2D-FT NMRS)
    1988 to 1998 – Mihai ''Gavrilă'' discovers in 1988 the new quantum phenomenon of __atomic dichotomy in hydrogen__ and subsequently publishes a book on the atomic structure and decay in high-frequency fields of hydrogen atoms placed in ultra-intense laser fields.
    1999 The [[Matrix|http://discovermagazine.com/2013/dec/09-do-we-live-in-the-matrix]] was screened and in 2003 there was the "[[Matrix Defence|http://www.spectacle.org/0603/carter.html]]". There are many examples of Si-fi being the prophet of scientific discovery.
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    2000  Scientists at ''European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) ''publish experimental results in which they claim to have observed indirect evidence of the existence of a quark–gluon plasma, which they call a __"new state of matter."__
    2009 - Aaron D. ''O'Connell'' invents the __first quantum machine__, applying quantum mechanics to a macroscopic object just large enough to be seen by the naked eye, which is able to vibrate a small amount and large amount simultaneously.
    2010  ''Cleland'' puts an __object visible to the naked eye (but smaller than a cat) into a mixed energy state.__
    2014  ''Scientists'' transfer data by __quantum teleportation__ over a distance of 10 feet with zero percent error rate, a vital step towards a quantum internet
<br><br>
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<br><br>
!!!These "Tips" are a summary of ideas for easy computing.
<br>Also, there is a very helpful APP called "Tips" available from your START MENU.
<br>
{{invisibletable{
|width:55em;<html><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>WHAT is so and so?, WHERE can I find something?, HOW do I do something?</strong></u><br></span>The secret to mastering the essential jobs you want your computer to do for you is to be able to find the answers to these three questions. The one tool you should master is the INTERNET SEARCH engine, usually GOOGLE SEARCH, DUCKDUCKGO or BING.<br><br><strong><u>BootUpCloseDown</u></strong></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; Use HYBERNATE at end of day instead of "Shut down".<br>You need to Restart only for occasional  recovery housekeeping.<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Email Security</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Always hover your mouse over a link to reveal its address.</strong><br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Email Client</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Two very useful features of an email client are "Rules" and "Thread".<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Broadband Speed</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Distinguish between Broadband Speed and WiFi Speed.<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Save As</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Learn the Rule of Three &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp;  &nbsp; 1. Folder location, 2. File Name, 3. File Type<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Running Slowly</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Use TASK MANAGER regularly to familirise yourself with how your PC behaves at different times, e.g. at bootup or running slowly.<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>BackUp</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Distinguish between FILE DATA backup and COMPUTER SYSTEM backup.<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Passwords</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; Your ''<u>Username / ID / or email address</u>' and your ''<u>password</u>'' make a unique PAIR..<br>Use a different strong one on each account. Don't use memorable words. Change it if suspicious of attack.<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Crash</u></strong></span> &nbsp;  &nbsp; The "NOT RESPONDING" message usually comes if you have insufficient memory (RAM)<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>A client</u></strong></span> is a computer or utility that is capable of obtaining information and applications from <span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>a server</u></strong></span><br>A server is a computer on a network, such as the internet or LAN, that distributes information to other PCs.<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Open and close applications systematically.</u></strong></span> Always close any open applications before rebooting or shutting down the computer. This avoids corruption of files. Too many open and unused windows, tags, and applications depletes resources unnecessarily..<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Buying from Amazon</u></strong></span> If you buy from Amazon, consider opening an account with Amazon.com. You can save anything up to 25% buying from USA rather than Amazon UK Europe, even with import duty. You may have to wait seven days instead of three!<br><br><span style="color:blue;font-size:1em";><strong><u>Opening Attached Files</u></strong> Always save the file to a folder first. A file will not open unless you have the appropriate utility installed to open it. Check your alphabetical list of installed programs in START. Set the program as DEFAULT so the saved file will open with a double click.</html>|See [[Search Skills|TroubleShooting##Self]]<br><br>See [[Searching|Search##Web]]<br><br><br>See [[BootUpCloseDown]]<br><br>See [[EmailSecurity]]<br><br>See [[Email]]<br><br>See [[Networks]]<br><br>See [[Saving a File]]<br><br>See  [[SavingAttachments]]<br><br>See [[Running Slowly]]<br><br>See [[BackUpRestore]]<br><br>See [[Passwords]]<br><br><br><br>See [[Crash]]<br><br>See [[LAN|Networks##1. What is a Network]]|
}}}
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}}}
{{invisibletable{
|width:20em;<html><a href="Topic Slides/!! TOPIC SLIDES - Readme.jpg" target="imgbox">ReadMe</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Change Image Size.jpg" target="imgbox">Change Image Size 1</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/ChangeImageSize2.JPG" target="imgbox">Change Image Size 2</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Clipboard.JPG" target="imgbox">Clipboard</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Copying.JPG" target="imgbox">Copying</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Desktop.JPG" target="imgbox">Desktop</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email0 Address.jpg" target="imgbox">Email Address</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email00 PhishingEmail.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Phishing 1</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email000 PhishingEmail.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Phishing 2</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email001 PhishingEmail.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Phishing 3</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email1 Protocols.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Protocols</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email2 Clients & Servers.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Clients & Servers</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email3 Client Setup.jpg" target="imgbox">Email Setup</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email4 Etiquette.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Etiquette</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email5 Jargon.jpg" target="imgbox">Email Jargon</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email6 Phishing Guide.jpg" target="imgbox">Email Phishing Guide</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Email7 Bank Phishing.JPG" target="imgbox">Email Bank Phishing</a><br /></html>|width:20em;<html><a href="Topic Slides/Files0 Bits & Bytes.JPG" target="imgbox">Files Bits & Bytes</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Files1 Types.jpg" target="imgbox">Files Types</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Files10 Bluetooth.jpg" target="imgbox">Files Bluetooth</a><br /><a href="Topic Slides/Files11 Computer Ports.jpg" target="imgbox">Files Ports</a>  <br /><a href="Topic Slides/Files2 Names.jpg" target="imgbox">File Names</a